Hacker Morality: A Lesson

File: HACKER MORALITY
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A lesson in phreaking and hacking morality:

I find it truly discouraging when people, intelligent people seeking
intellectual challenges, must revert to becoming common criminals. The
fine arts of hacking and boxing have all but died out. Though you newcomers,
you who have appeared on the scene in the last year or two, may not realize it,
we had it much better. People didn’t recognize our potential for destruction
and damage because we never flaunted it, nor did we exercise it.

For hacking, it was the intellectual challenge which drove us to do it.
The thrill of bypassing or breaking through someone’s computer security was
tremendous. It wasn’t a case of getting a password from a friend, logging on,
and destroying an entire database. We broke in for the challenge of getting in
and snooping around WITHOUT detection. We loved the potential for destruction
that we gave ourselves, but never used.

Today, after so much publicity, the fun has turned to true criminality.
Publicity we have received is abhorring. From WarGames to the headlined October
Raids, to the 414’s, the Inner Circle, Fargo 4a, and the recent NASA
breakins–not to mention all the local incidents that never made the big
newspapers, like breakins at school computers or newspaper computers. TRW
credit information services claims hackers used the three stolen accounts to
aid them in abusing stolen credit cards. The thrill of entering and looking
around has shifted to criminal practicality–how can I make my bank account
fatter–how may I use this stolen credit card to its fullest–how could I take
revenge upon my enemies.

And then there is the world of Phone Phreaking. The number of phreaks has
grown from an elite few, perhaps ten or twenty, to well over a thousand.
Still, there remain only about 10 or 20 good, longlasting phreaks. The rest
receive information and abuse its uses until the information is no longer valid
.
Even worse, they seek publicity! They WANT to be caught! Many even use their
real names on bulletin board systems to promote publicity. Meanwhile, the REAL
phone phreaks have been resting in the shadow of the rest, waiting for
phreaking to become so dangerous as to become a challenge once again. Once
security tightens and only the strong survive (phreak Darwinism?), phreaking
will be restored as a way to ‘beat the system’ without costing anyone anything.

Hacking may soon be dead, but may phone phreaking live on!

Big Brother

Call The Works BBS – 1600+ Textfiles! – [914]/238-8195 – 300/1200 – Always Open


The NIST Management Guide to the Protection of Information Resources

Management Guide to the Protection of Information
Resources

National Institute of Standards and Technology
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), is
responsible for developing standards, providing technical
assistance, and conducting research for computers and related
systems. These activities provide technical support to
government and industry in the effective, safe, and
economical use of computers. With the passage of the Computer
Security Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-235), NIST’s activities also
include the development of standards and guidelines needed to
assure the cost-effective security and privacy of sensitive
information in Federal computer systems. This guide represents
one activity towards the protection and management of sensitive
information resources.

Acknowledgments
This guide was written by Cheryl Helsing of Deloitte, Haskins &
Sells in conjunction with Marianne Swanson and Mary Anne Todd,
National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Executive Summary
Today computers are integral to all aspects of operations within
an organization. As Federal agencies are becoming critically
dependent upon computer information systems to carry out their
missions, the agency executives (policy makers) are recognizing
that computers and computer-related problems must be understood
and managed, the same as any other resource. They are beginning
to understand the importance of setting policies, goals, and
standards for protection of data, information, and computer
resources, and are committing resources for information security
programs. They are also learning that primary responsibility for
data security must rest with the managers of the functional areas
supported by the data.

All managers who use any type of automated information resource
system must become familiar with their agency’s policies and
procedures for protecting the information which is processed and
stored within them. Adequately secure systems deter, prevent, or
detect unauthorized disclosure, modification, or use of
information. Agency information requires protection from
intruders, as well as from employees with authorized computer
access privileges who attempt to perform unauthorized actions.
Protection is achieved not only by technical, physical and
personnel safeguards, but also by clearly articulating and
implementing agency policy regarding authorized system use to
information users and processing personnel at all levels. This
guide is one of three brochures that have been designed for a
specific audience. The “Executive Guide to the Protection of
Information Resources” and the “Computer User’s Guide to the
Protection of Information Resources” complete the series.

Table of Contents

Executive Summary iv
Introduction 1
Purpose of Guide 1
The Risks 1
Responsibilities 2
Information Systems Development 5
Control Decisions 5
Security Principles 5
Access Decisions 7
Systems Development Process 7
Computer Facility Management 9
Physical Security 9
Data Security 11
Monitoring and Review 11
Personnel Management 13
Personnel Security 13
Training 14
For Additional Information 15

Introduction

Purpose of this Guide
This guide introduces information systems security concerns and
outlines the issues that must be addressed by all agency managers
in meeting their responsibilities to protect information systems
within their organizations. It describes essential components of
an effective information resource protection process that applies
to a stand alone personal computer or to a large data processing
facility.

The Risks
Effort is required by every Federal agency to safeguard
information resources and to reduce risks to a prudent level.
The spread of computing power to individual employees via
personal computers, local-area networks, and distributed
processing has drastically changed the way we manage and control
information resources. Internal controls and control points that
were present in the past when we were dealing with manual or
batch processes have not been established in many of today’s
automated systems. Reliance upon inadequately controlled computer
systems can have serious consequences, including:

Inability or impairment of the agency’s ability to perform its
mission

Inability to provide needed services to the public

Waste, loss, misuse, or misappropriation of funds

Loss of credibility or embarrassment to an agency

To avoid these consequences, a broad set of information security
issues must be effectively and comprehensively addressed.
Responsibilities
All functional managers have a responsibility to implement the
policies and goals established by executive management for
protection of automated information resources (data, processes,
facilities, equipment, personnel, and information). Managers in
all areas of an organization are clearly accountable for the
protection of any of these resources assigned to them to enable
them to perform their duties. They are responsible for
developing, administering, monitoring, and enforcing internal
controls, including security controls, within their assigned
areas of authority. Each manager’s specific responsibilities will
vary, depending on the role that manager has with regard to
computer systems.

Portions of this document provide more detailed information on
the respective security responsibilities of managers of computer
resources, managers responsible for information systems
applications and the personnel security issues involved.
However, all agency management must strive to:

Achieve Cost-Effective Security
The dollars spent for security measures to control or contain
losses should never be more than the projected dollar loss if
something adverse happened to the information resource.
Cost-effective security results when reduction in risk through
implementation of safeguards is balanced with costs. The greater
the value of information processed, or the more severe the
consequences if something happens to it, the greater the need
for control measures to protect it.
The person who can best determine the value or importance of
data is the functional manager who is responsible for the data.
For example, the manager responsible for the agency’s budget
program is the one who should establish requirements for the
protection of the automated data which supports the program. This
manager knows better than anyone else in the organization what
the impact will be if the data is inaccurate or unavailable.
Additionally, this manager usually is the supervisor of most of
the users of the data.

It is important that these trade-offs of cost versus risk
reduction be explicitly considered, and that management
understand the degree of risk remaining after selected controls
are implemented.

Assure Operational Continuity
With ever-increasing demands for timely information and greater
volumes of information being processed, the threat of information
system disruption is a very serious one. In some cases,
interruptions of only a few hours are unacceptable. The impact
due to inability to process data should be assessed, and actions
should be taken to assure availability of those systems
considered essential to agency operation. Functional management
must identify critical computer applications and develop
contingency plans so that the probability of loss of data
processing and telecommunications support is minimized.

Maintain Integrity
Integrity of information means you can trust the data and the
processes that manipulate it. Not only does this mean that errors
and omissions are minimized, but also that the information system
is protected from deliberate actions to wrongfully change the
data. Information can be said to have integrity when it
corresponds to the expectations and assumptions of the users.

Assure Confidentiality
Confidentiality of sensitive data is often, but not always, a
requirement of agency systems. Privacy requirements for personal
information is dictated by statute, while confidentiality of
other agency information is determined by the nature of that
information, e.g., information submitted by bidders in
procurement actions. The impact of wrongful disclosure must be
considered in understanding confidentiality requirements.

Comply with Applicable Laws and Regulations
As risks and vulnerabilities associated with information systems
become better understood, the body of law and regulations
compelling positive action to protect information resources
grows. OMB Circular No. A-130, “Management of Federal
Information Resources” and Public Law 100-235, “Computer Security
Act of 1987” are two documents where the knowledge of these
regulations and laws provide a baseline for an information
resource security program.

Information Systems Development
This section describes the protective measures that should be
included as part of the design and development of information
processing application systems. The functional manager that is
responsible for and will use the information contained in the
system, must ensure that security measures have been included and
are adequate. This includes applications designed for personal
computers as well as large mainframes.

Control Decisions
The official responsible for the agency function served by the
automated information system has a critical role in making
decisions regarding security and control. In the past, risk was
often unconsciously accepted when such individuals assumed the
computer facility operators were taking care of security. In
fact, there are decisions to be made and security elements to be
provided that cannot be delegated to the operator of the system.
In many cases, the user or manager develops the application and
operates solely.

The cost of control must be balanced with system efficiency and
usability issues. Risk must be evaluated and cost-effective
controls selected to provide a prudent level of control while
maximizing productivity. Controls are often closely connected
with the system function, and cannot be effectively designed
without significant understanding of the process being automated.

Security Principles
There are some common security attributes that should be present
in any system that processes valuable personal or sensitive
information. System designs should include mechanisms to enforce
the following security attributes.

Identification and Authentication of Users
Each user of a computer system should have a unique
identification on the system, such as an account number or other
user identification code. There must also be a means of verifying
that the individual claiming that identity (e.g., by typing in
that identifying code at a terminal) is really the authorized
individual and not an imposter. The most common means of
authentication is by a secret password, known only to the
authorized user.

Authorization Capability Enforcing the Principle of Least
Possible Privilege
Beyond ensuring that only authorized individuals can access the
system, it is also necessary to limit the users access to
information and transaction capabilities. Each person should be
limited to only the information and transaction authority that is
required by their job responsibilities. This concept, known as
the principle of least possible privilege, is a long-standing
control practice. There should be a way to easily assign each
user just the specific access authorities needed.

Individual Accountability
From both a control and legal point of view, it is necessary to
maintain records of the activities performed by each computer
user. The requirements for automated audit trails should be
developed when a system is designed. The information to be
recorded depends on what is significant about each particular
system. To be able to hold individuals accountable for their
actions, there must be a positive means of uniquely identifying
each computer user and a routinely maintained record of each
user’s activities.

Audit Mechanisms
Audit mechanisms detect unusual events and bring them to the
attention of management. This commonly occurs by violation
reporting or by an immediate warning to the computer system
operator. The type of alarm generated depends on the seriousness
of the event.

A common technique to detect access attempts by unauthorized
individuals is to count attempts. The security monitoring
functions of the system can automatically keep track of
unsuccessful attempts to gain access and generate an alarm if the
attempts reach an unacceptable number.

Performance Assurance
A basic design consideration for any information system should
be the ability to verify that the system is functioning as
intended. Systems that are developed without such design
considerations are often very difficult to independently audit or
review, leading to the possibility of unintended results or
inaccurate processing.

Recoverability
Because Federal agencies can potentially be heavily dependent on
a computer system, an important design consideration is the
ability to easily recover from troublesome events, whether minor
problems or major disruptions of the system. From a design point
of view, systems should be designed to easily recover from minor
problems, and to be either transportable to another backup
computer system or replaced by manual processes in case of major
disruption or loss of computer facility.

Access Decisions
Once the automated system is ready to use, decisions must be
made regarding access to the system and the information it
contains. For example, many individuals require the ability to
access and view data, but not the ability to change or delete
data. Even when computer systems have been designed to provide
the ability to narrowly designate access authorities, a
knowledgeable and responsible official must actually make those
access decisions. The care that is taken in this process is a
major determining factor of the level of security and control
present in the system. If sensitive data is being transmitted
over unprotected lines, it can be intercepted or passive
eavesdropping can occur. Encrypting the files will make the data
unintelligible and port protection devices will protect the files
from unauthorized access, if warranted.

Systems Development Process
All information systems software should be developed in a
controlled and systematic manner according to agency standards.
The quality and efficiency of the data processed, and the
possible reconfiguration of the system can all be affected by an
inadequate development process. The risk of security exposures
and vulnerabilities is greatly reduced when the systems
development process is itself controlled.

Computer Facility Management
Functional managers play a critical role in assuring that agency
information resources are appropriately safeguarded. This section
describes the protective measures that should be incorporated
into the ongoing management of information resource processing
facilities. As defined in OMB Circular No. A-130, “Management of
Federal Information Resources,” the term “information technology
facility” means an organizationally defined set of personnel,
hardware, software, and physical facilities, a primary function
of which is the operation of information technology. This
section, therefore applies to any manager who houses a personal
computer, mainframe or any other form of office system or
automated equipment.

Physical Security
Information cannot be appropriately protected unless the
facilities that house the equipment are properly protected from
physical threats and hazards. The major areas of concern are
described below.

Environmental Conditions
For many types of computer equipment, strict environmental
conditions must be maintained. Manufacturer’s specifications
should be observed for temperature, humidity, and electrical
power requirements.

Control of Media
The media upon which information is stored should be carefully
controlled. Transportable media such as tapes and cartridges
should be kept in secure locations, and accurate records kept of
the location and disposition of each. In addition, media from an
external source should be subject to a check-in process to ensure
it is from an authorized source.

Control of Physical Hazards
Each area should be surveyed for potential physical hazards.
Fire and water are two of the most damaging forces with regard to
computer systems. Opportunities for loss should be minimized by
an effective fire detection and suppression mechanism, and
planning reduces the danger of leaks or flooding. Other physical
controls include reducing the visibility of the equipment and
strictly limiting access to the area or equipment.

Contingency Planning
Although risks can be minimized, they cannot be eliminated. When
reliance upon a computer facility or application is substantial,
some type of contingency plan should be devised to allow critical
systems to be recovered following a major disaster, such as a
fire. There are a number of alternative approaches that should be
evaluated to most cost-effectively meet the agency’s need for
continuity of service.

Configuration Management
Risk can be introduced through unofficial and unauthorized
hardware or software. Another key component of information
resource management is ensuring only authorized hardware and
software are being utilized. There are several control issues to
be addressed.

Maintaining Accurate Records
Records of hardware/software inventories, configurations, and
locations should be maintained and kept up-to-date.

Complying with Terms of Software Licenses
Especially with microcomputer software, illegal copying and
other uses in conflict with licensing agreements are concerns.
The use of software subject to licensing agreements must be
monitored to ensure it is used according to the terms of the
agreement.

Protecting Against Malicious Software and Hardware
The recent occurrences of destructive computer “viruses” point
to the need to ensure that agencies do not allow unauthorized
software to be introduced to their computer environments.
Unauthorized hardware can also contain hidden vulnerabilities.
Management should adopt a strong policy against unauthorized
hardware/software, inform personnel about the risks and
consequences of unauthorized additions to computer systems, and
develop a monitoring process to detect violations of the policy.

