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Backdoor in Linksys and Netgear routers


backdoor-linksys copy

This news could hurt the reputation of both companies. A passionate (and obviously very competent) reverse-engineer from France, Eloi Vanderbeken forgot the admin interface password of his router and so he just wanted to have fun accessing the administration side and that’s when he discovered a backdoor in his Linksys WAG200G router. After publishing this discovery on Github, other users have confirmed its existence in at least three other routers:

  • Netgear DM111Pv2
  • Linksys WAG320N
  • Linksys WAG54G2

Other routers are suspected of providing equal opportunity to obtain the administrator password through the 32764 port, but it has not yet been confirmed:

  • Netgear DG934
  • Netgear DG834
  • Netgear WPNT834
  • Netgear DG834G
  • Netgear WG602
  • Netgear WGR614
  • Netgear DGN2000
  • Linksys WAG120N
  • Linksys WAG160N
  • Linksys WRVS4400N

The backdoor listens for communications sent to port 32764 specifically and answers a series of 13 numbered commands that can be ordered by sending a specific message. It is therefore possible to obtain the complete remote configuration of the router, the administrator password or even restore default settings.

Hacking Rampart Systems Part 1 (cont)

RUNS THE TRUNK FILE COMPILER
(SHOULD BE RUN ONLY AFTER RUNNING ‘CIP’
– TYPE ‘HELP DATABASES’ FOR A EXPLA-
NATION OF THIS FILE)

‘RUN CODUMP’ RUNS THE UTILITY WHICH
DUMPS COI(CENTRAL OFFICE INFORMATION)TO
THE SYSTEM LINE PRINTER

‘RUN RTGDDMP’ RUNS THE UTILITY WHICH
DUMPS THE ROUTINE TEST FILES TO THE
SYSTEM LINE PRINTER

‘RUN DOWN’ RUNS THE PROGRAM WHICH SHUTS
DOWN RAMPART APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS IN
AN ORDERLY FASHION. (DO NOT USE THIS
IT IS TO YOUR ADVNTAGE NOT TO FOR IT
WILL NOT ALLOW YOU TO USE ANY
CMDS.)

->REFERRAL NUMBERS

REFERRAL NUMBERS ENABLE THE USER TO
QUICKLY SPECIFY A SINGLE TRUNK GROUP IN
THE SYSTEM BY ITS NUMERIC REFERRANCE.
FOR EXAMPLE, THE TRUNK GROUP ‘TG123’
FROM OFFICE ‘ABC’ TO OFFICE ‘XYZ’ CAN
BE SPECIFIED BY A SINGLE NUMBER IN
RAMPART COMMANDS RATHER THAN ENTERING
THE NEAREND,FAREND, AND GROUP ID IN
THIER ENTIRETY.

NOTE: THE REFERRAL NUMBER FOR A PART-
ICULAR TRUNK GROUP MAY CHANGE IF THE DATABASE IS RE-COMPILED.

FORMAT: REF-ERRAL NUMBER
RF NUMBER

THE EASIEST WAS TO DETERMINE THE REFER-
RAL NUMBER OF A TRUNK GROUP IS TO USE
THE ‘DISPLAY TRUNK’ COMMAND.

->DISPLAY TRUNK

DISPLAY TRUNK(GROUPS) NEAREND
OR DISPLAY TRUNK (GROUP)
REFERRAL NUMBER

DISPLAYS DATABASE INFORMATION ON THE
TRUNK GROUP(S) SPECIFIED. INCLUDED IS
REFERRAL NUMBER, NEAREND, FAREND,
GROUP ID, NUMBER OF TRUNKS, SYSTEM
TRUNK NUMBERS, AND LIMITS DATA.

O IF ONLY ‘NEAREND’ IS SPECIFIED, ALL
TRUNK GROUPS ORIGINATING FROM THE
OFFICE SPECIFIED ARE DISPLAYED

O IF ‘NEAREND’ AND ‘FAREND’ ARE
SPECIFIED, ALL GROUPS BETWEEN THESE
TWO OFFICES ARE DISPLAYED

O SPECIFYING ‘NEAREND’, ‘FAREND’, AND
‘GROUP^ID’,OR SPECIFYING THE REFERAL
NUMBER UNIQUELY DESCRIBES A SINGLE
TRUNK GROUP.

->TRUNK

TRUNK NUMBERS

RAMPART USES TWO DIFFERENT TRUNK
NUMBERING SYSTEMS; NAMELY, USER TRUNK
NUMBERS AND SYSTEM TRUNK NUMBERS. USER
TRUNK NUMBERS ALWAYS START AT ONE, AND
END AT THE NUMBER OF TRUNKS IN THE
GROUP. SYSTEM TRUNK NUMBERS ARE THE
NUMBERS USED TO ACCESS TRUNKS ON THE
SWITCH AND MAY RANGE FROM 0 TO 65000.

FOR COMMANDS WHICH REQUIRE TRUNK
NUMBERS,THE ‘/SY’ SWITCH SHOULD BE
ADDED TO THE COMMAND LINE WHEN REFER-
ENCING SYSTEM TRUNK NUMBERS.

->DATABASE

RAMPART DATABASE OVERVIEW

THE RAMPART USER DATABASE IS COMPRISED
OF THE FOLLOWING TWO FILES:

(1) CENTR. OFFICE DESCRIPTOR(COD) FILE-
THE EQUIPMENT LOCATED IN THE CENTRAL
OFFICE KNOWN TO THE SYSTEM. IT CONTAINS
SUCH INFO. AS COMMON LANGAUGE CODES,
LITERAL CENTRAL OFFICE NAMES, ROTL TYPE
AND ACCESS NUMBER, TESTLINE TYPES AND
ACCESS NUMBERS,ECT.

(2) TRUNK SOURCE FILE- THIS FILE
DESCRIBES THE TRUNKS LINKING IN
THE FILE. IT CONTAINS SUCH INFO AS
TRUNK GROUP ID, NUMBER OF TRUNKS IN
GROUP, LIMITS DATA, TRANSMIT LEVEL,
SIGNALLING,ROUTINE TEST INTERVAL,ECT.

THESE FILES CAN BE UPDATED BY THE USER
SOURCE EDITOR (USE) PROGRAM (INVOKED BY
THE CMDS ‘EDIT’ & ‘RUN USE’).

[DATABASE SUB-CMDS]

EXAMPLE
COD CEN-TRAL^OFFICE
TRUNK

->DATABASE COD

THIS FILE CONTAINS INFORMATION ON THE
EQPT. LOCATED IN KNOWN TO RAMPRT.
FOR DETAILED INFORMATION ON ITS CONT.,
RUN THE USER SOURCE EDITOR,SPECIFY COD
FILE EDIT, INVOKE CHANGE MODE ON AN
EXSISTING CENTRAL OFFICE RECORD, AND
USE THE HELP FACILITY BUILT INTO THE
EDITOR.

DATABASE EXAMPLE
—————-

,——————-,
, #3 EAX ROTL ,
, (TEST PORT ACCESS ,
, NUMBER = 5551234),
——————-
:
:
: :::::::::::::
:::::::::105 RESPONDER:
:::::::::::::

->CHECK

THIS COMMAND CAUSES A RAMPART TEST PORT
TO TO INITIATE A SELFCHECK SEQUENCE AND
RETURN THE SELFCHECK DISPOSITION TO THE
REQUESTING TERMINAL.

FORMAT: CHECK PORT # (OR ALL).

->EDIT

INVOKES THE USER SOURCE FILE EDITOR
PROGRAM WHICH IS USED TO UPDATE THE
RAMPART DATA BASE. THIS PRG. HAS ITS
OWN HELP FACILITY.

FOR INFO. ON THE RAMPART DATABASE IN
GENERAL, TYPE ‘HELP DATABASE’.


EXPLANATION OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS
FILE)

‘RUN TAC’  

Introduction to the Primos Operating System by Violence (1989) of The VOID Hackers

_______________________________________________________________________________

INTRODUCTION TO THE PRIMOS OPERATING SYSTEM
Part II (Internal Snooping and Basic Commands)

Written by Violence
Copyright (C) 1989 The VOID Hackers
_______________________________________________________________________________

Welcome to Part II of my series on PRIMOS. In this part I will go over such
things as how to make your stay on a Prime computer last longer, basic PRIMOS
commands to memorize, user-to-user communication, internal PRIMOS security, and
how to explore the vast reaches of a Prime computer.

_______________________________________________________________________________

MAKING YOUR STAY LAST LONGER

Now that you have logged in, there are a few things that you should do immed-
iately to insure a nice long visit. You should make this procedure routine and
do it everytime you login.

Once logged in you will, as illustrated in Part I, see the login herald and
then, assuming the account is not captive (there will be a section on Captive
Accounts later in this part), get the system prompt (generally an “OK,”). You
are now using PRIMOS and the prompt signifies that you are at the PRIMOS comm-
and line. Most Primes use the standard “OK,” prompt, but some do not. For
this series, I shall assume that your Prime uses the “OK,” prompt. Now, type
some nonsensical command. Try arf. Here is what should happen:

OK, arf
Not found. ARF (std$cp)
ER!

Notice that when you enter an invalid command you get a new prompt. On all
standard systems, it is “ER!”. Again, this prompt can be changed and, through
out this series, I shall assume that it is set to “ER!”.

NOTE: std$cp means Standard Command Processor. Sometimes instead of std$cp you
will get a (processcommand) error. They are the same thing, just differ-
ent names for different revision levels.

Now that you are in, you are going to want to perform a few actions to make
sure that you are safe. The first of these actions is to turn off all COMO
files. COMO is the abbreviated form of the COMOUTPUT command. COMOUTPUT turns
on a buffer if you will, much like your terminal program’s copy buffer. From
the time a COMO file is turned on everything you type and everything PRIMOS
says to you will be logged to a SAM (sequential access method) file (a text
file). To turn off a COMO file you will type this at the system prompt:

OK, como -e

The “-E” argument means “END” and will end any COMO processes. If you can’t
see what you are typing then perhaps the initiating COMO command turned off
all terminal output. You can turn it back on by typing:

OK, como -tty

To save time, nest the arguments as such:

OK, como -e -tty

The next thing you should do is make sure that you are the only person using
the account you logged in to (we don’t want any irate users on our hands, now
do we?). Do this by typing:

OK, stat -me

Assuming you are logged in as user PRIME, PRIMOS will output the following:

Line
User No oct( dec) Devices
PRIME 87 125( 85)

The “User” column displays your User ID. The “No” column lists your user
number. The “Line” column indicates the AMLC line you are using (the physical
modem line) in both octal and decimal notation. The “Devices” column displays
the current disk partition that you are attached to. In this case, we are
attached to the disk partition.

If you find that there is more than one of you logged in, then you should
make a hasty exit and logout. There is a correct way to logout and an incorre-
ct way to logout. The correct way to logout is listed below. NEVER hang up on
a Prime. Always logout in the illustrated fashion.

OK, rsterm
OK, lo

The RSTERM command empties your terminal read (input) and write (output)
buffers. This throws away anything in your type-ahead buffer and gets rid of
all output pending. The LO command logs you out of the system. When you
logout you will see a message similar to this:

PRIME (user 87) logged out Sunday, 22 Jan 89 16:23:56.
Time used: 00h 08m connect, 00m 03s CPU, 00m 00s I/O.

Everything listed in this message should be self-explanatory by now, but in
case you are still bewildered. The connect time is how long your session
lasted in hours and minutes. The CPU time indicates how much actual time you
manipulated the central processing unit (CPU); listed in minutes and seconds.
The I/O time indicates how much actual disk I/O (access) you performed; in
minutes and seconds.

Assuming that no one else is using the account you are logged in as take a look
and see who else is on the system. Do this by typing:

OK, stat us

The Prime will display the following to you:
Line
User No oct( dec) Devices
SYSTEM 1 asr
SMITH 5 3( 3)
JOHNSON 70 104( 68)
PRIME 87 125( 85)
TIMER_PROCESS 123 kernel
LOGIN_SERVER 124 LSr (3)
DSMSR 125 DSM
DSMASR 126 DSM
SYSTEM_MANAGER 127 SMSr
LIB 129 phant AL132
LQP 130 phant AL133
PR0 131 phant PR2
BATCH_SERVICE 132 phant
SYSTEM 133 phant
SYSTEM 134 phant
SYSTEM 135 phant
SYSTEM 136 phant

Notice how the STAT US command’s user display procedure is identical to that
of STAT ME. Let me explain these users now. What’s there to explain about
users, you ask? Why, lots. Some of the users listed abover aren’t actual
people, but rather phantom users, processes that execute on their own.

Look at SYSTEM. See how this User ID doesn’t have a line listing? Instead of
the familiar octal and decimal AMLC line listing, it says “asr” instead. Also
notice how TIMER_PROCESS is listed as “kernel”. The list goes on too, as you
can see. LOGIN_SERVER is “LSr”, DSMSR and DSMASR are “DSM”, and SYSTEM_MANAGER
is “SMSr”. Also notice all those users listed as “phant”.

Basically, all User ID’s that lack octal/decimal AMLC line notation are not
actual people and cannot harm you with the exception of SYSTEM_MANAGER and
SYSTEM. These users, while not people, are consoles, terminals if you will,
that are logged in all the time. One monitors the system’s front door and
logs to screen and disk (and occasionally printer) all logins (successful and
unsuccessful) and logouts. The other just sits there, waiting for the system
manager to do what ever he likes. A good way to tell if either of these User
ID’s is active, is to look and see where they are attached to (ie, the info
displayed in the “Devices” column). If you see it attached to an MFD (Main
File Directory) other than the root MFD, then cruise and come back later. I
will explain this a bit more in a second.