Data Security
Management must ensure that appropriate security mechanisms are
in place that allow responsible officials to designate access to
data according to individual computer users’ specific needs.
Security mechanisms should be sufficient to implement individual
authentication of system users, allow authorization to specific
information and transaction authorities, maintain audit trails as
specified by the responsible official, and encrypt sensitive
files if required by user management.

Monitoring and Review
A final aspect of information resource protection to be
considered is the need for ongoing management monitoring and
review. To be effective, a security program must be a continuous
effort. Ideally, ongoing processes should be adapted to include
information protection checkpoints and reviews. Information
resource protection should be a key consideration in all major
computer system initiatives.

Earlier, the need for system audit trails was discussed. Those
audit trails are useful only if management regularly reviews
exception items or unusual activities. Irregularities should be
researched and action taken when merited. Similarly, all
information-related losses and incidents should be investigated.

A positive benefit of an effective monitoring process is an
increased understanding of the degree of information-related risk
in agency operations. Without an ongoing feedback process,
management may unknowingly accept too much risk. Prudent
decisions about trade-offs between efficiency and control can
only be made with a clear understanding of the degree of inherent
risk. Every manager should ask questions and periodically review
operations to judge whether changes in the environment have
introduced new risk, and to ensure that controls are working
effectively.

Personnel Management
Managers must be aware that information security is more a
people issue than a technical issue. Personnel are a vital link
in the protection of information resources, as information is
gathered by people, entered into information resource systems by
people, and ultimately used by people. Security issues should be
addressed with regard to:
People who use computer systems and store information in the
course of their normal job responsibilities
People who design, program, test, and implement critical or
sensitive systems
People who operate computer facilities that process critical or
sensitive data

Personnel Security
From the point of hire, individuals who will have routine access
to sensitive information resources should be subject to special
security procedures. More extensive background or reference
checks may be appropriate for such positions, and security
responsibilities should be explicitly covered in employee
orientations. Position descriptions and performance evaluations
should also explicitly reference unusual responsibilities
affecting the security of information resources.

Individuals in sensitive positions should be subject to job
rotation, and work flow should be designed in such a way as to
provide as much separation of sensitive functions as possible.
Upon decision to terminate or notice of resignation, expedited
termination or rotation to less sensitive duties for the
remainder of employment is a reasonable precaution.

Any Federal computer user who deliberately performs or attempts
to perform unauthorized activity should be subject to
disciplinary action, and such disciplinary action must be
uniformly applied throughout the agency. Any criminal activity
under Federal or state computer crime laws must be reported to
law enforcement authorities.

Training
Most information resource security problems involve people.
Problems can usually be identified in their earliest stages by
people who are attuned to the importance of information
protection issues. A strong training program will yield large
benefits in prevention and early detection of problems and
losses. To be most effective, training should be tailored to the
particular audience being addressed, e.g., executives and policy
makers; program and functional managers; IRM security and audit:
ADP management and operations; end users.

Most employees want to do the right thing, if agency
expectations are clearly communicated. Internal policies can be
enforced only if staff have been made aware of their individual
responsibilities. All personnel who access agency computer
systems should be aware of their responsibilities under agency
policy, as well as obligations under the law. Disciplinary
actions and legal penalties should be communicated.

For Additional Information

National Institute Of Standards and Technology
Computer Security Program Office, A-216 Technology
Gaithersburg, MD 20899
(301) 975-5200

For further information on the management of information
resources, NIST publishes Federal Information Processing
Standards Publications (FIBS PUBS). These publications deal with
many aspects of computer security, including password usage, data
encryption, ADP risk management and contingency planning, and
computer system security certification and accreditation. A list
of current publications is available from:
Standards Processing Coordinator (ADP)
National Computer Systems Laboratory
National Institute of Standards and Technology
Technology Building, B-64
Gaithersburg, MD 20899
Phone: (301) 975-2817
������������������������

The L0pht… What I saw, by Tfish of RDT

The L0pht: What I Saw

	A sea of trash wafts across a battered wooden floor.  In an 
antiseptic room that smells of vanished industry, the castoffs of 
corporate elecronics flourish beneath a sea of yesterdays high tech.  
The Vaxen, the behemoths of an age when technocracy was 
centralism, lurk like benevolent lords over an amassed army of dead 
displays and battered boards, all verged on the parralell brinks of 
operation and the trash.  Peering out from the technorubble is the 
occasional active CRT; the occasional signal bursting forth from noise.  
A moto has been developed, half in jest (but then what isn't):  
"Entropy Rules".  It's a double entendre or the technomedia set, 
displaying a brand of love for battered and discarded technology that 
verges on the sexual.  All around are piles and piles and piles; stacks 
of fluff and garbage.
	But not really.  Fluff and garbage canÕt begin to desribe this 
neo-industrial playground.  This fluff and garbage, this TRASH, this is 
the playground of some of the most literate and wel connected 
people that have ever een the light of day.  The discarded garbage of 
old tehnology provides the links, the connections to everything thatÕs 
going on, all that's out there, all that can be done.  It's almost as if 
these broken boards and obsolete machines breed information, breed 
power.  From all the garbage in the world, well, there's all the spare 
prts in the world.  Or that's the way they look at it.  If somebody else 
threw it out, thatÕs their good luck.  This place, vestige as it is from 
another hypertechnical age, is a vacuum for technology.  Every 
broken monitor and melted card seems to breed one that works.  As 
the density of neophyte los grows greater, so does it attract even 
more.
	This place, this non-home home is more than that though.  It's 
a place to chill, a place to party, a place to work: a place to owrship 
the technology that makes up itÕs members hearts and dreams.  The 
members, the initiates, the visitors, these are people who live and 
breathe computers:  who want and need them for all they do, who 
draw from digital devices the strength to do whatever they damned 
well want.  In that sense, then, this is a place of worship.  A 
mannequin sits armless atop a cabinet, wearing a veil and a mock IV: 
"Our Lady of the Vax".  A joke, for sure, but a joke that everybody can 
get into, a joke that breeds other jokes: another of the mock-serious 
half truths that make up the fiber of those who made this place.
	All those things and more.  Worship for the 'technomedia 
prietshood'.  Part workshop, part playhouse. Rave center for the 
socially disinclined.  Last vestige of the smart sleepless.  A place for 
extra storage.  The L0pht, man.  It's got it all.

					     -tfish GO-FORCE! -=RDT Synd.

The Hackers Acronym Chart, by the International information Retrieval Guild (IIRG)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                          The Hackers Acronym Chart
                      Created for The Hacking Community
                                     By:

               THE INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION RETRIEVAL GUILD

              Compiled by:-=>The IIRG<=-   Input by: MERCENARY

                       Version Eight [05/16/1993]

                             Mercenary/IIRG
                          862 Farmington Avenue
                               Suite 306
                            Bristol,CT. 06010

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 In no way do we feel this chart is totally complete,but we feel its a good
 start for the novice or lazy hacker to quickly look up acronyms.

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               ////// *  //////  *  //     // * ///////// *