LSr is the login server. It is what you “talk to” (in a manner of speaking)
when you connect to the Prime initially. “kernel” is the heart of the PRIMOS
operating system. When you have logged in, you are talking directly to it.
“phant” users are phantom processes (batch jobs) that are executing independant
of a system terminal. They perform rudimentary tasks such as running the prin-
ters, backing up the system, running the RJE and Batch Job managers, etc. They
perform many activities, almost always geared towards the system’s needs. DSM
users are Distributed System Management utilities runnung as phantoms. The DSM
utilities are present to help the System Admin administrate his system. There
will be more on the DSM utilities in Part III of this series.

To help you out, I have prepared these two tables. They cover all of the above
procedures and what you should do. For the first few times, you should use the
tables. When you have memorized them you will be doing pretty good.

LOGIN PROCEDURE

1. COMO -E
2. STAT ME (is there more than 1 of me logged in? Yes? Logout!)
3. STAT US (are there lots of users online? Yes? Logout!)

LOGOUT PROCEDURE

1. RSTERM
2. LO

That should do it for this section. I will now go into the basic PRIMOS comm-
ands that you should familiarize yourself with and memorize.

_______________________________________________________________________________

BASIC PRIMOS COMMANDS AND INFORMATION ABOUT PRIMOS FILES

We’re all ready to start covering the first PRIMOS commands to add to your new
repetoire. In this section you will learn how to move around PRIMOS directory
structures, how to view files, how to get full status on the Prime system, and
how to get further help.

First off, let me tell you a little bit about directories and how they are set
up. On each logical disk on a Prime, there is a root directory called the MFD
(Main File Directory). Each MFD on a system has a unique number after it. In
this manner all logical disk MFD’s are separate from one another. Below the
MFD’s are directories called UFD’s (User File Directories). It is the UFD’s
that users login to. Not all UFD’s, however, are login directories. All dir-
ectories below the UFD level are called sub-UFD’s (subdirectories). An illus-
tration of what I am talking about follows.

MFD 0 ————- MFD 1 ————- MFD 3 ————- MFD 4
______|______ ______|______ ______|______ ______|______
| | | | | | | | | | | |
UFD UFD UFD UFD UFD UFD UFD UFD UFD UFD UFD UFD
| | | | |
SUB SUB SUB SUB SUB
UFD UFD UFD UFD UFD

Notice that not all UFD’s have sub-UFD’s. Not illustrated is the fact that
sub-UFD’s can have sub-UFD’s under them. It’s set up a lot like most micro-
computer Disk Operating Systems.

When you login you will be attached to your account’s initial attach point (ie,
your “home” directory). This will most likely be a UFD, but in some cases you
will attach to an MFD. In any case, to move from directory to directory you’ll
use the ATTACH command. You can abbreviate ATTACH with an A. PRIMOS underst-
ands ATTACH and A as being the same command. The basic format of ATTACH is:

ATTACH pathname

To attach to an MFD you would type:

OK, a mfd #

Where # is the logical device number of the MFD you wish to attach to. MFD nu-
mbers always start out at 0 and increment sequentially. More on this in a few.
If you are attached to an MFD or a UFD you simply need to use the UFD name you
wish to attach to as the pathname. If you wish to attach to sub-UFD’s then you
will need to use the full pathname. Here are some examples:

OK, a mfd 0
OK, a primenet*
OK, a info
Top-level directory not found or inaccessible. INFO (ATTACH)
OK, a primenet*>info

Notice how when you tried to attach to info you got an error. Well, that was
because info is a sub-UFD and you need to supply the full pathname when you at-
tach to sub-UFD’s. Notice that when you attached to info in the correct manner
you used the “>” character to separate the elements of the pathname.

Locating all the available MFD logical device numbers is easy. Just type:

OK, stat disk

PRIMOS returns this output to you:

Disk Ldev Pdev System
COMDEV 0 1460
USER01 1 31460
USER02 2 32462
USER03 3 462
USER04 4 11062
USER05 5 62060
USER06 6 101062

“Disk” indicates the actual disk partition’s root pathname. “Ldev” is the
logical device number of a given partition. “Pdev” is the physical device
number. The “System” column will be blank unless a given disk partition is
located on another system. What? Impossible? Not at all. With PRIMENET,
Prime’s networking software, disk partitions on system B can be accessed from
system A. If you are not on a system equipped with PRIMENET then the “System”
column will be blank. More on this in the PRIMENET section.

What is important to us immediately is the data in the “Disk” and “Ldev” col-
umns. Each of these disk partitions is an MFD

On some systems you will find two useful utilities, UP and DOWN. These are ex-
ternal commands. They simplify moving about directories in PRIMOS. Here is
how to use them.

UP [n]

UP allows you to move up a specified number of levels. The specification of
“n” is optional. If you do not specify a value for it, it will have a default
value of 1.

DOWN directory_name

DOWN allows you to move down one directory in the tree. You must specify the
name of the directory that you wish to move down into. You need only specify
the UFD or sub-UFD name. There is no need to specify the entire pathname.

If these utilities are not on the Prime you are on then you can upload them to
the Prime’s CMDNC0 directory (where external commands are stored). There will
be more information on this in Part V.

Viewing files in PRIMOS is as easy as can be. You simply use the SLIST (seq-
uential List) command. The format is as follows:

SLIST filename

You must include the file extension of the file that you are SLISTing. Briefly
here is a list of file types and what they mean.

Extension SLISTable? Description

.ABBREV N Abbreviation files
.BAS Y BASIC source code
.BIN N BINARY image file
.CBL Y COBOL source code
.CC Y C Compiler source code
.COMI Y COMMAND INPUT data files
.COMO Y COMMAND OUTPUT data files
.CPL Y CPL (Command Procedure Language) programs
.F77 Y FORTRAN-77 source code
.FTN Y FORTRAN IV source code
.GVAR N Global variable files
.PL1 Y PL/1, Subset G source code
.PLP Y PLP source code
.PMA Y Prime Macro Assembler source code
.RUN N Prime-written programs; int cmds (compiled)
.SAVE N Prime- and user-written programs (compiled)

NOTE: The “SLISTable” column indicates that the file type in question is a SAM
file (Sequential Access Method; a text file) and can be viewed normally
by the SLIST (Sequential List; like the TYPE command found on most PC’s)
command. You can SLIST non-SAM files, but they will come out as garbage
and that can be a pain in the ass. If you should SLIST a non-SLISTable
file type then use BREAK or CONTROL-P to abort the listing.