           Ä]Ã  International Information Retrieval Guild  ´[-

------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

    3GL       Third Generation Language
    4GL       Fourth Generation Language
    A         Ampere
    AAA       Aces of Ansi Art
    AARNET    Australian Academic Resarch Network
    AAX       Automated Attendant Exchange
    A&SG      Accessories and Supplies Group
    AB2       Anarchy Burger ][
    ABA       American Bankers Association
    ABA       American Bar Association
    ABATS     Automated Bit Access Test System
    ABBS      Apple Bulletin Board System
    ABHC      Average Busy Hour Calls      
    ABS       Alternative Billing Service
    ABSBH     Average Busy Season Busy Hour
    ABU       Application Business Unit
    AC        Alternating Current
    ACARB     Australian Computer Abuse Research Bureau
    ACB       Annoyance Call Bureau
    ACB       Automatic Call-Back
    ACCOLC    Access Overload Class
    ACCS      Automated Calling Card Service 
    ACD       Automatic Call Distributor
    ACE       American Council on Education
    ACiD      ANSI Creators in Demand
    ACK       Acknowledge
    ACM       Association for Computing Machinery
    ACMS      Application Control Management System
    ACN       Area Code Number
    ACS       Application Control Services
    ACS       Australian Computer Society
    ACS       Automatic Clearing Houses
    ACT       Application Center for Technology
    ACTS      Automated Coin Toll Service
    ACU       Automatic Call Unit
    A/D       Analog/Digital
    AD        Authorized Dealers
    ADAPSO    Association of Data Processing Services Organizations
    ADAS      Advanced Directory Assistance System
    ADCCP     Advanced Data Communications Control Procedure
    ADCI      Automatic Display Call Indicator
    ADD       Authorized Digital Dealers
    ADG       Authorized Distributor Group
    ADM       Add-Drop MultiPlex
    ADN       Abbreviated Dialing Number
    ADS       Advanced Digital System
    ADS       Audio Distribution System
    ADS       Auxillary Data System
    ADTS      Automated Digital Terminal System
    ADU       Application Definition Utility
    AE        Ascii Express
    AEA       American Electronics Association
    AFACTS    Automated FACilities Test System
    AFADS     Automatic Force Adjustment Data System
    AFSK      Automatic Frequency Shift Keying
    AG/EEE    Above Ground Electronic Equipment Enclosures
    AI        Artificial Intelligence
    AIA       Application Integration Architecture
    AIA       Aerospace Industries Association 
    AIC       Automatic Intercept Center
    AICC      Automatic Intercept Communications Controller
    AICPA     American Institute of Certified Public Accountants
    AIDS      Apple Infected Disk Syndrome
    AIOD      Automatic Identification of Outward Dialing
    AIS       Alarm Indication Signals
    AIS       Automatic Intercept System
    AITRC     Applied Information Technologies Research Center
    ALBO      Automatic Line Build Out
    ALC       Automatic Level Control
    ALFE      Analog Line Front End
    ALGOL     ALGOrhythmic Computer Language
    ALI       Automatic Location Identification
    ALIT      Automatic Line Insulation Testing
    ALRU      Automatic Line Record Update
    ALS       Automated List Service
    ALU       Arithmetic Logic Unit
    AM        Administrative Module
    AM        Amplitude Modulation
    AMA       Automatic Message Accounting
    AMACS     Automatic Message Accounting Collection System
    AMARC     Automatic Message Accounting Recording Center
    AMASE     Automatic Message Accounting Standard Entry
    AMAT      Automatic Message Accounting Transmitter
    AMATPS    Automatic Message Accounting Transmitter Teleprocessing System
    AMC       Area Management Center
    AMD       Advanced Micro Devices
    AMERITECH American Information Technologies
    AMI       American Microsystems Incorporated
    AMIS      Atari Message and Information System
    AMM       Area Manufacturing Manager
    AMP       Ampere
    AMPS      Advanced Mobile Phone Service
    AMR       Automatic Meter Reading
    AMWI      Active Message Waiting Indicator
    AN        Aryan Nations
    AN        Associated Number
    ANA       Automatic Number Announcement
    ANC       All Number Calling
    ANE       Anarchy 'N' Explosives
    ANI       Automatic Number Identification
    ANIF      Automatic Number Identification Failure
    ANL       Argonne Mational Laboratory
    ANN       Announcement Date
    ANSI      American National Standards Institute
    AOA       Anarchists of America
    AOJ       Add one and do not Jump
    AOM       Area Operations Manager  
    AOS       Add One and do not Skip
    AOSS      Auxillary Operator Service System
    AOT       Art of Technology
    AOV       Average Order Value
    AP        Attached Processor
    APC       AMARC Protocol Converter
    APF       All PIN's Fail 
    API       American Pirate Industries
    APL       A Programming Language
    APP       Application
    APPC      Advanced Peer to Peer Communication
    APPC      Advanced Program to Program Communication
    APPIX     Automated Part and Product Information Exchange
    APS       Automatic Protection Switch 
    APSS      Automatic Protection Switching System
    APT       Advanced Pirate Technology
    APT       American Phone Terrorists
    AQS       Automatic Quote System
    AR        Alarm Report
    ARB       Application Review Board
    ARC       Ames Research Center
    ARC       Audio Response Controller
    ARCV      Association of Really Cruel Viruses
    ARIS      Audichron Recorded Information System
    ARM       Area Revenue Manager
    ARRL      American Radio Relay League
    ARP       Address Resolution Protocol
    ARPA      Advanced Research Projects Agency
    ARS       Alternate Route Selection
    ARS       Automatic Route Selection
    ARSB      Automated Repair Service Bureau
    ARQ       Automatic Repeat Request
    ARU       Audio Response Unit
    ASC       Average System Cost or Average System Content
    ASCII     American Standard Code for Information Interchange
    ASD       Advanced Semiconductor Development
    ASIS      American Society for Industrial Security
    ASMP      Asymmetrical Multi-Processing
    ASOC      Administrative Service Oversight Center
    ASPEN     Automatic System for Performance Evalution of the Network
    ASR       Access Service Request
    ASV       Average System Value
    AT        Access Tandem
    AT        Advanced Technology
    ATB       All Trunks Busy
    ATC       Automatic Transmission Control
    ATD       Authorized Terminal Distributor
    ATH       Abbreviated Trouble History
    ATI       Automatic Test Inhibit
    ATI       Activist's Times Incorporated
    ATIS      Automatic Transmitter Identification System
    ATM       Automatic Teller Machine
    ATMS      Automated Trunk Measurement System
    ATP       All Tests Pass
    ATP       Available to Promise
    ATR       Alternate Trunk Routing
    ATRS      Automated Trouble Reporting System
    ATSE      Application Timesharing Software Engineering
    ATTC      Automatic Transmission Test and Control Circuit
    AT&T      American Telephone and Telegraph Company
    ATTIS     AT&T Information System
    AUDIX     Audio Information Exchange
    AUTODIN   Automatic Digital Network
    AUTOVON   Automatic Voice network
    AUXF      Auxillary Frame
    AVD       Alternate Voice Data
    AVT       Architecture Verification Test
    B6ZS      Bipolar with 6 Zero Substitution
    B911      Basic 911
    BAD       Broken As Designed
    BAI       Bank Administration Institute
    BAGS      Bristol's Anti-Gay Society
    BAMAF     Bellcore AMA Format
    BANCS     Bell Administrative Network Communications System
    BAPCO     Bellsouth Advertising & Publishing Company
    BASC      Bad Austrian Swapping Crew
    BASIC     Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
    BB        Bad Brains
    BBA       Budget By Account
    BBS       Bulletin Board System
    BBU       Battery Back-Up
    BCC       Blocked Call Cleared
    BCC       Boys from Company C
    BCD       Binary Coded Decimal
    BCD       Blocked Call Delayed
    BCG       Business Center Group
    BCS       Batch Change Supplement
    BCS       British Computer Society
    BDS       Black Dragon Society
    BDT       Billing Data Transmitter
    BDCS      Broadband Digital Cross-Connect System
    BEF       Band Elimination Filter
    BER       Bit Error Rate
    BERT      Bit Error Rate Test
    BETRS     Basic Exchange Telecommunications Radio Service
    BELLCORE  Bell Communications Research
    BG/EEE    Below Ground Electronic Equipment Enclosures
    BHC       Busy Hour Calls
    BHS       Black Hand Society
    BI        Backplane Interconnect or Beginning Inventory
    BIM       Basic Industry Marketing
    BIND      Berkeley Internet Name Domain
    BIOS      Basic Input Output System
    BISP      Business Information System Program
    BIT       Binary Digit
    BITNET    Because Its Time Network
    BITNIC    BITNET Network Information Center
    BIX       Byte Information Exchange
    BJS       Bureau of Justice Statistics
    B/L       Backlog
    BLAH      Big Long and Hairy
    BLF       Busy Line Field
    BLS       Business Listing Service
    BLV       Busy Line Verification
    BMC       Basic Monthly Charge
    BMEWS     Ballistic Missle Early Warning System
    BNF       Backus-Naur Form
    BNL       Brookhaven National Laboratory
    BNR       Bell National Research
    BNS       Billed Number Screening
    BOA       Bill of Aggregation  
    BOA       Blanket Order Agreement
    BOC       Bell Operating Company
    BOD       Board of Directors (Budget)
    BOIS      Business Office Information Systems
    BOM       Bill of Materials
    BOO       Bill of Organization
    BOR       Basic Output Report
    BORSCHT   Battery,Overvoltage,Ringing,Supervision,Coding,Hybrid,Test
    BOS       Business and Office Systems
    BOS       Business Office Supervisor
    BOSE      Business and Office Systems Engineering
    BOSS      Billing and Order Support System
    BOT       Beginning Of Tape
    BOTE      Brothers of the Eye
    BPI       Bits Per Inch
    BPM       Business Planning Manager or Base Product Marketing
    BPN       Comstar Business Plan
    BPOC      Bell Point Of Contact
    BPS       Bits Per Second
    BPSS      Basic Packet Switching Service
    BQS       Berkeley Quality Software
    BRATS     Business Residence Account Tracking System
    BRCS      Business Residence Customer Service
    BRI       Basic Rate Interface
    BRM       Basic Remote Module
    BRS       Bibliographic Research Service
    BRS       Big Red Switch
    BS        Banded Signaling
    BSA       Basic Service Arrangements
    BSA       Business Software Association
    BSBH      Busy Season Busy Hour
    BSC       Binary Synchronous Communication
    BSC       Business Service Center
    BSCM      BiSynchronous Communications Module
    BSD       Berkeley Software Distribution
    BSD       Berkely System Distribution
    BSE       Basic Service Elements
    BSF       Bell Shock Force
    BSOC      Bell Systems Operating Company
    BSP       Bell Systems Practice
    BSRFS     Bell Systems Frequency Reference Standard
    BST       Basic Services Teminal
    BSTJ      Bell Systems Technical Journal
    BT        Bus Terminator
    BTAM      Basic Telecommunications Access Message
    BTL       Bell Telephone Laboratories
    BTN       Billing Telephone Number
    BTU       British Thermal Unit
    BVA       Billing Validation Application
    BVAPP     Billing Verification and Authorization for Payment Process
    BVC       Billing Validation Center
    BWM       Broadcast Warning Message
    BWQ       Buzz Word Quotient
    BWT       Broadcast Warning TWX
    BWTS      BandWidth Test Set
    C         Centigrade or Celsius
    C-STEP    Cultural,Societal,Technological,Economic,Political
    CA        Cable
    CAA       Chaotic Ansi Artists
    CABS      Carrier Access Billing System
    CAC       Calling-card Authorization Center
    CAC       Carrier Access Code
    CAC       Carrier Administration Center
    CAC       Circuit Administration Center
    CAD       Computer Aided Design
    CAD       Computer Aided Dispatch
    CAD       Computer Aided Drafting
    CADV      Combined Alternate Data/Voice
    CAEM      Computer Aided Engineering and Manufacturing
    CAFD      Controllers Automatic Message Accounting Format Description
    CAFM      Computer Aided Facilities Management
    CAI       Call Assembly Index
    CAIS      Colocated Automatic Intercept System
    CALRS     Centralized Automatic Loop Reporting System
    CAM       Computer Aided Manufacturing
    CAMA      Centralized Automatic Message Accounting
    CAROT     Centralized Automatic Reporting On Trunks
    CAS       Circuit Associated Signaling
    CAS       Column Address Strobe
    CAS       Computerized Autodial System
    CAS       Customer Administrative Services
    CASE      Computer Aided Software Engineering
    CAT       Computer-aided Test
    CAT       Craft Access Terminal
    CATLAS    Centralized Automatic Trouble Locating & Analysis System
    CAU       Computer Anarchists Underground
    CBBS      Computerized Bulletin Board System
    CBC       Cipher Block Chaining
    CBS       Common Bom System
    CBS       CrossBar Switching
    CBI       Computer-based Instruction
    CBM       Commodore Business Machines
    CBX       Computerized Branch Exchange
    CBX       Computerized Business Exchange
    CC        Calling Card
    CC        Carbon Copy
    CC        Central Control
    CC        Common Control
    CC        Cost Center
    CC        Country Code
    CC        Courtesy Copy
    CC        Credit Card
    CC        Cryptic Criminals
    CCC       Central Control Complex
    CCC       Chaos Computer Club
    CCC       Clear Channel Capability
    CCC       Community Computer Center
    CCC       Computer Control Center
    CCD       Customer Configuration Document
    CCEP      Commercial Communications Endorsement Program
    CCH       Connections per Circuit per Hour
    CCI       Cyber Crime International
    CCIR      Comite Consultif Internationale des Radio Communications
    CCIS      Common Channel Interoffice Signalling
    CCITT     Committee Consultative International Telegraph and Telephone 
    CCITT     Committee Consultif Internationale Telegraph et Telephonie
    CCM       Customer Control Management
    CCNC      Common Channel Network Controller
    CCNC      Computer Communications Network Center
    CCOO      Comprehensive Cost of Ownership
    CCR       Customer Controlled Reconfiguration
    CCS       Calling Card Service
    CCS       Common Channel Signaling
    CCSA      Common Central Switching Arrangement
    CCSA      Common Control Switching Arrangement
    CCSS      Common Channel Signalling System
    CCT       Central Control Terminal
    CCT       Cumulative Cycle Time
    CCTAC     Computer Communications Trouble Analysis Center
    CCU       COLT Computer Unit
    CCUTF     Corrupt Computer Underground Taskforce
    CCV       Calling Card Validation
    CD        Compact Disk
    CDA       Call Data Accumulator
    CDA       Coin Detection and Announcement
    CDA       Compound Document Architecture
    CDA       Crash Dump Analyzer
    CDAR      Customer Dialed Account Recording
    CDC       Clark Development Company
    CDC       Cult of the Dead Cat (Virus)
    CDC       Cult of the Dead Cow (Text)
    CDCF      Cumalative Discounted Cash Flow
    CDD       Common Data Dictionary
    CDI       Circle Digit Identification
    CDO       Community Dial Office
    CDPR      Customer Dial Pulse Receiver
    CDR       Call Dial Routing
    CDR       Compact Disk Reader
    CDS       Circuit Design System
    CDS       Craft Dispatch System
    CDUGD     Computer Down Under Ground Digest
    CEF       Cable Entrance Facility
    CEI       Comparably Efficient Interconnection
    CERT      Certified Order
    CERT      Computer Emergency Response Team
    CES       Computer Election Systems
    CEV       Control Environmental Vault
    CF        Coin First
    CFB       Cipher Feedback
    CFCA      Communications Fraud Control Association
    CFM       Cubic Feet per Minute
    CFO       Chief Financial Officer
    CFR       Code of Federal Regulations
    CGA       Color Graphics Adapter
    CGN       Concentrator Group Number
    CHINA     Communist Hackers In North America
    CHIPS     Clearing House Interbank Payments System
    CI        Cluster Interconnect or Computer Interconnect
    CIA       Central Intelligence Agency
    CIC       Carrier Identification Codes
    CIC       CSNET Information Center
    CICS      Customer Information Control System
    CII       Call Identity Index
    CIM       Computer Integrated Manufacturing
    CIMT      Computer Integrated Manufacturing and Technology
    CIR       Computer Intergrated Research
    CIRU      Computer Industry Research Unit
    CIS       Compuserve Information Service
    CIS       Commercial Instruction Set
    CIS       Customer Intercept Service
    CISA      Certified Information Systems Auditor
    CISC      Complex Instruction Set Computing
    C&ISM     Consultant and Information Systems Marketing Group
    CISSD     Canadian International Society for Social Deviancy
    CIT       Computer Integrated Telephony
    CKS       Celestial Knights
    CLASS     Centralized Local Area Selective Signaling
    CLASS     Custom Local Area Signaling Service
    CLDN      Calling Line Directory Number
    CLEI      Common Language Equipment Identification
    CLI       Calling Line Ident
    CLID      Calling Line Identification
    CLLI      Common Language Location Identification
    CLM       Career Limiting Move
    CLP       Country List Price
    CMAC      Centralized Maintenance and Administration Center
    CMAS      Central Massachusetts Administrative Services
    CMC       Carry-in Monthly Charge
    CMC       Cellular Mobile Carrier
    CMC       Construction Maintenance Center
    CMDF      Combined Main Distributing Frame
    CMDS      Centralized Message Data System
    CMOS      Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor(Silicon)
    CMP       Cooperative Marketing Program or Partner
    CMS       Call Management System
    CMS       Circuit Maintenance System
    CMS       Communications Management Subsystem
    CMS       Conversational Monitoring System
    CMT       Cellular Mobile Telephone
    CN        Change Notice
    CN/A      Customer Name & Address
    CNA       Communications Network Application
    CNAB      Customer Name Address Bureau
    CNCC      Customer Network Control Center
    CNI       Common Network Interface
    CNMS      Cylink Network Management System
    CNS       Central Nervous System
    CNS       Complimentary Network Service
    CO        Central Office
    COAM      Customer Owned and Maintained
    COBOL     Common Business Oriented Language
    COC       Circuit Order Control
    COC       Corporate Operations Committee
    COCOT     Customer Owned Coin Operated Telephone
    COD       Career Opportunity Days
    COD       Cash on Delivery
    CODCF     Central Office Data Connecting Facility
    CODE      Crackers of Digital Equipment
    CODEC     Coder-Decoder
    COE       Central Office Equipment
    COEES     Central Office Equipmet Engineering System
    COEM      Commercial Original Equipment Manufacturer
    COLT      Central Office Line Tester
    COM       Computer Output MicroFilm
    COMSAT    Communications Satellite
    COMSEC    Communications Security
    COMSTAR   Common System for Technical Analysis & Reporting
    CON       Central Office News
    CONN      Connector
    CONTAC    Central Office Network Access
    CONUS     Continental United States
    COPIS     Corporate Planning Information System
    CORNET    Corporate Network
    COS       Class Of Service
    COSMIC    Common Systems Main InterConnection
    COSMOS    Computerized System for Mainframe Operations
    COT       Central Office Terminal
    CP        Control Program
    CPA       Centralized/Bulk Power Architecture
    CBPXI     Computer Private Branch Exchange Interface
    CPC       Cellular Phone Company
    CPC       Circuit Provisioning Center
    CPD       Central Pulse Distributor
    CPE       Customer Premises Equipment
    CPH       Cost Per Hour
    CPI       Characters Per Inch
    CPI       Corrupt Programming International
    CP/M      Control Program Master
    CP/M      Control Program for Microcomputers
    CPM       Cost-Per-Minute
    CPMP      Carrier Performance Measurement Plan
    CPO       Corporate Product Operations
    CPP       Corporate Planning Process
    CPS       Characters Per Second
    CPSR      Computer Profressionals for Social Responsibility
    CPU       Central Processing Unit
    CRAS      Cable Repair Administrative System
    CRC       Customer Record Center
    CRC       Customer Return Center
    CRC       Cyclic Redundancy Check
    CREG      Concentrated Range Extension & Gain
    CREN      Corporation for Research and Educational Networking
    CRFMP     Cable Repair Force Management Plan
    CRG       Central Resource Group
    CRIS      Customer Record Information System
    CRS       Centralized Results System
    CRSAB     Centralized Repair Service Answering Bureau
    CRT       Cathode Ray Tube
    CSA       Carrier Servicing Area
    CSA       Confederate States of America
    CSA       Covenant,Sword,and Arm of the Lord
    CSACC     Customer Service Administration Control Center
    CSAR      Centralized System for Analysis Reporting
    CSC       Cell Site Controller
    CSC       Customer Support Center
    CSDC      Circuit Switched Digital Capability
    CSDN      Chineese Software Distribution Network
    CSG       Corporate Systems Group
    CSNET     Computer Science network
    CSO       Central Services Organization
    CSO       Complimentary Solutions Organization
    CSP       Coin Sent Paid
    CSM       Computer Systems Manufacturing
    CSM       Corrupt Society Magazine
    CSMA/CD   Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collission Detection
    CSNET     Computer and Science Research Network
    CSR       Customer Service Records
    CSS       Computer Special Systems
    CSS       Computer Sub-System
    CSSE      Computer Services System Engine
    CSSG      Customer Service Solutions Group
    CSU       Channel Service Unit
    CT        Current Transformer
    CTC       Central Test Center
    CTM       Contac Trunk Module
    CTMS      Carrier Transmission Measuring System
    CTO       Call Transfer Outside
    CTS       Clear to Send
    CTS       Configuration Technical Specialists
    CTSS      Compatible Time Sharing System
    CTSS      Cray Time Sharing System
    CTT       Cartridge Tape Transport
    CTTC      Cartridge Tape Transport Controller
    CTTN      Cable Trunk Ticket Number
    CTY       Console TeleType
    CU        Computer Underground
    CU        Control Unit
    CU        Customer Unit
    CUCRIT    Capital Utilization Criteria
    CUD       Celerity Utilities Division
    CUD       Computer Underground Digest
    CUM       Cult of the Uncircumcised Masterbater
    CUNY      City University of New York
    CVR       Compass Voice Response
    CW        Cyber Warriors
    CWC       City Wide Centrex
    CWD       Call Waiting Deluxe
    D/A       Digital/Analog
    DA        Directory Assistance
    DACC      Directort Assistance Call Completion
    DACS      Digital Access Cross-Connect System
    DACS      Directory Assistance Charging System
    DAG       Defense Agencies Group
    DAIS      Distributed Automatic Intercept System
    DAMP      Demand Analysis Manufacturing Planning
    DAO       Directory Assistance Operator
    DAP       Document Application Profile
    DARC      Division Alarm Recording Center
    DARPA     Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
    DARU      Distributed Automatic Response Unit
    DAS       Device Access Software
    DAS       Directory Assistance System
    DAS       Distributor And Scanner
    DAS       Dual Attachment Station
    DASD      Direct Access Storage Device 
    DASP      Digital Assisted Services Program
    DAS-WAT   Distributor And Scanner - Watch Dog Timer
    DAT       Digital Audio Tape
    DAV       Data Above Voice
    DB        Decibels
    DBA       Data Base Administrator
    DBA       Digital Business Architecture
    DBAC      Data Base Administration Center
    DBAS      Data Base Administration System
    DBC       Digital Business Center
    DBM       Database Manager
    DBMS      Data Base Management System
    DBOD      Distribution Board of Directors
    DBS       Duplex Bus Selector
    DC        Direct Current
    DCA       Defense Communications Agency
    DCASR     Defense Contract Administration Services Region
    DCC       Data Collection Computer
    DCC       Digital Compact Cassette
    DCC       Digital Customer Center
    DCSS      Discontiguous Shared Segments
    DCE       Data Circuit Terminal Equipment
    DCE       Data Communications Equipment
    DCL       Digital Command Language
    DCLU      Digital Carrier Line Unit
    DCM       Digital Carrier Module
    DCMS      Distributed Call Measurement System
    DCMU      Digital Concentrator Measurement Unit
    DCO-CS    Digital Central Office-Carrier Switch
    DCP       Demand for Critical Parts
    DCP       Duplex Central Processor
    DCS       Digital Cross-Connect System
    DCSS      Digital Customized Support Services
    DCT       Digital Carrier Trunk
    DCTN      Defense Commercial Telecommunications Network
    DCTS      Dimension Custom Telephone Service
    DCU       Digital Credit Union
    DDA       Disk Drive Adaptor
    DDD       Direct Distance Dialing
    DDE       Dynamic Data Exchange
    DDH       Digital Distributed Hardware
    DDIF      Digital Document Interchange Format
    DDN       Defense Data Network
    DDOV      Digital Data Over Voice
    DDS       Dataphone Digital Service
    DDS       Digital Data Service
    DDS       Digital Data System
    DDS       Digital Distributed Software
    DDT       DEC Debugging Tape
    DEA       Drug Enforcement Agency
    DEC       Digital Equipment Corporation
    DECdtm    Digital Distributed Transaction Manager
    DECnms    Digital Network Measurement System
    DECtp     Digital Transaction Processing
    DECUS     Digital Equipment Corporation User's Society
    DEN       Digital Echo News
    DEPBA     Digital Exchange Pirate Board Alliance
    DES       Data Encryption Standard
    DF        Distributing Frame
    DFA       Design for Assembly
    DFP       Digital Free Press
    DFP       District Focus Person
    DFM       Design for Manufacturing
    DFT       Design for Test
    DIA       Defense Intelligence Agency
    DIAL      Digital Idle Asset Listing
    DIBOL     Digital Business Oriented Language
    DID       Direct Inward Dialing
    DIM       Demand Integration Meeting
    DIMA      Data Information Management Architecture
    DIN       Deutsche Ingineering Normilization
    DINS      Digital Information Network Service
    DIS       Digital Information Systems or Defense Investigative Service
    DISER     Digital Information Systems External Resources
    DL        Direct Labor
    DLC       Digital Loop Carrier
    DLN       Digital Library Network
    DLOC      Dark Lords Of Chaos
    DLS       Dial Line Service
    DM        Dead Memory
    DM        Delta Modulation
    DMA       Direct Memory Access
    DMCL      Digital Modem Command Language
    DME       Digital Management Education
    DMM       Digital Multimeter
    DMM       District Manufacturing Manager
    DMS       Data Management Services
    DMS       Diskless Management Service
    DMSS      Distribution, Marketing, Sales and Service
    DMT       Design Maturity Test
    DN        Directory Numbers
    DNA       Defense Nuclear Agency
    DNA       Digital Named Accounts
    DNA       Digital Network Architecture
    DNA       Digital Noise Alliance
    DNR       Dialed Number Recorder
    DNS       Domain Name System
    DOA       Dead On Arrival
    DOA       Distributors of Anarchy
    DOD       Department of Defense
    DOE       Department of Energy
    DOJ       Department of Justice
    DOM       District Operations Manager
    DOS       Disk Operating System
    DOV       Data Over Voice
    DP        Data Processing
    DPA       Distributed Power Architecture
    DPI       Dots Per Inch
    DPMA      Data Processing Management Association
    DPP       District Partner Program
    DQT       Design Quality Test
    DRAM      Dynamic Random Access Memory
    DRC       Data Resource Center
    DRP       Distribution Resource Planning
    DSA       Digital Storage Architecture or Decimal Shift and Add Algorithm
    DSI       Data Subscriber Interface
    DSIN      Digital Software Information
    DSL       Digital Subscriber Line
    DSLA      Digital Software Licensing Architecture
    DSM       Distributed Systems Manufacturing
    DSMC      Digital Service Monthly Charge
    DSN       Digital Services Network
    DSTAR     Digital System Technical Architecture Research
    DS0       Digital Signal ZER0
    DSO       Days Sales Outstanding
    DSO       Digital Storage Oscilloscope
    DSM       Distributed Systems Manufacturing
    DSM       District Sales Manager
    DSM       Digital Standard MUMPS
    DSR       Data Send Ready
    DSR       Data Set Ready
    DSRI      Digital Standard Relational Interface
    DSSI      Digital Small Storage Interconnect
    DSU       Data Service Unit
    DSU       Digital Service Unit
    DSUWG     Data Systems Users Working Group
    DSX       Digital Signal Cross-Connect
    DT        Dial Tone
    DTE       Data Terminal Equipment
    DTF       Dial Tone First
    DTG       Direct Trunk Group
    DTI       Dark Towers International
    DTI       Digital Trunk Interface
    DTIF      Digital Tabular Interchange Format
    DTMF      Dual Tone Multi-Frequency
    DTN       Digital Telephone Network
    DTP       Desktop Publishing
    DTR       Data Terminal Ready
    DTS       Digital Termination System
    DTST      Dial Tone Speed Test
    DUA       Dallas Underground Association
    DVI       Digital Video Interactive
    DVM       Data Voice Multiplexor
    DVN       Digital Video Network
    DVT       Design Verification Test
    DWCI      DecWindows Compiler Interface
    DWI       Doc Writers Incorporated
    DWIM      Do What I Mean
    EA        Electronic Arts
    EAAT      Equal Access Alternative Technologies
    EADAS     Engineering and Administrative Acquisition System
    EAP       Employee Assistance Program
    EAR       Export Administration Regulations
    EARN      European Academic Research Network
    EAROM     Electrically Alterable Read Only Memory
    EBCDIC    Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
    EBDI      Electronic Business Data Interchange
    EC        Exchange Carriers
    ECAD      Engineering Computer Aided Design
    ECC       East Coast Crackers
    ECC       Enter Cable Change
    ECC       Error Correction Code
    ECFA      Electronic Communications Forwarding Act
    ECL       Error Code Logging
    ECO       Engineering Change Order
    EDC       Engineering Data Center
    EDC       Error Detection Code
    EDC       Error Detection and Correction 
    EDI       Electronic Document Interchange or Electronic Data Interchange
    EDP       Electronic Data Processing
    EDRS      Engineering Data Resources Services
    EDU       Education Computer Systems
    EDWG      ESnet DECnet Working Group
    EE        End to End Signaling
    EEC       Electronic Equipment
    EEE       Electronic Equipment Enclosures
    EFF       Electronic Frontier Foundation
    EFT       Electronic Fund Transfer
    EFTS      Electronic Funds Transfer System
    EGA       Enhanced Graphics Adapter
    EI        Ending Inventory
    EIA       Electronic Industries Association
    EIES      Electronic Information Exchange System
    EIS       Enterprise Integration Services
    EISA      Enhanced Industry Standard Architecture
    EIU       Extended Interface Unit
    EJS       Elite Justice Society
    EKTS      Electonic Key Telephone Service
    EL        Electroluminescent
    ELD       Electroluminescent Displays
    ELDS      Exchange Line Data Service
    ELF       Employee Locator Facility
    EMA       Electronic Mail Association
    EMA       Enterprise Management Architecture
    EMACS     Ediding Macros
    EMC       ElectroMagnetic Capability
    EMI       Electromagnetic Interference
    EMS       Expanded Memory Specification
    ENET      Ethernet
    ENG       Engineering
    ENQ       Enquire
    EO        End Office
    EOF       End Of File
    EOL       End Of Life
    EOTT      End of Toll Trunking
    EPA       Elite Programming Association
    EPG       External Products Group
    EPLS      Engineering Price List System
    EPP       Executive Partner Program
    EPROM     Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
    ERF       Emergency Restoration Facility
    ES        ElektroShok
    ESA       European Space Agency
    ESB       Emergency Service Bureau (911)
    ESB       Entry Systems Business
    ESD       Electronic Systems Development
    ESDI      Enhanced Small Device Interface
    ESDP      Educational Services Development and Publshing
    ESF       Extended SuperFrame Format
    ESG       Engineering Systems Group
    ESLF      Eastern Seaboard Liberation Front
    ESN       Electronic Serial Number
    ESO       Engineering Support Operations
    ESOC      European Space Operations Center
    ESP       Ecstatic Sound Productions
    ESP       Enhanced Serial Port
    ESP       Enhanced Service Providers
    ESRIN     European Space Research Institute
    ESS       Electronic Switching System
    ESVN      Executive Secure Voice Network
    ET&Q      Engineering, Technology and Quality
    ETS       Electronic Translation System
    EU        End User
    EUPOT     End User-Point of Termination
    EUSR      End User
    EVGA      Expanded Video Graphics Array
    EXCOM     Executive Committee
    F         Fahrenheit
    F & A     Finance and Accounting or Finance and Administration
    FA&T      Final Assembly and Test
    FABS      Financial and Administration Business Systems
    FAST      Federation Against Software Theft
    FBI       Federal Bureau of Investigations
    FBOD      Finance Board of Directors
    FCC       Federal Communications Commission
    FCC       Federal Cracking Consortium
    FCO       Field Change Order                     
    FCS       First Customer Ship
    FCST      Forecast
    FDI       Feeder/Distribution Interfaces
    FDDI      Fiber Distributed Data Interface
    FDM       Frequency Division Multiplexing
    FDX       Full Duplex
    F/G       Finished Goods
    FIFO      First In First Out
    FIMG      Finance Industry Marketing Group
    FIPS      Federal Information Processing Standard
    FiRM      Five-O is Rigor Mortis
    FIRM      First In Releasing Most (Incorrect Acro)
    FISG      Financial Industries Systems Group
    Five-O    Cracking group, formerly the Imperial Warlords
    FLT       Fairlight
    FM        Frequency Modulation
    FMAP      Field Manufacturing Automated Process
    FMC       Financial Management Center
    FMEA      Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
    FMIC      Field Manufacturing Information Center
    FMMC      Field Manufacturing Management Committee
    FMP       Field Manufacturing Plan
    FNAL      Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
    FOA       Fiber Optic Adapter
    FOA       First Office Application
    FOAF      Friend Of A Friend
    FOD       Finger of Death
    FOE       Fucking Operator Error
    FOMC      Field Operations Management Committee
    FPA       Floating Point Adapter
    FPM       Feet Per Minute
    FPP       Floating Point Processor
    FRPS      Field Reliability Performance Studies
    FRS       First Revenue Ship
    FRU       Field Replaceable Unit
    FS        Field Service
    FS        Full Scale
    FSF       Free Software Foundation
    FSG       Financial Systems Group 
    FSK       Frequency Shift Keying
    FSL       Field Service Logistics
    FT        Field Test
    FTG       Final Trunk Group
    FTP       File Transfer Protocol
    FTPD      File Transfer Protocol Daemon
    FTS       Federal Telecommunications service
    FUBAR     Failed UniBus Address Register
    FUBAR     Fucked Up Beyond All Recognition 
    FUD       Fear,Uncertainty,and Doubt
    FVC       First Volume Commit
    FY        Fiscal Year
    FZG       Folo Zone Gang
    GAO       Government Accounting Office
    GB        Gigabyte
    GCOS      Gods Chosen Operating System
    GECOS     General Electric Comprehensive Operating System
    GFCI      Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter
    GFR       Grim File Reaper
    GIA       General International Area
    GIF       Graphics Interchange Format
    GIGO      Garbage In, Garbage Out
    GIM       Group Identification Mark
    GIPS      Giga Instructions Per Second
    GKS       Graphics Kernal System
    GLIB      Gay and Lesbian Information Bureau
    GOSIP     Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile
    GOVT      Government
    GMG       Government Manufacturing Group
    GNU       GNU's Not Unix
    GOD       Givers of Destruction
    GOP       Grand Old Pirates
    GPD       Gas Plasma Display