A very important command is the LD command (List Directory). LD will display
the contents of the current attach directory. To use it just type:

OK, ld

The LD command supports wildcarding, too. If you should want to display all
the CPL files in a directory, use LD in this manner:

OK, ld @@.cpl

Notice the “@@” in the above command. It tells LD to do a wildcard search for
all files ending with the extension “.CPL”. Just experiment with this aspect
of LD. It’s really quite simple.

Getting more information about the Prime you are on is easy. Just use the
STATUS (abbreviated STAT) and LIST commands. Here are lists of these commands
and what they do.

Remember the STAT US and STAT ME commands I mentioned in Part I? Well, as you
probably guessed, there are several other options to the STATUS command. Here
are the other options and what they do:

NOTE: Capitalized letters in this table indicate the option’s abbreviation.

OPTION MEANING

ALl Display all info available through STATUS.
DEvice Display physical and logical device numbers of
any assigned mag tape drives.
NEtwork Displays the status of other systems to which
your system is attached by PRIMENET.
PRoject Displays the Project ID of all users logged in.
SEmaphores Displays the value of user semaphores that have
been set on the system. A semaphore is a flag
used for synchronizing processes. It is used
by cooperating user processes to control access
to a single shared resource.
SYstem Shows the system nodename and revision of PRIMOS.
UNits Shows you what file units you have open.

Sub: Other Nets [BitNet etc..]
Read: (1-30), Message # 30, (c/r)=Next Msg ?:R

29/30: Prime file 4 of 10
Name: Predat0r #1 @5211
Date: Wed Apr 17 10:33:51 1991
From: Youth International Party Line (Kentucky)

Remember, I did not mention the USers, ME, or DIsks options here, as they were
fully detailed in part I of this series.

If the STATUS command is issued without any options, information is provided
on the following options in this order: SYSTEM, UNITS, DISK, SEMAPHORE, NETWORK
and ME.

NOTE: There will be some information regarding the STATUS NETWORK command in a
later section entitled “HINTS ON HACKING PRIMENET”.

That pretty well sums up the STATUS command. But is that all? Hell no. There
is also the LIST command. If you thought STATUS had a lot of options then wait
until you check this lovely command out. I will only cover the useful options.

First in the syllabus is the LIST_ACCESS command. This command will show you
what User ID’s have access to the UFD that you are currently attached to.
Assume that you are attached to your initial login UFD. Also assume that your
User ID is STEVE.SYS. Here is an example of what LIST_ACCESS would display:

OK, list_access

ACL protecting ““:
STEVE.SYS ALL
SYSTEM ALL
$REST: NONE

The above command example displays all of the ACL’s (Access Control Lists)
regarding your UFD. Notice that you, STEVE.SYS, have ALL rights to your UFD
(naturally). Also notice that SYSTEM has ALL rights too. Why? Most likely
backup purposes. Also notice that $REST (meaning all other user ID’s) has NO
rights. Now, lets assume you ATTACHed to another user’s UFD. Say, JOHN. Here
is what you might get:

OK, a john
OK, list_access

ACL protecting ““:
JOHN ALL
SYSTEM ALL
SIMSON DALURW
$REST LUR

Quite a different story here. Again JOHN and SYSTEM have ALL rights here. But
wait, SIMSON has DALURW access and $REST (everyone else) has LUR. What do
these cryptic phrases mean? This, I would gather, would be a good time for me
to explain the PRIMOS access codes. So without further ado:

Code Right Applies to Allows user to
—- ——— ————- ——————————–
P Protect Directories Change accesses and attributes
D Delete Directories Delete directory entries
A Add Directories Add directory entries
L List Directories List directory entries
U Use Directories ATTACH to directories
R Read Files Read file contents
W Write Files Change file contents

As illustrated above, the ALL and NONE mnemonics are also PRIMOS access codes.
ALL indicates YES to ALL of the above and, as you can full well guess, NONE
indicated that all access is denied.

Also be aware that file systems (groups of files) can be protected by an access
category. To list the access of an access category type the following command:

LIST_ACCESS [category_filename]

Next is the LIST_GROUP command. It lists all of the ACL groups to which you
belong. These groups may govern access to some files on the system. If you
don’t belong to any groups then PRIMOS will reply with:

No groups. (list_group)

Otherwise PRIMOS will respond in the following format:

Groups are: .HELP .ADMINISTRATORS .ETCETERA

The LIST_GROUP command can be abbreviated to LG.

LIST_PRIORITY_ACCESS (abbreviation LPAC) is used to display your priority
access on any given disk partition. While normally you would use LIST_ACCESS
to examine all access rights and priority ACL’s on file system objects, LPAC
is available since a priority ACL can prevent you from accessing directories
and from using the LIST_ACCESS command. Command format is as follows:

LIST_PRIORITY_ACCESS [pathname] [-brief]

The LIST_QUOTA command (abbreviated LQ) is, in my opinion pseudo-worthless
since file quota information is displayed when the LD (List Directory) comm-
and is issued. The LQ command displays current disk quota and storage info-
rmation for the current (or specified) directory. To issue this command, you
need to have L (list) access to the target directory and U (use) access to all
higher directories. The proper command format is:

LIST_QUOTA [pathname] [-brief]

Executed without pathname, LIST_QUOTA returns information regarding the current
directory you are ATTACHed to.

Quotas are storage space constraints set on a directory. The limits are listed
in disk records. A 0 quota is great (indicates no quota). A quota of 1 is
absolutely lousy. A quota of 1000+ is ok. If a directory has a quota of, say,
1000, then the total number of disk records used in that directory and ALL sub-
UFD’s below that may NOT exceed the quota.

If you have P (protect) access on the current UFD then you can use the
SET_QUOTA command to change the UFD quota constraints. I know I am getting off
the subject at hand, but I’ll just say this anyway! 🙂 The format is:

SET_QUOTA pathname [-Max N]

The abbreviation for SET_QUOTA is SQ. The argument -MAX indicates the max.
number of quotas that the specified pathname can store. N is a decimal number.

Back to the LIST commands. Next up is LIST_ASSIGNED_DEVICES. This command
invokes a utility in CMDNC0 that will display all devices hooked up to your
Prime, such as printers, etc. Disk partitions are not listed by the LIST_
ASSIGNED_DEVICES command. Some assignable devices are listed below:

Device Code Meaning

ASYn Asynchronous Communications
Line (a leading zero is required for single
digit names; for example ASY07 must be used
to specify line 7).
Line numbers are in decimal.
CARDR Serial Card Reader
CRn MPC Parallel Card /reader or Reader/Punch
DISK pdisk Physical Partition (pdisk is a
partition (volume) number)
GS0 – GS3 Vector General graphics display terminal
MG0 – MG3 Megatek graphics display terminal
MTn Magnetic tape unit
PRn Line Printer
PTR Paper Tape Reader
PUNCH Paper Tape Punch
PLOT Printer/Plotter
SYNCn Synchronous Communications Line
(a leading zero is required to specify
single digit lines).

You can use the -USER [option] argument to specify a list of users, by name
or number. Assigned devices whose assigning user is not in this list are not
displayed. The default is all users. The format is either:

LIST_ASSIGNABLE_DEVICES -USER {user name}

or

LIST_ASSIGNABLE_DEVICES -USER {user numbers}

Remember, the -USER argument is optional, and not required. It is just useful
for listing assigned devices that were assigned by a particular user.

LIST_ASYNC is another good one. This command displays all of the systems hard-
wired lines and what they are doing. There are three types of assignments that
a line can have, and these are:

FREE Line is free to be assigned
ASSIGNED Line is assigned to a hardware device (printer/etc)
LOGIN Line is available for login (terminal or remote)

The header for the display is as follows:

Line Line Auto speed Line line User User
number use enabled speed protocol number name

Line number is the physical line’s identification name. Line use indicates
how the line is assigned (free, assigned, login). Line speed indicates the
speed of the physical line. Line protocol indicates the line factor (either
TTY or TTYNOP). TTYNOP means TTY not operational. User number indicates
the user number associated with the AMLC line. User name is the actual name
of any user/phantom using that line. I am not too sure about the Auto speed
enabled column.

LIST_COMM_CONTROLLERS displays information on all the communication controllers
present in a system, excluding the Prime Node Controller. Information is given
for each controller and includes the controller name, its type, its device
address, the number of synchronous lines attached, and the number of asynchro-
nous lines attached.

LIST_CONFIG displays the current system configuration.

LIST_LAN_NODES displays all nodes on a Prime LAN300 system. Be aware that this
external command works only with Prime’s LAN300 system (so far as my experience
goes).

LIST_SYNC displays all synchronous lines on a Prime system.

LIST_PROCESS displays the environment of a specified user process. The user’s
process identity is displayed, together with details of its environment which
include: attach points; abbreviation file; active COMI and COMO files; connect,
CPU and I/O times and limits; the user’s ACL groups; and all active remote
identities.

There are several more LIST_ commands, but they are not too important at the
present moment. I’ll let you learn about them on your own via Prime’s excel-
lent online help facility. To use the PRIMOS online HELP facility, just type
HELP. Or, if you know what you need help with, type HELP commandname. Really
quite simple.

_______________________________________________________________________________

USER-TO-USER COMMUNICATION

It is always useful to know how to send and receive messages when on a computer
system, and PRIMOS is no exception. Whether communicating with other hackers
online, or attempting to social engineer a legitimate user or system operator.
Any user on a Prime may send or receive messages. Messages may be sent from:

o any user terminal to any other user terminal
o any user terminal to the system console
o the system console to all user terminals
o the system console to any specific user terminal
o the system console to any system console on another
node of the network (PRIMENET-equipped systems only)

Sending messages to users on a Prime is very easy. The message command form-
at is as follows:

MESSAGE [username] [-NOW] [-ON nodename]
[-usernumber]

The abbreviation for MESSAGE is M. So instead of typing MESSAGE all the time,
you can type M instead.

Notice [username] and [-usernumber]. When sending messages to a user you need
only specify one or the other. If you were to send a message to user SYSTEM
you would type:

OK, m system

That would enable you to send a message to user SYSTEM. Be aware that the
message you send will be displayed to ALL users logged in under the User ID of
SYSTEM. In the case that there are more than 1 user with the same User ID log-
ged in at the same time, you might want to do use the [-usernumber] argument.
It works like this:

OK, m -2

That would send a message to the user with the user number of 2. The message
you send in this case would ONLY be sent to the user with the user number of 2.
Use either the user name or the user number, but not both, for using both will
cause an error to be displayed by PRIMOS.

If may omit the [username] and [-usernumber] arguments then the message will be
sent to the system console. Be careful about this!

The -NOW argument is optional. If it is specified then the message will be
sent to the user immediately. Otherwise the message will be put into a queue
and sent only when the target user has returned to PRIMOS command level.

The -ON argument need only be specified if you wish to send a message to a user
that is logged in on a remote site. This argument will not be required at all
if the Prime you are on is not equipped with either the PRIMENET or the LAN300
networking software packages (by Prime Computer, Inc., of course). In order to
use this argument you need to know the remote system’s nodename. An example of
sending a message to a remote system user is:

OK, m hacker -on sys.c

This would send a message to User ID “HACKER” on the networked Prime system
called “SYS.C”. Remember, you need to know the correct nodename of the remote
system.

Just like in real-life situations (people-to-people), PRIMOS users may or may
not wish to speak to you. So before sending a message, you should make sure
that the user you wish to communicate with is accepting messages. There are
several ways to obtain this information.

Message -STATus – Lists receive state of ALL users
Message -STATus username – Lists receive state of all users
with the name of “username”
Message -STATus usernumber – Lists receive state of all users
with the number of “usernumber”
Message -STATus ME – Lists the receive state of your
own terminal/process.

NOTE: Capital letters in the above forms of the message status commands ind-
icate the legal PRIMOS abbreviations for the commands.

When first initiating a session in which you feel you might be doing some user-
to-user communication you should issue the “Message -STATus” command. This
will display the message receive state of all users presently online. Here is
an example of the output you might receive:

OK, m -stat

User No State
SYSTEM 1 Accept
PRIME 13 Defer
PRIMOS 24 Accept
HACKER 37 Reject
RAGE 42 Accept

In the above example you notice that there are five processes logged in, one of
them being the physical system console. The “No” column denotes the user’s
user number, while the “State” denotes their message receive state.

Notice how there are three message receive states listed, accept, defer, and
reject. In theory, these states are defined as such:

ACCEPT – Enables reception of all messages
DEFER – Inhibits immediate messages
REJECT – Inhibits all messages

If you are set to accept then all messages sent to you will be displayed on
your terminal immediately. In defer mode messages will not appear until what
you are doing is done (ie, a message will not appear while in the middle of a
currently executing command). In reject mode no messages will be received by
you.

Setting a receive state is useful when you do not wish to be disturbed. It is
especially useful to use receive states when using any of the PRIMOS editors or
utilities.

Sending messages while in reject mode and sending immediate messages while in
defer mode is not permitted as the user you are attempting to communicate with
will not be able to respond.

To set your message receive state, simply type:

Message -state

‘-state’ is either accept, defer, or reject. Quite simple.

You are advised to avoid sending messages to the system console as that could
be potentially hazardous to your stay on a Prime computer system. Pestering
legitimate users is also not desired. Use your common sense.