    GPIB      General Purpose Interface Bus
    GPL       General Public License
    GPS       Global Positioning System
    GPV       General Public Virus
    GPX       Graphics Processor Accelerator
    GS        Games Society
    GSA       General Services Administration
    GSB       General Systems Business
    GSG       Government Systems Group 
    GSFC      Goddard Space Flight Center
    GSIM      General Services Industry Marketing Group
    GSSP      General Systems Security Principles
    GTS       Gamma Transfer Service
    GURPS     Generic Universal Roleplaying Systems
    H/M       Hotel/Motel
    HA        Horn Alert
    HAGS      Herbally Aroused Gynecogical Squad
    HALE      Hacker's Against Law Enforcement
    HATE      Highly Artistically Talented Enterprises
    HBO       Home Box Office
    HCDS      High Capacity Digital Service
    HCF       Halt and Catch Fire
    HCIG      Health Care Industry Group
    HDA       Head Disk Assembly
    HDK       Hippy Dippy Klub
    HDSC      High-density Signal Carrier
    HDTV      High Definition Television
    HEPNET    High Energy Physics Network
    HF        Hands Free
    HIT       Hackers In Touch
    HLI       High-speed LAN Interconnect
    HLL       High Level Language
    HP        Hewlett Packard
    HPA       Hacker/Phreakers Association
    HPS       Hardware Product Services
    HPS       High Performance Systems
    HQ        Headquarters
    HRU       Hackers 'R' Us
    HSC       Hierarchical Storage Controller
    HST       High Speed Technology
    HUTG      High Usage Trunk Group
    HVM       High Volume Manufacturing
    HW        Hardware
    HZ        Hertz
    I/O       Input output
    IBM       Inferior But Marketable
    IBM       Insidious Black Magic
    IBM       International Business Machines
    IBM       Its Been Malfunctioning
    IBM       Its Better Manually
    IC        Inner Circle
    IC        InterExchange Carriers
    IC        Integrated Circuit
    ICE       Inner Circle Elite
    ICE       Insane Creator Enterprises
    ICE       International Communications Echomail
    ICE       Intrusion Countermeasure Electronics
    ICH       International Call Handling
    ICM       Integrated Call Management
    ICMP      Internet Control Message Protocol
    ICN       Interconnecting Network
    ICPOT     InterExchange Carrier-Point of Termination
    ICR       Inductance,Capacitance,Resistance
    ICS       Italian Cracking Service
    ICST      Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology
    ICUG      International Closed User Groups
    ICVT      InComing Verification Trunk
    IDA       Integrated Digital Access
    IDC       Information Distribution Companies
    IDH       Inpherno Data Haven
    IDI       Intergalactic Dismantiling Incorporated
    IDCI      Interim Defined Central Office Interface
    IDDD      International Direct Distance Dialing
    IDECUS    Internal Digital Equipment Corporation User's Society
    IDLC      Integrated Digital Loop Carrier
    IDN       Integrated Digital Networks
    IEC       International ElectroTechnical Commission
    IED       International Engineering Development
    IEEE      Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
    IEG       Internal Equipment Group
    IFIP      International Federation for Information Processing
    IHA       International Hackers Association
    IIRG      International Information Retrieval Guild
    IISF      International Information Security Foundation
    IL        Indirect Labor
    IMM       Idle Material Management
    IMS       Integrated Management Systems
    IMTS      Improved Mobile Telephone Service
    IM&T      Information and Technology Management
    IN        Inch
    IN/1      Intelligent Network/1
    INAP      Intelligent Network Access Point
    INC       International Network of Crackers
    INS       Information Network System
    INTT      Incoming No Test Trunks
    INV       Inventory
    INWATS    Inward Wide Area Telecommunications Service
    I/O       Input/Output
    IO        Independent Option or Input/Output
    IOCC      International Overseas Completion Center
    IOP       Input Output Processor
    IP        Intermediate Point
    IP        Internet Protocol
    IPCH      Initial Paging Channel
    IPDP      Industrial Peripheral Data Processing
    IPDS      Intelligent Printer Data Stream
    IPG       Image Processing Group
    IPLS      InterLATA Private Line Services
    IPM       Interruptions Per Minute
    IPMO      Industry Program Management Office
    IPS       Inches Per Second
    IPSG      Internal Product Strategies Group
    IPT       Inventory Program Team
    IRC       Internet Relay Chat
    IRG       International Rogues Guild
    IRR       Internal Rate of Return
    IRQ       Interrupt Request
    IS        Information Systems
    ISA       Industry Standard Architecture
    ISBS      Information Systems Business Segment
    ISC       Inter-Nation Switching Center
    ISDN      Integrated Services Digital Network
    ISF       Information Security Foundation
    ISM       Installed Systems Marketing
    ISO       International Standards Organization
    ISPN      INFO Security Product News 
    ISPS      Information System Production Systems
    ISS       Initial System Sale or Internal Special Systems
    ISSA      Information Systems Security Association
    ISSM      Information Systems Security Monitor
    ISSN      Integrated Special Services Network
    ISU       Integrated Service Unit
    ISWS      Internal Software Services
    IT        Information Technology
    ITAP      Information and Technology Architecture Plan
    ITAR      International Traffic in Arms Regulation
    ITS       Incompatible Time-Sharing System
    ITS       Internal Theft Syndicate
    IUD       INC Utilities Division
    IVIS      Interactive Video Interface System
    IVPC      International Virus Prevention Conference
    IW        Imperial Warlords
    JANET     Joint Academic Network
    JCL       Job Control Language
    JEC       Job Evaluation Classification
    JIS       Jurisdictional Interstate Services
    JIT       Just In Time
    JPEG      Joint Photographic Experts Group
    JPL       Jet Propulsion Laboratory
    JSC       Johnson Space Center
    K         Kilo or Kilobyte
    KB        Kilobyte
    KBPS      Kilobits per second
    KKHPAC    Ku Klux Hackers Phreakers Anarchists of Connecticut
    KKX       Ku Klux Connecticut
    KKK       Ku Klux Klan
    KOS       Knights of Shadow
    KP        Key Pulse
    KPL       Kit Parts List
    KSR       Keyboard Send Receive
    LADS      Local Area Data Service
    LADT      Local Area Data Transport
    LAN       Local Area Network
    LANL      Los Alamos Nuclear Laboratories
    LAP       Link Access Protocol
    LAPB      Link Access Protocol Balanced
    LASS      Local Area Switching Service
    LAST      Local Area System Transport
    LAT       Local Area Transport
    LATA      Local Access Transport Area
    LAVC      Local Area Vax Cluster
    LAW       Lyrical Association of Writers
    LB        Pounds
    LBL       Lawrence Berkely Laboratory
    LBRV      Low Bit Rate Voice
    LCC       Leadless Chip Carrier
    LCD       Liquid Crystal Display
    LCDN      Last Call Directory Number
    LD        Long Distance
    LDM       Limited Distance Modem
    LDP       Laboratory Data Products
    LDS       Local Digital Switch
    LEBC      Low End Business Center
    LEC       Local Exchange Carrier
    LED       Light Emitting Diode
    LEDS      Low End Disk Systems
    LEEP      Large Expanse Extra Perspective
    LEGSS     Low End Graphics Sub-System
    LEN       Low End Networks
    LEST      Low End Systems and Technologies
    LIDB      Line Information Database
    LIFO      Last In First Out
    LLC       Logical Link Control
    LLI       Lunatic Labs Incorporated
    LMF       License Management Facility or Low Magnetic Field
    LMF       Low Magnetic Field
    LMI       Local Memory Interconnect
    LMOS      Loop Maintenance and Operations System
    LMOS      Loop Maintenence Operating System
    LOD       Legion of Doom
    LOD/H     Legion of Doom/Hackers
    LOL       Legion of Lucifer
    LOTSAB    Legion Opposed to Stupid Asshole Bottanists
    LPM       Lines Per Minute
    LRP       Long Range Plan
    LSD       Least Significant Digit
    LSE       Language Sensitive Editor
    LSI       Large Scale Integration
    LU        Local Use
    LVM       Line Verification Module
    M2        Mondo 2000
    MA        Ma Bell
    MAC       Macintosh Computer 
    MAC       Media Access Control
    MAC       Message Authentication
    MAC       Multi Access Computers
    MAI       Masters of Abstractions and Illusions
    MAN       Metropolitan Area Network
    MARCOM    Marketing Communications
    MAP       Manufacturing Automation Protocol
    MASS      Mid-Atlantic and Southern States
    MATAC     Material Acquisition
    MAU       Multistation Access Unit
    MB        Megabyte
    MBOD      Manufacturing Board of Directors
    MBPS      Mega-Bits Per Second
    MBU       Manufacturing Business Unit
    MCA       Micro Channel Architecture
    MCAM      Manufacturing Corporate Account Manager
    MCESS     Mechanical Component Engineering Support Service
    MCGA      Multi-Color Graphics Array or (Adaptor)
    MCP       Master Control Program
    MCS       Multinational Character Set
    MCT       Manufacturing Cycle Time
    MCU       Multi Chip Unit
    MDA       Monochrome Display Adapter
    MDDS      Media and Documentation Update Service
    MDR       Message Detail Record
    MDS       Message Design Systems                                              
    ME        Mechanical Engineering
    MEM       Manufacturing Engineering and Marketing
    MF        MultiFrequency
    MFG       Manufacturing
    MFLOPS    Millions of Floating Point Operations Per Second
    MFM       Modified Frequency Modulation
    MHZ       Mega-Hertz
    MI        Machine Interface
    MIC       Management Information Center
    MIDAS     Master Integrated Distribution Subcontracting Agreement
    MIF       Master Item File
    MIMG      Media Industry Marketing Group
    MINX      Multimedia Information Network Exchange
    MIPS      Millions of Instructions Per Second
    MIR       Material Increase Request
    MIS       Management Information Systems
    MISG      Market Information Services Group
    MIT       Massachusetts Institute of Technolgy
    MJU       MultiPoint Junction Unit
    MLDS      Medium Large Disk Systems
    MLHG      Multiline Hunt Group
    MLP       Maynard List Price
    MLPC      Model Level planning Committee
    MLT       Mechanized Loop Testing
    MMC       Micky Mouse Club
    MNP       Microcom Networking Protocol
    MOB       Men of Business
    MoD       Master's of Destruction
    MoD       Master's of Disaster
    MOF       Master Order Form
    MOS       Metal Oxide Semiconductor or Material Order System
    MP        Multi-Processor                
    MPEG      Motion Pictures Experts Group
    MPME      Manufacturing Process and Material Engineering
    MPS       Master Production Schedule
    MPSC      Manufacturing Planning and Control Systems
    MRC       Manufacturing Resource Center or Management Response Center or
              Market Research Center
    MSD       Most Significant Digit
    MSFC      Marshall Space Flight Center
    MT        Mitel
    MTB       Magnetic Tape Billing
    MTBSI     Mean Time Between System Interruptions
    MTS       Message Transport Service
    MTS       Mobile Telephone Service
    MRAA      Meter Reading Access Arrangement
    MRP       Manufacturing Resource Planning
    MS        Milli-Seconds
    MSCP      Mass Storage Control Protocol
    MSB       Mid-Range Systems Business
    MSD       Micro Systems Development
    MSPM      Manufacturing System Program Manager
    MSSC      Marketing Sales Strategy Committee
    MTBF      Mean Time Between Failures
    MTS       Message Telephone Service
    MTTR      Mean Time to Repair
    MTU       Maintenence Termination Unit
    MUX       Multiplexer
    MVB       MicroVax Business
    MWI       Message Waiting Indicator
    NAC       Networks and Communications
    NAC       New Age Crackers
    NACM      Networks and Communications Marketing
    NAM       Number Assignment Module
    NAPE      National Pirate Exchange
    NAPLPS    North American Presentation Level Protocol Syntax
    NAPPA     Northern American Phreakers/Piraters Association
    NARC      Nuclear Phreakers/Hackers/Carders
    NAS       Network Application Support
    NASA      National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    NASM      Named Account Sales Manager
    NAS       Network Application Support
    NBS       National Bureau of Standards
    NC        Network Channel
    NCC       Norweigan Cracking Company
    NCI       Network Channel Interface
    NCIC      National Crime Information Center
    NCS       Network Computing System
    NCP       Network Control Program
    NCSA      National Computer Security Association
    NCSC      National Computer Security Center
    NCTE      Network Channel Terminating Equipment
    NDA       Network Delivery Access
    NDC       Network Data Collection
    NDIS      Network Device Interface Specification
    NDN       National Distribution Network
    NDS       Network Data System
    NDU       Network Device Utility
    NE        Network Element
    NEAS      Northeast Atlantic States
    NEBS      Network Equipment Building System
    NEC       Nippon Electronic Company
    NES       Net Equipment Sales
    NESC      National Electric Safety Code
    NEUA      National Elite Underground Alliance
    NFS       Network File System
    NFSP      National Federation of Software Pirates
    NFT       Network File Transfer
    NH        Nazi Hackers
    NHAS      New Hampshire Administrative Services
    NHTSA     National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
    NI        Network Interconnect
    NI        Network Interface
    NIA       Network Information Access
    NIC       Network Information Center
    NIDL      Network Interface Definition Language
    NIH       National Institutes of Health
    NIST      National Institute of Standards and Technology
    NJE       Network Job Entry
    NLM       Netware Loadable Modules
    NMI       Nautilus Memory Interconnect
    NMR       Normal Mode Rejection
    NOAA      National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration
    NOF       Network Operations Forum
    NOR       Net Operating Revenue
    NOT!      Nation Of Thieves
    NPA       National Phreaker's Alliance
    NPA       Northern Phreaker's Alliance
    NPA       Number Planning Area
    NPC       Northern Phun Company
    NPIP      New Product Integration Process
    NPO       New Product Operations
    NPSU      New Product Start Up
    NPSS      NASA Packet Switching System
    NRC       National Research Council
    NRCS      National Replacement Character Set
    NRZ       Non Return to Zero
    NS        Nano-Seconds
    NSA       National Security Agency
    NSA       National Security Anarchists
    NSC       National Security Council
    NSC       National Semiconductor
    NSDD      National Security Decision Directive
    NSF       National Science Foundation
    NT        New Technology
    NTA       Nokturnal Trading Alliance
    NTE       Network Terminal Equipment
    NTIA      National Telecommunications and Information Administration
    NTISSC    National Telecommunications and Information SystemsSteering Committee
    NUA       Network User Address
    NUI       Network User ID
    NVN       National Videtex Network
    NWSS      Networks & Site Services
    NYC       New York Crackers
    NYSHII    New York Safehouse II
    OA        Order Administration or Office Automation
    OAGEE     Official Airlines Guide Electronic Edition
    OBU       Option Business Unit
    OCRC      Option Change Review Committee
    ODA       Office Document Architecture
    ODI       Open Data Interface
    OEM       Original Equipment Manufacturer
    OFG       Originally Funny Guys
    OGVT      OutGoing Verification Trunk
    OIP       Opportunity Investment Planning
    OIS       Office and Information Systems
    OLTP      On-Line Transaction Processing
    OMC       Office of Munitions Control
    ONI       Operator Number Identification
    OOD       Office of Development (Central Engineering)
    OOFNet    Our Own Fucking Net
    OP        Option
    OPAL      On-line Presentation Access Library
    OPCR      Operator Actions Program
    OPEN      Open Protocol Enhanced Networks
    OPM       Outage Performance Monitoring
    OPOM      Organizational Program Office Manager
    OPS       Operations
    O/S       Operating System
    OSF       Open Software Foundation
    OSI       Open System Interconnection
    OSP       Office of Sales Programs
    OSS       Operator Services System
    OST       Originating Station Treatment
    OTA       Office of Technology Assessment
    OTC       Operating Telephone Company
    OTD       Off the Dock
    OTDR      Optical Time Domain Reflectometers
    OTP       Order Transaction Processing
    OTR       Operational Trouble Report
    OTS       Off The Shelf
    OUTWATS   Outward Wide Area Telecommunications Service
    PABX      Private Automatic Branch Exchange
    PAC       Pricing and Announcement Committee
    PAD       Packet Assembler/Dissasembler
    PADSX     Partially Automated Digital Signal Cross-Connect
    PAG       Phreak's Against Geeks
    PAIN      Pirating Artistically Intrepid Newsmongers
    PAL       Programmable Array Logic
    PAM       Pulse Amplitude Modulation
    PAPAG     Phreak's Against Phreak's Against Geeks
    PASI      Production, Availability, Shipments, Inventory
    PAW       Pirates Analyze Warez
    PAX       Private Automatic Exchange
    PB        Pacific Brigade    
    PBM       Product Business Manager
    PBT       Profit Before Tax
    PBU       Product Business Unit
    PBX       Personal Branch Exchange
    PBX       Private Branch Exchange
    PBX       Product Branch Exchange
    PC        Personal Computer
    PC        Primary Center
    PC        Production Control
    PCB       Printed Circuit Board
    PCI       Peripheral Component Interconnect 
    PCM       Plug Compatible Manufacturer
    PCM       Profit Contribution Margin
    PCM       Product Capacity Manager
    PCM       Pulse Code Modulation
    PCP       PC Pursuit
    PCP       Pyscho Corporate Productions
    PCR       Personal Computer Rats
    PCR       Post Call Ratio
    PCSA      Personal Computing System Architecture
    PCSG      Personal Computing Systems Group
    PD        Public Domain
    PDP       Peripheral Data Processing
    PE        Public Enemy
    PEP       Performance Enhancement Package or Personal Enrichment
              Program
    PFM       Pulse Frequency Modulation
    PGA       Pin Grid Array
    P/H/A     Phreaker's/Hacker's/Anarchist's
    PHACT     Phreakers/Hackers/Anarchists/Cyberpunks/Technologists
    PHANTSY   Phantasy Magazine
    PhD       Phreak/Hacker Destroyers
    PHUCK     Phone Hackers United Crash Kill
    PHUN      Phreaker Hackers Underground Network
    PI        Physical Inventory
    PI        Pirate Incorporated
    PIC       Polyolefin Insulated Cables
    PID       Proprietary Information Disclosure
    PIL       Pirates In Legion
    PIN       Personal Identification Number
    PITS      Pie In The Sky
    P&L       Profit and Loss
    PLA       Programmed Logic Array
    PLCC      Plastic Leadless Chip Carrier
    PLD       Programmable Logic Device
    PLS       Programmable Logic Sequencer
    PMG       Product Marketing Group
    PMI       Private Memory Interconnect
    PMR       Poor Mans Routing
    PMS       Paranoid Media Scrutizination
    PMS       Peoples Message Service
    PMT       Planning Methodology Team
    PO        Purchase Order
    POC       Point of Contact
    POD       Piece of Data
    POM       Point of Manufacturing
    POP       Point of Presence
    POOR      Protector's Of Our Rights
    POT       Point of Termination
    POTS      Plain Old Telephone Service
    PP        Post-Pay 
    PP&E      Production, Planning, and Execution
    PPD       Product Phase Down
    PPL       Periodic Payment License
    PPM       Pages Per Minute
    PPM       Parts Per Million
    PPN       Project Program Number
    PPP       Point to Point Protocol
    PPS       Public Packet Switching
    PPS       Pulses Per Second
    PPSN      Public Packet Switched Network
    PPSU      Personal Printer Spooling Utility
    PRE       Prefix
    PROFS     Professional Office Systems
    PROM      Programmable Read Only Memory
    PROMIS    Prosecutors Management Information Systems
    PS        Personal System
    PS        Preferred Service
    PSAP      Public Safety Answering Point (911)
    PSDS      Public Switched Digital Service
    PSG       Peripheral and Supplies Group or Product Shipping Guide
    PSS       Professional Software Services
    PSU       Portable Storage Unit
    PTC       Part Time Crackers
    PTE       Packet Transport Equipment
    PTG       Physical Technology Group
    PTL       Pirates That Live
    PTL       Praise the Lord
    PTS       Position and Trunk Scanner 
    PTT       Postal Telephone Telegraph
    PVN       Private Virtual Network
    PWA       Pirates With Attitude
    QBOD      Quality Board of Directors
    QC        Quality Control
    QDSS      Q-Bus Dragon Sub-System
    QPA       Quality Program Analysis
    QPSK      Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying
    QSO       QWK Support Option
    QSS       Quality Solution Systems
    QVSS      Q-Bus Viper Sub-System
    RABID     Rebellion Against Big Irrepressible Dweebs
    RAM       Random Access Memory
    RAMP      Reliability, Availability, Maintainability Program
    RAO       Revenue Accounting Office
    RBG       Realtime Business Group
    RBOC      Regional Bell Operating Company
    RC        Reduced Cost
    RC        Regional Center
    RCC       Radio Comnmon Carrier
    RDB       Relational Database
    RDSN      Region Digital Switched Network
    RDT       Restricted Data Transmissions
    RDT       Remote Digital Terminal
    REP       Reperatory Dialing
    REV       Revenue or Revision
    RF        Radio Frequency
    RFC       Request For Comments
    RFI       Radio Frequency Interference or Request for Information
    RFP       Request for Proposal
    RGB       Red Green Blue
    RH        Relative Humidity
    RIP       Revolutionizing International Piracy
    RIP       Routing Information Protocol
    RIS       Remote Installation Service
    RISC      Reduced Instruction Set Computer
    RISD      Reference Information Systems Development
    RJE       Remote Job Entry
    RLL       Run Lenght Limited
    RMS       Root Mean Squared
    RO        Read Only
    ROA       Return On Assets
    ROI       Return On Investment
    ROM       Read Only Memory
    ROT       Reign of Terror
    ROTL      Remote Office Test Lines
    RPC       Remote Procedure Call
    RPE       Remote Peripheral Equipment
    RPM       Reduced Parts menu
    RPM       Relentless Pursuit of Magnificience
    RPM       Revolution Per Minute or Rotations Per Minute
    RPV       Remotely Piloted Vehicle
    RQS       The Rate Quote System
    RQT       Reliability Quality Test
    RSA       Reference System Architecture
    RSAT      Reliability and System Architecture Testing
    RSE       Removable Storage Elements
    RSL       Remote Ship List
    RSS       Remote Switching System
    RSTS/E    Resource System Time Sharing/Environment
    RSTS/E    Resource Sharing Time Sharing/Extended
    RSU       Remote Switching Unit
    RSVP      Rdb Solutions Vendor Program
    RT        Real Time
    RTA       Real-Time Accelerator
    RTA       Remote Trunk Arrangement
    RTBG      Real Time Business Group
    RTD       Resistance Temperature Detector
    RTE       Remote Terminal Emulation
    RTS       Request to Send
    RX        Recieve Data
    SxS       Step-by-Step
    SxS       Strowger Switch
    S-Box     Skunk Box
    SA        Storage Array
    SABB      Storage Array Building Block
    SAC       Special Area Code
    SAFE      Security Awareness From Education
    SAIL      Stanfords Artificial Intelligence Lab
    SAM       Secure Access Multiport
    SAP       Secondary or Separate Audio Program
    SARTS     Switched Access Remote Test System
    SAS       Switched Access Services
    SAS       Single Attachment System
    SASE      Self Addressed Stamped Envelope
    SASE      System and Support Engineering
    SBA       Shipping and Billing Authorization
    SBB       System Building Block
    SBC       Single Board Computer
    SBDN      Southern Bell Data Network
    SBI       Storage Bus Interconnect
    SBR       Storage Business Review
    SBT       Software Business Technologies
    SC        Sectional Center
    SCA       Strategic Capital Acquisitions
    SCA       Swiss Cracking Association
    SCC       Specialized Common Carriers
    SCC       Switching Control Center
    SCCP      Signaling Connection Control Part
    SCCS      Switching Control Center System
    SCD       Software Chronical Digest
    SCF       Selective Call Forwarding
    SCI       Strategic Computing Initiative
    SCIT      Semi-Conductor and Interconnect Technologies
    SCM       Station Class Mark
    SCMP      System Cooperative Marketing Program
    SCO       Semiconductor Operations
    SCP       Service Control Point
    SCR       Selective Call Rejection
    SCSI      Small Computer Storage Interface
    SCSI      Small Computer Systems Interface
    SDA       Silicon Dream Artists
    SDA       Software Design Automation
    SDC       Software Distribution Center
    SDI       Strategic Defense Initiative
    SDI       Standard Disk Interconnect 
    SDI       Standard Drive Interface
    SDLC      Synchronous Data Link Control
    SDNS      Secure Data System Network
    SDS       Sales and Distribution Systems
    SE        Society Elite
    SEA       System Enhancement Associates
    SEE       Systems Equipment Engineering
    SEG       Semiconductor Engineering Organization
    SF        Single Frequency               
    SF        Supervision Control Frequency
    SFE       Secure Front End
    SFI       Society for the Freedom of Information
    SGA       Sysops Guild Association
    SHA       Swedish Hackers Association
    SHIBNI    Shipped But Not Invoiced
    SIA       Semiconductor Industry Association
    SID       Satanic Incarnate of Doom
    SIDH      System Identification Home
    SIG       Special Interest Group
    SIM       Service Industry Marketing
    SIMM      Single Inline Memory Module
    SIT       Special Information Tones
    SKISM     Smart Kids Into Sick Methods
    SLA       Service Level Agreement
    SLAC      Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory
    SLC       Service Level Contract or Software License Configurator
    SLE       Screen List Editing
    SLIC      Subscriber Line Interface Card
    SLIP      Serial Line Internet Protocol
    SLS       Storage Library System
    SLU       Serial Line Unit
    SMDI      Storage Module Disk Interconnect
    SMDS      Switched Multi-Megabit Data Service
    SME       Society of Manufacturing Engineering
    SMI       System Management Interrupt
    SMP       Symmetrical Multi-Processing
    SMS       Self-maintenance Services
    SMS       Station Management System
    SMU       Strategic Marketing Unit
    SNA       System Network Architecture
    SNMP      Simple Network Management Protocol
    SNPC      Software New Products Committee
    SO        System Option
    SOC       Systems and Option Catalog
    SOCC      Standard Optical Cable Code
    SOE       Standards of Excellence
    SOE       Standrard Operating Environment
    SONDS     Small Office Network Data System
    SONET     Synchronous Optical Network
    SOP       Standard Operating Procedure
    SOP       Sum of the Pieces
    SOST      Special Operator Service Treatment
    SoT       The Sea of Tranquility
    SP        Sharp Private
    SPA       Software Publishers Association
    SPAN      Space Physics Analysis Network
    SPC       Stored Program Control
    SPCSS     Stored Program Control Switching System
    SPD       Software Product Description
    SPDA      Supplier Data Program                                               
    SPG       Software Product Group
    SPI       Safeguarding Proprietary Information
    SPI       Self-Paced Instruction
    SPM       Software Performance Montior
    SPP       Ship Plan
    SPS       Self Preservation Society
    SPS       Software Product Services
    SQL       Structural Query Language
    SQM       Software Quality Mangement
    SRC       System Resource Center
    SRG       Strategic Relations Group
    SRTC      Service Right-to-Copy
    SS        Secret Service
    SS        Signaling System
    SS        Special Service
    SS        Standard System
    SSAN      Social Security Account Number
    SSAS      Station Signaling and Announcement System 
    SSB       Software Supply Business
    SSD       Solid State Disk
    SSG       Software Systems Group
    SSG       Strategic Studies Group
    SSG       Suburban Survival Guide
    SSL       Standard Security Label
    SSN       Social Security Number
    SSODB     Secret Society of Dark Birds
    SSP       Switching Service Points
    SSS       Software Support Services
    SSS       Strowger Switching System
    STAR      Systems and Technology Applications Requirements
    STD       Subscriber Trunk Dialing
    STG       Strategic Technologies Group
    STP       Signal Transfer Point
    STS       Synchronous Transport Signal
    SUFF      Suffix
    SUNet     Stanford University Network
    SVGA      Super Video Graphics Array
    SWG       Sub Working Group
    SWIFT     Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications
    SWM       Semiconductor Worldwide Management
    SWS       Software Services
    SYS       System
    TAC       Terminal Access Circuit
    TAMU      Texas A&M University
    TAN       Telecomm and Networks
    TANJ      There Ain't No Justice
    TAP       Technological Assistance Party
    TAP       Trans-Atlantic Project  
    TAS       Telephone Answering Service
    TAS       The Apostle Syndicate
    TASI      Time Assignment Speech Interpolation
    TBBS      The Bread Board System
    TBG       Telecomm Business Group
    TBU       Terminals Business Unit
    TC        Toll Center
    TC        Transfer Cost
    T's & C's Terms and Conditions
    T&C       Time and Charge
    TCAP      Transaction Capabilities ApplicationPart
    TCAP      Telecommunications Alarm Surveillance
    TCC       Technical Consulting Center
    TCE       The Cutting Edge
    TCIF      Telecommunications Industry Forum
    TCP       Transmission Control Protocol
    TCS       The Criminal Syndicate (The Crime Syndicate)
    TDAS      Traffic Data Administration System
    TDCC      Transport Data Coordinating Committee
    TDM       Time Division Multiplexing
    TDMS      Terminal Data Management System
    TDT       The Dream Team
    TFBS      The Fucking Boy Scouts
    TFT       Thin Film Transistor
    TGITM     The Ghost In The Machine
    TGL       Third Generation Language (3GL)
    TH        Trouble History
    THC       The Hellfire Club
    THENET    Texas Higher Education Network
    THG       The Humble Guys
    THP       The Hill People
    TI        Texas Intruments
    TIDE      Traffic Information Distributor & Editor
    TIS       Technical Information Systems
    TKK       The Kiwi Killers
    TLB       TransLAN Bridge
    TMC       Telemarketing Communications
    TMC       The Movie Channel
    TMSCP     Tape Mass Storage Control Protocol
    TNDS      Total Network Data System
    TNO       The New Order
    TNS       Tolmes News Service
    TOAO      The One and Only
    TOEM      Technical Original Equipment Manufacturer
    TOP       Technical Office Protocol or 
    TOP       Technology and Organizational Performance
    TOPS      Tapes and Optical Products
    TP        Toll Point
    TP        Transaction Processing
    TPC       Transaction Processiong Performance Council
    TPC       The Phoney Coders
    TPC       Two Phase Commit
    TPI       Tracks Per Inch
    TPL       Traditional Product Line
    TPS       Transactions Per Second
    TQC       Total Quality Control
    TREAT     Trouble Report Evaluation and Analysis Tool
    TRI       The Remote Informer
    TRIN      Trinity
    TRS       The RapeWare Syndicate
    TRSI      The Red Sector Inc
    TRWS      The Rape Ware Syndicate
    TS        Toxic Shock
    TSAN      The Sysops Association Network
    TSAN      The Sysop's Area Network
    TSAN      Tri-State Area Sysop's Network
    TSC       Telecommunications Security Council
    TSG       Telecommunications Systems Group
    TSG       Timing Signal Generator
    TSN       Terminal Switching Network
    TSO       Technical Services Organization
    TSP       Technology Strategy and Planning
    TSPS      Traffic Service Position System
    TSR       The Syndicate Report
    TTAP      Trust Technology Assessment Program
    TTL       Transistor-to-Transistor Logic
    TTM       Time to Market
    TUFF      The Underground Fone Foundation
    TUGOS     The United Guild Of Sysops
    TUIMG     Telecom/Utilities Industry Marketing Group
    TV-H      TV Line
    TV-V      TV Frame
    TWA       The Warez Alliance
    TWCB      The Whacko Cracko Brothers
    TWX       Telex II  
    TX        Transmit Data 
    UAA       United Amarchists of America
    UAE       Unrecoverable Application Error
    UART      Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
    UC        United Couriers
    UCF       Underground Computing Foundation
    UCF       Untouchable Cracking Force
    UCS       Uniform Communication Standard
    UDC       Universal Digital Channel
    UDP       User Datagram Protocol
    UDVM      Universal Data Voice Multiplexer
    UFD       User Friendly Diagnostics
    UIF       United Ignorance Front
    ULTRA     Underground Legion of Terroristic Research Activists
    UN        United Nations
    UNN       Urine Nation News
    UOF       Unusual Order Form
    UPC       Utility Port Conditioner
    UPI       United Phreaker's Incorporated
    UPS       Uninterruptible Power Supply
    UPS       Uninterruptible Power System
    UPS       United Pirate Syndicate
    URN       Underground Rip-Off Network
    USA       United Software Association
    USA/FLT   United Software Association/Fairlight
    USA       United States Alliance (Amiga Group)
    USC       User Steering Committee
    USCIC     U.S. Country Information Center
    USDN      United States Digital Network
    USFDC     U.S. Financial Data Center
    USIBC     U.S. Integrated Business Center
    USMP      U.S. Manufacturing Planning
    USPL      U.S. Price List
    USR       USRobotics
    UTG       United Traders of Germany
    UTMC      United Technologies Microelectronics Center  
    UUCP      Unix to Unix Copy Program
    UUT       User to User Signaling
    UVC       Universal Voice Channel
    UXU       Underground Experts United
    VAN       Value Added Network
    VAR       Value Added Reseller
    VAX       Virtual Address Extension
    VAXft     VAX Fault Tolerant
    VCPI      Virtual Control Program Interface
    VD        Video Dox
    VDT       Visual Display Terminal
    VDU       Visual Display Unit
    VESA      Video Electronics Standards Association
    VFP       Vertical Forms Printing
    VFU       Vertical Forms Unit
    VG        Voice Grade
    VGA       Video Graphics Array
    VGB       Voice Grade Budget
    VIA       Vax Information Architecture
    VIN       Vehicle Identification Number
    VIPS      Video Image Printer Systems
    VIS       Video Information System
    VLSI      Very Large Scale Integration
    VMB       Voice Mail Box
    VMS       Voice Message System
    VMS       Virtual Memory System
    VOLM      Volume
    VOM       Volt Ohm Meter
    VPA       VAX Performance Advisor
    VPL       Visual Programming Language
    VPS       Voice Processing System
    VR        Virtual Reality
    VRAM      Video Random Access Memory
    VT        Video Terminal
    VTX       Videotex
    VUIT      Visual User Interface Tool
    VUP       Vax Unit of Processsing
    WACS      Western and Central States
    WAN       Wide Area Network
    WASP      Warriors Against Software Protection
    WATS      Wide Area Telecommunications Service
    WATS      Wide Area Telephone Service
    WCU       Water Cooling Unit
    WDCS      Wideband Digital Cross-Connect System
    WDM       Wavelength Division MultiPlexing
    WES       Western Electronics Switching
    WINS      Warehouse Information Network Standards
    WIP       Work In Process
    WIP       Workcenter Information Package
    WIPO      World Intellectual Property Organization
    WORM      Write Once Read Many
    WPE       World Pirate Echo
    WPS       Word Processing Software
    WVIEW     World View Magazine
    WW        Worldwide
    WYSIWYG   What You See Is What You Get
    XBAR      CrossBar
    XBT       Crossbar Tandem
    XCOST     Transfer Cost
    XFMC      Cross Functional Management Committee
    XGA       Extended Graphics Array
    XNS       Xerox Network Systems
    XSV       Transfer Cost System Value
    XTC       Extended Test Controller
    YAM       Youngster's Against McAfee
    YAM       Youths Against McAfee