_______________________________________________________________________________

A DISCOURSE ON INTERNAL SNOOPING TACTICS

Once inside a Prime, your paths are many. Some lead to glory, others to delet-
ion of your account (gulp). To aid you in choosing the correct paths, you must
snoop about your newfound host. By doing this, you can learn many things, some
of which include:

o Who owns the Prime and what they are doing on it
o More accounts on the system
o More accounts on DIFFERENT Prime systems

There is plenty for you to do. I strongly urge that you make the snooping pro-
cedure a routine and that you do it *immediately* upon obtaining an account, as
you never know how long it might last.

Finding out who owns the Prime and what they do on it is always rewarding. The
best systems I have been on were Prime Computer, Inc. development systems, 3rd
party development systems, and Prime’s belonging to certain telephone companies
(which shall, of course, remain unmentioned). Depending upon who owns the host
you may obtain a bit more information that you had expected.

More accounts on the system is what you are really after, however. Many users
are exceedingly lax. A brief inspection of all mail in the queue can sometimes
yield accounts, as can individual programs (source code) and documents. There
will be more on this topic in the section entitled, “Exploring the Vast Reaches
of a Prime”.

As for more accounts on different systems, I am saving that for the article on
Prime networking (Part IV). There will be a host of information regarding the
advanced snooping tactics used in order to snoop about PRIMENET-based systems
and their respective Token-Ring/LAN300 networks.

_______________________________________________________________________________

INTERNAL SECURITY

Before you can really start exploring your new Prime, you need to understand
how PRIMOS internal security is implemented and how to get around it. As you
have seen from the section con basic PRIMOS commands, PRIMOS utilizes access
control lists (ACL’s). Getting around ACL’s is almost an impossibility. There
will be a full discussion on ACL’s in Part V.

Also you will occasionally run into passworded directories. To attach to a
passworded directory, you would type something similar to this:

OK, a ‘dirname password’

Notice how you followed the directory name with the password and enclosed the
entire deal with quotes. If you were going to attach to a passworded sub-UFD
you might type something like this:

OK, a ‘primenet*>info>source password’

Passworded directories can be a pain in the ass, but, unlike ACL’s, they can be
gotten around. Look inside CPL programs (by SLISTing them) for occurrances of
ATTACH statements enclosed in single quotes. Thats about all the internal sec-
urity in PRIMOS up to the current revision level (22.0.0).

_______________________________________________________________________________

EXPLORING THE VAST REACHES OF A PRIME

When looking around a Prime, always start in your initial attach UFD. Check
out every file in it and every file in sub-UFD’s under it. When finished there
cruise on up to MFD 0 and start down-attaching to the many UFD’s there and look
at everything. SLIST all SAM files, read all mail, look at EVERYTHING. Leave
no UFD un-attached to! Leave no file un-read.

Understandably it will take a good few hours (sometimes as many as 12) to fully
investigate a Prime, but believe me, it is worth it. Capture everything that
looks valuable to your buffer. When done looking, follow up everything you
captured.

Well, that about wraps up Part II of this series. Look forward to lots of use-
ful information regarding the myriad of PRIMOS applications in the next part of
this series. Just some of the information in the next part will be:

o Using EDIT_PROFILE to create and modify accounts
o The DSM (Distributed System Management) utilities
o Using the myriad of MAIL utilities
o Editing and Uploading text via the ED text editor

Until then may the forces of darkness become confused on the way to your house.

_______________________________________________________________________________

End of Part II of the “Introduction to the PRIMOS Operating System”
_______________________________________________________________________________

Hacking Credit Card Codes by Omni-Kid and The Wyvern

--------------------------------------
<:>            HACKING             <:>
<:>          CREDIT CARD           <:>
<:>             CODES              <:>
<:>                                <:>
<:>       EDITED BY:               <:>
<:>                OMNI-KID        <:>
<:>   ORIGINALLY BY:               <:>
<:>                THE WYVERN      <:>
<:>                                <:>
--------------------------------------

      WELL LETS SEE HERE, MOST THINGS I
 HAVE SEEN HAVE 6-10 DIGITS RIGHT? YET
 CREDIT CARDS HAVE AROUND 20 DIGITS,
 WHY? WELL ITS NOT NECESSARY OF COURSE
 FOR A CREDIT CARD TO HAVE THAT MANY,
 BUT IT DOES! EACH CARD HOLDER MUST
 HAVE A UNIQUE NUMBER OF COURSE THO.
 VISA HAS MAYBE 70 MILLION CARD HOLDERS
 AT THIS TIME, MASTERCARD TOO. WHICH
 LEADS US TO 70 MILLION AVAILABLE
 NUMBERS! 

      THERE ARE ONE HUNDERED MILLION
 POSIBLE COMBINATIONS OF EIGHT DIGITS,
 FROM  00000000 TO 99999999. SO EIGHT
 DIGITS WOULD BE ENUF. TO ALLOW FER 
 FUTURE GROWTH, VISA COULD HAVE 9
 DIDIGTS-ENUF FER ONE BILLION DIFFER
 NUMBERS!

      IN FACT, A VISA CARD HAS 13 DIGITS
 AND SOMETIMES EVEN MORE. AN AMERICAN
 EXPRESS HAS 15 DIGITS. DINERS CLUB
 CARDS HAVE 14. CARTE BLANCHE HAS 10.
 THEY ARE OBVOUSLY NOT EXPECTING
 BILLIONS OF CARD OWNERS WITH THOSE
 DIGITS. BUT ALL THE EXTRA ONES ARE
 ONLY A SECRUITY DEVICE. I MEAN IF THEY
 WERE 4 DIGITS EACH MOST PEOPLE WOULD
 HAVE NO PROBLEM GETTING  THEMSELVES
 3232 FAKE CREDIT CARDS!

      SAY YER VISA NUMBER IS
  4321 876 132 564. EACH PURCHASE MUST
 BE ENTERD FROM A SALES SLIP. THE
 ACCOUNT NUMBER TAGS YER PURCHASE TO
 YER ACCOUNT. SOMETIMES THE SALES
 PEOPLE GET BORED AND ENTER THE WRONG
 NUMBER. THERE ARE 10 TRILLION POSSIBLE
 13 DIGIT VISA NUMBERS. ONLY ABOUT 65
 MILLION OF THOSE ARE WORKING ACCOUNTS!
 WHICH MEANS IT IS VERY HARD TO FIND
 ONE. THOSE ARE SLIM ODDS TO FIND THE 
 NUMBER YOU COULD FILL UP A BOOK FULL
 OF 13 DIGIT NUMBERS. STILL YOU WOULD
 NOT DUPLICATE A VISA ACCOUNT NUMBER.

      THEN WE HAVE MASTERCARD OF THE
 QUADRILLION POSSIBLE COMBOS ONLY ABOUT
 11 MILLION ARE ACTIVE ACCOUNTS. AMONG
 OTHER THINGS, THAT MAKES IT POSSIBLE
 FER THEM TV, RADIO AND OTHER ADS TO
 INVITE CARD HOLDERS TO CALL UP AND
 ORDER. HOW CAN THEY BE SURE THE GUY
 EVEN HAS A CARD?