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How to Take Control of your Local IBM VM/370 System by Another Hacker of the Elite Phreakers’ Club

**************************************
*                                    *
*   How to take control of your      *
*     local IBM VM/370 system        *
*                                    *
*    Written by Another Hacker       *
*    ————————-       *
*     The *Elite* Phreakers Club     *
*                                    *
**************************************

Preface
^^^^^^^

This file represents and shows you how to gain access of the neighborhood
IBM VM/370 Mainframe with tricks and tips it could save you hours of HELP
file access in a few easy to learn lines.

First
Connection to a IBM VM/370 is easy!!. After connection (by modem or
terminal in half duplex if acceptable) type:

(C/R) B
or
PB
or
SP

if it is a VM/370
it should come back with:

VM/370 online

then hit (C/R) or Space Bar
a dot (.) should appear.  This is the
main command prompt.

.
now
you must logon

Format:
.LOG (id) (password)
or
.LOG (id)

ex:
.LOG OPERATOR SYSTEM
or
.LOG OPERATOR
ENTER PASSWORD
SYSTEM

Valid VM accounts built into the machine by IBM are:

OPERATOR     (for Operator status!)
VMBACKUP     (memory backup account)
PVM
BATCH1

Operator status IS available via the dial-up with NO restrictions!! after
entering  your account (ID) the password can only be 8 characters maximum
then you are in.

Once on you are in CMS status you should remain in CMS status to gain full
appreciation of  the IBM system.To check to see what status you are in hit
(C/R) alone after the dot (.)

Ex:

.CMS
.

or

.CP
.

etc…

(Please note: CMS=Conversational Monitoring System)

and

(CP=Control Program. You don’t want to be in this state type BEGIN)

if for some reason you witness a abnormal logon type

BEGIN

it will then reset your account and put you back into the normal mode of the
machine

(Note: all instructions are meant to be executed only in the CMS environment)

Q NAMES

lists useraccounts presently logged on

Q ALL

lists what/who owns the account memory etc..

LISTFILE

lists the current directory of the account

TYPE (filename)

Executes a CMS file similar to EXEC command.

for a help file listing type

HELP CMS

and

LOGOFF

logs you off the VM system

Here is a small list of VM systems
to experiment with:

on Telenet
==========

C 20120    C 21222
C 21253    C 51647

That’s all dudes and hack on!

IBM VM/370 Hacking Doc’s brought to you by

%%%%> Another Hacker <%%%%



Hacking COSMOS Part 2 by Lex Luthor and the Legion of Doom

   The SYSOP of OSUNY wishes to thank Pirate-80 (304)-744-2253 for the
contribution of this file

	       $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
	       $				    $
	       $	    LEX LUTHOR		    $
	       $	       AND		    $
	       $    THE LEGION OF DOOM/HACKERS	    $
	       $	    PRESENT:		    $
	       $       HACKING COSMOS PART 2	    $
	       $	INTERMEDIATE COURSE	    $
	       $				    $
	       $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
	       $				    $
	       $ IN PART II WE WILL EXPLAIN HOW TO  $
	       $ FIND OUT VARIOUS INFORMATION ABOUT $
	       $ A TELEPHONE NUMBER.  ALSO, FILES,  $
	       $ PATHS AND DIRECTORIES WILL BE	    $
	       $ EXPLAINED.			    $
	       $				    $
	       $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
	       $  (C)	 WRITTEN 23-SEPT-84	    $
	       $  L.O.D. RECURSIVE SYSTEMS INC.     $
	       $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

   I WOULD LIKE TO CORRECT A MISTAKE I MADE IN PART 1, I GOT A LITTLE CARRIED
AWAY WITH THE CAPABILTIES OF COSMOS.  YOU CANNOT ENTER SOMEONES NAME AND GET
THIER PHONE #.	WHAT COSMOS IS PRIMARILY USED FOR IS:  TO ASSIGN CENTRAL OFFICE
EQUIPMENT TO CABLE PAIRS, AND TELEPHONE NUMBERS.  IT MAINTAINS RECORDS OF ALL
RELEVENT FACILITIES INCLUDING SUBSCRIBE PROCESS SERVICE AND WORK ORDERS, AND IT
PRODUCES BULK ASSIGNMENTS FOR OFFICE ADDITIONS AND REARRANGEMENTS.  IN SHORT,
IT AUTOMATES THE FRAME IN YOUR CENTRAL OFFICE.	IT PRINTS LISTS AT THE
BEGGINING OF EACH DAY, TELLING WHAT NUMBERS TO CONNECT, AND DISCONNECT.  ALSO,
TO KEEP TRACK OF EVERYTHING GOING ON IN THE FRAME.

HACKING ACCTS:
------- ------

   MOST COSMOS SYSTEMS RUN ON EITHER A PDP 11/45 OR 11/70 MADE BY DEC, AND CAN
USUALLY HANDLE UP TO 96 TERMINALS WHICH ARE EITHER HARD-WIRED, OR REMOTLY DIAL
INTO THE SYSTEM.  IF YOU DON'T KNOW YOUR LOCAL COSMOS DIAL-UP OR DON'T HAVE AN
ACCOUNT YOU CAN PROBABLY BULLSHIT 1 OUT OF YOUR TEST BOARD, FRAME, OR SWITCH.
THEY ALL SHOULD HAVE THE DIAL-UP, PASSWORD AND WIRECENTER IN YOUR AREA.  TELL
THEM YOU ARE JOE COMOSOLO FROM THE COSMOS DATA CENTER AND YOUV'E NOTICED
ILLEGAL ACCESS ATTEMPTS.  ASK THEM WHO IS HAVING THE PROBLEM AND ASK THEM FOR
AN ACCOUNT/PASSWORD TO DO AN ON-LINE CHECK TO SEE WHAT THE PROBLEM IS.

   TYPICAL COSMOS ACCTS ARE:  MF02, PA52, DP08, ETC.  THOSE 2 LETTER PREFIXES
IN THE BEGGINING OF THE ACCT STAND FOR:

PA- LOOP ASSIGNMENT CENTER.
DA- NETWORK ADMIN CENTER.
RS- REPAIR SERVICE.
MF- FRAME AND TOLL.
FC- FRAME CONTROL CENTER.
GA- GENERAL INQUIRIES.
DC- DATA CONVERSION.
NT- NTEC.
DP- DISPATCH.
CI- CIC.

   THE MORE IMPORTANT ACCOUNTS WHICH ARE USED FOR SERVICE ORDER ENTRY ARE, IN
ORDER OF IMPORTANCE:

ROOT
SYS
BIN
PREOP
COSMOS

   COSMOS IS THE ACCOUNT THAT THE TEST BOARD USES, AND IS NOW MAINLY FOUND ON
THE OLDER VERSIONS OF THE COSNIX OPERATING SYSTEM.  THE TYPICAL COSMOS
PASSWORDS ARE LIKE:  WETEST, MILK48, RINGIT.  I HAVE KNOWN PEOPLE TO GUESS A
PASS WHICH WAS A COLOR OR AN ANMID OTHER ACCOUNT NAMES AND DIFFERENT COLORS AND
GOT OTHER PW'S, BUT IT IS VERY UNLIKELY THAT YOU WILL GUESS A PW.  SOME
ACCOUNTS DON'T HAVE PASSWORDS BUT YOU WILL RARELY GET THAT LUCKY.  SOMETIMES
ALL YOU NEED IS THE DIAL-UP TO GET IN.	WHOEVER WAS LAST ON FORGOT TO HIT
CTRL-Y TO LOG OFF, AND JUST HUNG UP, SO WHEN YOU CALL, YOU GET THE WC% SITTING
THERE!	I HATE TO HAVE TO RELY ON THIS METHOD OF ENTRY, AND PREFER HAVING AN
ACCOUNT/PASSWORD.  WELL, YOU ARE NOW IN, AND CAN DO SOME OF THE THINGS
EXPLAINED IN THIS FILE.

TRANSACTION CODES:
----------- ------

   ONCE YOU LOG IN YOU SHOULD GET THE PROMPT OF WC% WHERE WC IS THE WIRE CENTER
AND % INDICATES THAT THE SYSTEM IS ON-LINE.  FROM THAT PROMPT, YOU CAN TYPE
CERTAIN COMMANDS THAT WILL ENABLE YOU TO DO DIFFERENT THINGS.  THE ISH OR INQ
COMMANDS (INQUIRE ABOUT A CIRCUIT) WILL PRINT OUT VARIOUS INFORMATION ABOUT THE
NUMBER YOU DO IT TO.  FROM THE PROMPT, TYPE ISH OR INQ <C/R>.  YOU WILL THEN
HAVE TO TYPE AN H WHICH MEANS HUNT THEN TN WHICH IS THE TELEPHONE NUMBER
935-2481 AND THE SYSTEM WILL PRINT AN UNDERSCORE "-".  YOU THEN TYPE AN "."
AND.........

WC% ISH
H TN 935-2481
-.

TN 935-2481
[NOTE: Some garbage occured in the transfer of this file and the]
[lost line or two will be replaced as soon as possible]
ST  WK PD   DATE 11-02-82
**ORD F24030161451    DD 01-20-84    FDD 01-20-84

LOC WC1010    LOC W10-06L01/3/12

HUNT SEQUENCE FOR TN 935-2481
TN 935-2482  TN 935-2484

** ISH COMPLETED 09-24-84

WC%

HERE IS AN EXPLANATION OF WHAT WAS JUST PRINTED OUT ABOUT THE NUMBER 935-2481:

LINE 1 --> TN 935-2481 IS THE TELEPHONE NUMBER THAT YOU INQUIRED ABOUT.

LINE 2 --> ST  WK PD	DATE 07-16-78	TYPE B ST MEANS STATUS, WK PD IS THE
WORK PERIOD, THE DATE FOLLOWING IS WHEN THE TN 935-2481 WAS FIRST INSTALLED,
AND TYPE  SOMETIMES ABBREVIATED AS TT IS THE TELEPHONE NUMBER TYPE, WHERE B IS
A POTS (PERSONAL NUMBER) WITH HUNTING.	HUNTING MEANS THAT WHEN THE NUMBER
935-2481 IS BUSY, THE CALL WILL BE FORWARDED AUTOMATTHE NEXT NUMBER UNTIL IT
FINDS AN IDLE LINE.  THE TT TYPE COULD BE ANY ONE OF THE FOLLOWING:

B  --  POTS HUNTING.
C  --  COIN.
G  -- COMPLEX SERVICES, E.G., DIRECT INWARD DIALING, RADIO COMMON CARRIER, ETC.
O  -- OFFICIAL (COMPANY).
Q  -- CENTREX, WATS, LARGE PBX'S.
X -- POTS NON-HUNTING.

LINE 3 --> **ORD F24030161451 DD 01-20-84 FDD 01-20-84 ORD STANDS FOR SERVICE
OR WORK ORDER WHICH HAS A MAXIMUM OF 20 ALPHANUMERIC CHARACTERS.  DD IS THE DUE
DATE, AND FDD IS THE FRAME DUE DATE, WHICH I ASSUME IS/WAS THE LAST TIME THE
LINE WAS WORKED ON.

LINE 4 --> OE 003-601-403 OE STANDS FOR OPERATING EXCHANGE WHICH, IN THIS CASE
IS A #1ESS.  CHECK HACKING COSMOS PART III FOR THE FORMATS OF OPERATING
EXCHANGES.  BY SEEING WHAT FORMAT THE OE IS, YOU CAN TELL WHAT TYPE OF CO THE
NUMBER IS SERVED BY.

LINE 5 --> ST WK PD DATE 07-16-78 CS 1FR US 1FR FEA RNNL ST, WK, PD WERE ALL
EXPLAINED IN LINE 2, CS IS THE CUSTOMER CLASS OF SERVICE, 1FR STANDS FOR FLAT
RATE.  US IS THE USOC (UNIFORM SERVICE ORDER CODE) WHICH ARE IDENTIFICATION
CODES USED ON SERVICE ORDERS AND EQUIPMENT RECORDS TO IDENTIFY ITEMS OF SERVICE
OR EQUIPMENT.  EACH CODE CONISISTS OF 3 OR 5 CHARACTERS, EACH ONE BEING EITHER
A LETTER OR A NUMBER.  FEA RNNL STANDS FOR CUSTOMER FEATURES.  R = ROTARY, N =
NON-SLEEVE, N = NON-ESSENTIAL, AND L = LOOP STARTED.  THE TYPICAL TYPE OF
LINEUND CH.