      THEY MUST BASE THERE CONFIDENCE ON
 THE SECURTIY OF THE KREDT-KARD #ERING
 SYSTEM. IF SOMEONE CALLS UP EVEN 
 MAKING SURE TO USE THE RIGHT NUMBER OF
 DIGITS THE NUMBER WILL SURLEY NOT
 EXIST. TO BE PRACTICAL THE ONLY WAY TO
 GET A CREDIT CARD NUMBER IS TO GET IT
 RIGHT OFF THE PLASTIC CARD.

      SO HOW DO I GET THE CREDIT CARD 
 NUMBERS YOU ASK? THERE ARE TWO VERY
 EASY WAYS THAT YOU CAN USE ANYTIME,
 ONE IS GETTING IT OFF THE OLD COPY
 THAT WUZ RUN OFF IN THE STORE, SO IF
 THEY DONT THROW THE COPYS AWAY PICK
 THEM UP AND ITS YERS..THEN YOU CAN
 ALSO DO THIS VERY SIMPLE TRICK OVER
 THE PHONE:

 YOU: THIS IS BANK 1. WE ARE CALLING TO
 TELL YOU THAT THE CREDIT LIMIT ON YER
 MASTERCARD HAS BEEN RAISED TO TWELVE
 HUNDRED DOLLARS.

 PERSON: BUT MY LIMIT HAS ALWAYS BEEN
 10,000 DOLLARS!!!

 YOU: HMMM.. THERE MUST BE SOME ERR
 OR PROBLEM IN THE COMPUTERS. DO YOU
 HAVE YOUR CARD HANDY? COULD YOU READ
 OFF THE NUMBER?

      RIGHT THERE THE PERSON IS VERY
 WORRIED AND WANTS HIS LIMIT BACK SO OF
 COURSE HE GIVES YOU THE NUMBER.

 THE SIGNATURE PANEL AND MAGNETIC
 STRIP WILL BE COVERD IN LATER VOLUMES.

            <*surf rat*>

Downloaded from Just Say Yes. 2 lines, More than 500 files online!
         Full access on first call. 415-922-2008 CASFA 

     Another file downloaded from:                     NIRVANAnet(tm)

     & the Temple of the Screaming Electron              415-935-5845
     Just Say Yes                                        415-922-1613
     Rat Head                                            415-524-3649
     Cheez Whiz                                          408-363-9766
     Reality Check                                       415-474-2602

   Specializing in conversations, obscure information, high explosives,
       arcane knowledge, political extremism, diversive sexuality,
       insane speculation, and wild rumours. ALL-TEXT BBS SYSTEMS.

  Full access for first-time callers.  We don't want to know who you are,
   where you live, or what your phone number is. We are not Big Brother.

                         "Raw Data for Raw Nerves"