LINE 6 --> (REPEAT OF LINE 3)

LINE 7 --> LOC WC1014	LOC 213-03L14/4-04 LOC IS THE LOCATION.

LINE 8 --> CP  45-1262 CP IS

LINES 9-11 --> (HAVE BEEN PREVIOUSLY EXPLAINED.)

LINE 12 --> HUNT SEQUENCE FOR TN 935-2481 TN 935-2482 TN 935-2484 IER, WHEN
935-2481 IS BUSY, IT WILL HUNT TO 935-2482 IF THAT IS BUSY, IT WILL GOTO 2483
AND SO ON.

YOU CAN ALSO INQUIRE UPON THE CABLE PAIR, BY:

WC% ISH
H CP 45-1262
-.

THE INFORMATION PRINTED WILL BE SIMILAR TO WHAT WAS PRINTED ABOUT THE TN.

PATHS, FILES AND DIRECTORIES:
------ ----- --- ------------

IF YOU HAVE A SEMI-PRIVELEDGED ACCT., TYPE LS /* TO SEE WHAT FILES YOU WILL
PROBABLY SEE SOMETHING SIMILAR TO:

/BIN:	    /ETC:	    /USR:
CP	    COSNIX	    BIN
BATE	    INIT	    COSMOS
ECHO	    LINES	    PREOP
LCASE	    PASSWD	    SO
MOTD	    SYSGEN	    SYS
STAT	    UIDS	    TMP

IN ACTUALITY, THESE DIRECTORIES/FILES WILL BE IN "SINGLE FILE", I JUST PUT THEM
IN 3 COLUMNS TO SAVE SPACE/PAPER.

TO RUN A PROGRAM/PROCESS JUST TYPE THE FILENAME AT THE WC% PROMT.  IF YOU WANT
TO VIEW A FILE IN A DIRECTORY, IN THIS CASE WE WILL USE THE /BIN DIRECTORY, YOU
WOULD TYPE:

WC% CD /BIN

YOU FIRST CONNECT TO THE DIRECTORY THEN TO PRINT THE FILE MOTD WHICH STANDS FOR
MESSAGE OF THE DAY, TYPE:

WC% PR /MOTD

FRI APR. 10, 1984  11:37:16 MOTD  PAGE 1

ATTN: ALL USERS MAKE SURE YOU LOG OUT PROPERLY THANK YOU

SOME FILES MAY HAVE AN "!" APPENDED TO THE END OF THEM ON THE OLDER VERSIONS D
BE TEXT FILES AND YOU SHOULD HAVE NO PROBLEM PRINTING THEM.  OTHER FILES MAY BE
ENCRYPTED, OR YOU MISTOOK A FILE FOR A PROGRAM AND ALL YOU GET IS GARBAGE.

IF YOU DO NOT KNOW WHAT DIRECTORY A FILE YOU ARE LOOKING FOR IS IN USE THE FIND
HOWN BELOW, PERMIT IS WHAT WE ARE LOOKING FOR:

WC% FIND PERMIT
.   /DEV/PERMIT

YOU CAN EITHER CONNECT TO THE /DEV DIRECTORY THEN PRINT THE FILE OR TYPE:

WC% PR /DEV/PERMIT

THE MOST LOOKED UP FILE WOULD PROBABLY BE THE PASSWD FILE.

WC% CAT /ETC/PASSWD

SYS:YXORBMBX:1::/USR/SYS:
BIN:TMMZAKZF:3::/BIN:
PREOP::8::/USR/PREOP:
COSMOS:LEORVVB4:39::/USR/TMP:/BIN/PERMIT
PA02:ZSKD4ET:40::/USR/TMP:/BIN/PERMIT

99 TIMES OUT OF 100 THE PASSWORDS WILL BE ENCRYPTED.  NOTICE THAT THERE ARE 2
COLONS AFTER THE PREOP ACCOUNT, THAT MEANS THAT THERE IS NO PASSWORD, SO AFTER
ENTERING PREOP AT THE ;LOGIN:  IT WILL JUMP TO WC?  THEN IF IT IS A VALID WC,
YOU WILL GET IN.  THE WAY COSMOS CHECKS TO SEE IF THE PASS IS VALID IS:  AFTER
YOU ENTER YOUR ACCOUNT, AND PASSWORD, THE SYSTEM ENCRYPTS THE PW YOU JUST
TYPED,AND COMPARES IT TO THE ENCRYPTED PWD FILE.  IF IT IS CORRECT, YOU WILL BE
IN, IF NOT, INVALID LOGIN.

IN PART 3 I WILL HAVE THE PREFIX, FORMATS AND CODE VALUES CHART WHICH GIVES ALL
THE NEEDED DEFINITIONS OF THE ABBREVIATIONS THAT THE SYSTEM PRINTS OUT WHEN
PERFORMING MOST TRANSACTIONS.

LEX LUTHOR LEGION OF DOOM! LEGION OF HACKERS

ACKLOWLEDGEMENTS:
-----------------

SHARP RAZOR THE WARLOCK

AND LAST BUT NOT LEAST, I WOULD LIKE TO THANK SOUTHERN BELL FOR LETTING ME USE
THIER COSMOS FACILITIES TO OBTAIN THE	INFORMATION NEEDED TO WRITE THIS PHILE
Call The Works BBS - 1600+ Textfiles! - [914]/238-8195 - 300/1200 - Always Open


United States General Accounting Office Report: Computer Security..Hackers Penetrate DoD Systems

 
                         United States General Accounting Office
  _____________________________________________________________________________
  GAO                    Testimony

                      Before the Subcommittee on Government Information and
                      Regulation, Committee on Governmental Affairs,
                      United States Senate

________________________________________________________________________
  For Release            COMPUTER
  on Delivery            SECURITY
  Expected at
  1:00 p.m. EST
  Wednesday,
  November 20, 1991

                         Hackers Penetrate DOD
                         Computer Systems

                         Statement of
                         Jack L. Brock, Jr. Director
                         Government Information and Financial Management
                         Information Management and Technology Division

  GAO/T-IMTEC-92-5
_____________________________________________________________________

          Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee:

          I am pleased to participate in the Subcommittee's hearings on
          computer security.  At your request, our work focused on hacker
          intrusions into Department of Defense (DOD) unclassified,
          sensitive computer systems during Operation Desert Storm/Shield.
          My testimony today is based on our review of intrusions by a
          group of Dutch hackers into Army, Navy, and Air Force computer
          systems.  In particular, we conducted a detailed review of the
          hacker intrusions and system administration responsibilities at
          three DOD sites.  While our focus was on unclassified, sensitive
          systems, some of the systems penetrated by this group of hackers
          did not contain sensitive information.

          The government faces increased levels of risk for information
          security because of greater network use and computer literacy,
          and greater dependency on information technology overall.  For
          years hackers have been exploiting security weaknesses of systems
          attached to the Internet--an unclassified network composed of
          over 5,000 smaller networks nationwide and overseas and used
          primarily by government and academic researchers.  Their
          techniques have been publicized in hacker bulletin boards and
          magazines, and even in a bestseller, The Cuckoo's Egg written by
          Clifford Stoll.  Hackers, however, continue to successfully
          exploit these security weaknesses and undermine the integrity and
          confidentiality of sensitive government information.

          Between April 1990 and May 1991, computer systems at 34 DOD sites
          attached to the Internet were successfully penetrated by foreign
          hackers.  The hackers exploited well-known security weaknesses--
          many of which were exploited in the past by other hacker groups.
          These weaknesses persist because of inadequate attention to
          computer security, such as password management, and the lack of
          technical expertise on the part of some system administrators--
          persons responsible for the technical management of the system.

          DUTCH HACKERS PENETRATE
          -----------------------
          DOD COMPUTER SYSTEMS
          --------------------
          Between April 1990 and May 1991, computer hackers from the
          Netherlands penetrated 34 DOD sites.  DOD officials, however, are
          still unable to determine the full scope of the problem because
          security measures for identifying intrusions are frequently
          lacking.  At many of the sites, the hackers had access to
          unclassified, sensitive information on such topics as (1)
          military personnel--personnel performance reports, travel
          information, and personnel reductions; (2) logistics--
          descriptions of the type and quantity of equipment being moved;
          and (3) weapons systems development data.

          Although such information is unclassified, it can be highly
          sensitive, particularly during times of international conflict.
          For example, information from at least one system, which was

          successfully penetrated at several sites, directly supported
          Operation Desert Storm/Shield.  In addition, according to one DOD
          official, personnel information can be used to target employees
          who may be willing to sell classified information.  Further, some
          DOD and government officials have expressed concern that the
          aggregation of unclassified, sensitive information could result
          in the compromise of classified information.

          Hackers Exploit Well-Known
          --------------------------
          Security Weaknesses
          -------------------
          The hackers generally gained access to the DOD computer systems
          by travelling through several networks and computer systems.
          Using commercial long-distance services, such as Tymnet, the
          hackers weaved their way on the Internet through university,
          government, and commercial systems, often using these sites as
          platforms to enter military sites.

          The hackers then exploited various security weaknesses to gain
          access into military sites.  The most common weaknesses included
          (1) accounts with easily guessed passwords or no passwords, (2)
          well-known security holes in computer operating systems, and (3)
          vendor-supplied accounts--privileged accounts with well-known
          passwords or no passwords at all that are used for system
          operation and maintenance.  Once the hackers had access to a
          computer at a given site, access to other computers at that site
          was relatively easy because the computers were often configured
          to trust one another.

          At several sites the hackers exploited a Trivial File Transfer
          Protocol#1 (TFTP).  Some versions of this program had a well-
          known security hole that allowed users on the Internet to access
          a file containing encrypted passwords without logging into the
          system.  Once the hackers accessed the password file, they (1)
          probed for accounts with no passwords or accounts where the
          username and password were identical, or (2) downloaded the
          password file to another computer and ran a password cracking
          program--a program that matches words found in the dictionary
          against the encrypted password file.  Finally, the hackers
          entered the system, using an authorized account and password, and
          were granted the same privileges as the authorized user.

          At two of the sites we visited the hackers were able to enter the
          systems because vendor-supplied accounts were left on the system
          with a well-known password or with no password at all.  Operating
          systems and software are often delivered to users with certain
          accounts necessary for system operation.  When delivered, these

          _________________________________________________________________
          1 TFTP is a file transfer program that permits the copying of
          files without logging in.

                                          3

          accounts--some of which include system administrator privileges
          that allow them to do anything on the system without restriction-
          -are often unprotected or are protected with known passwords, and
          are therefore vulnerable until the password is changed.

          Hackers Established
          -------------------
          Methods For Reentry
          -------------------
          The majority of the hackers' activities appeared to be aimed at
          gaining access to DOD computer systems and then establishing
          methods for later entry.  In many of the intrusions, the hackers
          modified the system to obtain system administrator privileges and
          to create new privileged accounts.  For example, at some sites
          where the hacker entered the system using a vendor-supplied
          password, the hackers ran a program that elevated the privileges
          of the account and then erased evidence of the intrusion by
          removing the program.  The hackers then created new privileged
          accounts with passwords known only to them and that blended in
          with the sites' naming conventions, making detection more
          difficult.

          While there was little evidence that the hackers destroyed
          information, in several instances the hackers modified and copied
          military information.  In a few cases, the hackers stored this
          information at major U.S. universities.  They modified system
          logs to avoid detection and to remove traces of their activities.
          The hackers also frequently browsed directories and read
          electronic messages.  In a few cases, they searched these
          messages for such key words as military, nuclear, weapons,
          missile, Desert Shield, and Desert Storm.

          Agencies' Response
          ------------------
          to the Incidents
          ----------------
          In most cases, system administrators did not identify the
          intrusion, but were instead notified of the intrusion by
          university, contractor, or DOD officials.  Once the system
          administrators were notified, they usually secured their system--
          such as changing the password of a vendor-supplied account.  In a
          few cases, however, the sites left the vulnerability open
          temporarily in an effort to determine the intruder's identity.
          At one site we visited where this was done, the intruders' access
          to sensitive information was contained, and coordinated with law
          enforcement agencies.

          Only one of the three military services had written procedures
          for incident handling prior to the intrusions.  Since the
          intrusions, however, the other two services have established
          written procedures.  Despite the lack of procedures, at two of
          the sites we visited security personnel prepared an incident

                                          4

          report after they were notified about the intrusion.   In
          addition, one site we visited established computer hacker
          reporting procedures for their organization.  They also included
          security tips, such as changing default passwords, using
          randomly-selected passwords, and maintaining audit trails.

          HACKER INTRUSIONS HIGHLIGHT
          ---------------------------
          INADEQUATE ATTENTION TO
          -----------------------
          COMPUTER SECURITY
          -----------------
          The security weaknesses that permitted the intrusions and
          prevented their timely discovery highlight DOD's inadequate
          attention to computer security.  Poor password management,
          failure to maintain and review audit trails, and inadequate
          computer security training all contributed to the intrusions.

          DOD directives and military service regulations and instructions
          require both adequate computer security training for those
          responsible for systems, and audit trails--records of system
          activities--that are reviewed periodically and detailed enough to
          determine the cause or magnitude of compromise.  In addition, the
          military services require password management procedures.  The
          intrusions, however, indicate that these requirements were not
          always followed.

          Poor password management--easily-guessed passwords and vendor-
          supplied accounts whose password had not been changed--was the
          most commonly exploited weakness contributing to the intrusions,
          including those at each of the sites we visited.   At one site we
          visited the hacker exploited a vendor-supplied account, left on
          the system without a password, that in turn provided system
          administrator privileges.

          In addition, officials also noted that failure to maintain or
          periodically review audit trails was a key reason why most system
          administrators were unable to detect the intrusions or determine
          how long their system had been compromised.  For example, few of
          the 34 sites whose systems were penetrated were able to identify
          or verify the intrusions.

          Several officials stated that system administration duties are
          generally part-time duties and that administrators frequently
          have little computer security background or training.  At one
          site, for example, the system administrator had little knowledge
          of computers and system administrator responsibilities.  In
          addition, with the exception of a brief overview of computer
          security as part of the introductory training for the system, the
          system administrator had not received any computer security
          training.  Moreover, after the intrusion occurred, the newly
          appointed system administrator did not receive any additional

                                          5

          computer security training and did not know the proper security
          reporting chain.

          The security weaknesses that I have described here today have
          been and continue to be exploited by various hacker groups.  Two
          years ago we issued a report, Computer Security:  Virus
          Highlights Need for Improved Internet Management, (GAO/IMTEC-89-
          57), highlighting some of the same weaknesses--poor password
          management and system administrators who lacked the technical
          expertise to deal with security problems--that we discussed here
          today.  In addition, numerous Computer Emergency Response Team
          (CERT) security advisories, available to anyone on the Internet,
          have addressed these weaknesses.  Yet, despite these warnings,
          these security weaknesses continue to exist.  Without the proper
          resources and attention, these weaknesses will continue to exist
          and be exploited, thus undermining the integrity and
          confidentiality of government information.

          This concludes my remarks.  I will now answer any questions you
          or members of the Subcommittee may have concerning these issues.

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