The Knights of Shadow Hacking Series, Re-edited and Messed by Elric of Imrryr

_______________________________________
_______________________________________
__                                   __
__   THE BASICS OF HACKING:  INTRO   __
__                                   __
_______________________________________
__  Uploaded by Elric of Imrryr      __
_______________________________________
_                                     _
_ THE FIRST OF A SET OF ARTICLES:     _
_ AN INTRODUCTION TO THE WORLD OF THE _
_ HACKER.  BASICS TO KNOW BEFORE DOING_
_ ANYTHING, ESSENTIAL TO YOUR CONTIN- _
_ UING CAREER AS ONE OF THE ELITE IN  _
_ THE COUNTRY...                      _
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
THIS ARTICLE, "THE INTRODUCTION TO THE
WORLD OF HACKING" IS MEANT TO HELP YOU
BY TELLING YOU HOW NOT TO GET CAUGHT,
WHAT NOT TO DO ON A COMPUTER SYSTEM,
WHAT TYPE OF EQUIPMENT SHOULD I KNOW
ABOUT NOW, AND JUST A LITTLE ON THE
HISTORY, PAST PRESENT FUTURE, OF THE
HACKER.
_______________________________________
WELCOME TO THE WORLD OF HACKING!
WE, THE PEOPLE WHO LIVE OUTSIDE OF
THE NORMAL RULES, AND HAVE BEEN SCORNED
AND EVEN ARRESTED BY THOSE FROM THE
'CIVILIZED WORLD', ARE BECOMMING
SCARCER EVERY DAY.  THIS IS DUE TO THE
GREATER FEAR OF WHAT A GOOD HACKER
(SKILL WISE, NO MORAL JUDGEMENTS HERE)
CAN DO NOWADAYS, THUS CAUSING ANTI-
HACKER SENTIMENT IN THE MASSES.
ALSO, FEW HACKERS SEEM TO ACTUALLY KNOW
ABOUT THE COMPUTER SYSTEMS THEY HACK,
OR WHAT EQUIPMENT THEY WILL RUN INTO
ON THE FRONT END, OR WHAT THEY COULD
DO WRONG ON A SYSTEM TO ALERT THE
'HIGHER' AUTHORITIES WHO MONITOR THE
SYSTEM.
THIS ARTICLE IS INTENDED TO TELL YOU
ABOUT SOME THINGS NOT TO DO, EVEN
BEFORE YOU GET ON THE SYSTEM.  WE
WILL TELL YOU ABOUT THE NEW WAVE OF
FRONT END SECURITY DEVICES THAT ARE
BEGINNING TO BE USED ON COMPUTERS.
WE WILL ATTEMPT TO INSTILL IN YOU A
SECOND IDENTITY, TO BE BROUGHT UP AT
TIME OF GREAT NEED, TO PULL YOU OUT
OF TROUBLE.
AND, BY THE WAY, WE TAKE NO, REPEAT,
NO, RESPONCIBILITY FOR WHAT WE SAY IN
THIS AND THE FORTHCOMING ARTICLES.
ENOUGH OF THE BULLSHIT, ON TO THE FUN:
_______________________________________
AFTER LOGGING ON YOUR FAVORITE BBS,
YOU SEE ON THE HIGH ACCESS BOARD A
PHONE NUMBER!  IT SAYS IT'S A GREAT
SYSTEM TO "FUCK AROUND WITH!"
THIS MAY BE TRUE, BUT HOW MANY OTHER
PEOPLE ARE GOING TO CALL THE SAME
NUMBER?  SO:  TRY TO AVOID CALLING A
NUMBER GIVEN TO THE PUBLIC.  THIS IS
BECAUSE THERE ARE AT LEAST EVERY OTHER
USER CALLING, AND HOW MANY OTHER BOARDS
WILL THAT NUMBER SPREAD TO?
IF YOU CALL A NUMBER FAR, FAR AWAY, AND
YOU PLAN ON GOING THRU AN EXTENDER OR
A RE-SELLER, DON'T KEEP CALLING THE
SAME ACCESS NUMBER (I.E. AS YOU WOULD
IF YOU HAD A HACKER RUNNING), THIS
LOOKS VERY SUSPICIOUS AND CAN MAKE
LIFE MISERABLE WHEN THE PHONE BILL
COMES IN THE MAIL.  MOST CITIES HAVE
A VARIETY OF ACCESS NUMBERS AND
SERVICES, SO USE AS MANY AS YOU CAN.
NEVER TRUST A CHANGE IN THE SYSTEM...
THE 414'S, THE ASSHOLES, WERE CAUGHT
FOR THIS REASON:  WHEN ONE OF THEM
CONNECTED TO THE SYSTEM, THERE WAS
NOTHING GOOD THERE.  THE NEXT TIME,
THERE WAS A TREK GAME STUCK RIGHT IN
THEIR WAY!  THEY PROCEDED TO PLAY SAID
GAME FOR TWO, SAY TWO AND A HALF HOURS,
WHILE TELENET WAS TRACING THEM!  NICE
JOB, DON'T YOU THINK?  IF ANYTHING
LOOKS SUSPICIOUS, DROP THE LINE
IMMEDIATELY!!  AS IN, YESTERDAY!!
THE POINT WE'RE TRYING TO GET ACCROSS
IS:  IF YOU USE A LITTLE COMMON SENCE,
YOU WON'T GET BUSTED.  LET THE LITTLE
KIDS WHO AREN'T SMART ENOUGH TO
RECOGNIZE A TRAP GET BUSTED, IT WILL
TAKE THE HEAT OFF OF THE REAL HACKERS.
NOW, LET'S SAY YOU GET ON A COMPUTER
SYSTEM...  IT LOOKS GREAT, CHECKS
OUT, EVERYTHING SEEMS FINE.  OK, NOW
IS WHEN IT GETS MORE DANGEROUS.  YOU
HAVE TO KNOW THE COMPUTER SYSTEM (SEE
FUTURE ISSUES OF THIS ARTICLE FOR INFO
ON SPECIFIC SYSTEMS) TO KNOW WHAT NOT
TO DO.  BASICALLY, KEEP AWAY FROM ANY
COMMAND WHICH LOOKS LIKE IT MIGHT
DELETE SOMETHING, COPY A NEW FILE INTO
THE ACCOUNT, OR WHATEVER!  ALWAYS LEAVE
THE ACCOUNT IN THE SAME STATUS YOU
LOGGED IN WITH.  CHANGE _NOTHING_...
IF IT ISN'T AN ACCOUNT WITH PRIV'S,
THEN DON'T TRY ANY COMMANDS THAT
REQUIRE THEM!  ALL, YES ALL, SYSTEMS
ARE GOING TO BE KEEPING LOG FILES
OF WHAT USERS ARE DOING, AND THAT WILL
SHOW UP.  IT IS JUST LIKE DROPPING A
TROUBLE-CARD IN AN ESS SYSTEM, AFTER
SENDING THAT NICE OPERATOR A PRETTY
TONE.  SPEND NO EXCESSIVE AMOUNTS OF
TIME ON THE ACCOUNT IN ONE STRETCH.
KEEP YOUR CALLING TO THE VERY LATE
NIGHT IF POSSIBLE, OR DURING BUSINESS
HOURS (BELIEVE IT OR NOT!).  IT SO
HAPPENS THAT THERE ARE MORE USERS ON
DURING BUSINESS HOURS, AND IT IS VERY
DIFFICULT TO READ A LOG FILE WITH
60 USERS DOING MANY COMMNDS EVERY
MINUTE.  TRY TO AVOID SYSTEMS WHERE
EVERYONE KNOWS EACH OTHER, DON'T TRY
TO BLUFF.  AND ABOVE ALL:  NEVER ACT
LIKE YOU OWN THE SYSTEM, OR ARE THE
BEST THERE IS.  THEY ALWAYS GRAB THE
PEOPLE WHO'S HEADS SWELL...
THERE IS SOME VERY INTERESTING FRONT
END EQUIPMENT AROUND NOWADAYS, BUT
FIRST LET'S DEFINE TERMS...
BY FRONT END, WE MEAN ANY DEVICE THAT
YOU MUST PASS THRU TO GET AT THE REAL
COMPUTER.  THERE ARE DEVICES THAT ARE
MADE TO DEFEAT HACKER PROGRAMS, AND
JUST PLAIN OLD MULTIPLEXERS.
TO DEFEAT HACKER PROGRAMS, THERE ARE
NOW DEVICES THAT PICK UP THE PHONE
AND JUST SIT THERE...  THIS MEANS
THAT YOUR DEVICE GETS NO CARRIER, THUS
YOU THINK THERE ISN'T A COMPUTER ON
THE OTHER END.  THE ONLY WAY AROUND IT
IS TO DETECT WHEN IT WAS PICKED UP.  IF
IT PICKES UP AFTER THE SAME NUMBER
RING, THEN YOU KNOW IT IS A HACKER-
DEFEATER.  THESE DEVICES TAKE A MULTI-
DIGIT CODE TO LET YOU INTO THE SYSTEM.
SOME ARE, IN FACT, QUITE SOPHISTICATED
TO THE POINT WHERE IT WILL ALSO LIMIT
THE USER NAME'S DOWN, SO ONLY ONE NAME
OR SET OF NAMES CAN BE VALID LOGINS
AFTER THEY INPUT THE CODE...
OTHER DEVICES INPUT A NUMBER CODE, AND
THEN THEY DIAL BACK A PRE-PROGRAMMED
NUMBER FOR THAT CODE.  THESE SYSTEMS
ARE BEST TO LEAVE ALONE, BECAUSE THEY
KNOW SOMEONE IS PLAYING WITH THEIR
PHONE.  YOU MAY THINK "BUT I'LL JUST
REPROGRAM THE DIAL-BACK."  THINK
AGAIN, HOW STUPID THAT IS...  THEN
THEY HAVE YOUR NUMBER, OR A TEST LOOP
IF YOU WERE JUST A LITTLE SMARTER.
IF IT'S YOUR NUMBER, THEY HAVE YOUR
BALLS (IF MALE...), IF ITS A LOOP,
THEN YOU ARE SCREWED AGAIN, SINCE THOSE
LOOPS ARE _MONITORED_.
AS FOR MULTIPLEXERS...  WHAT A PLEXER
IS SUPPOSED TO DO IS THIS:  THE SYSTEM
CAN ACCEPT MULTIPLE USERS.  WE HAVE
TO TIME SHARE, SO WE'LL LET THE FRONT-
END PROCESSOR DO IT...  WELL, THIS IS
WHAT A MULTIPLEXER DOES.  USUALLY THEY
WILL ASK FOR SOMETHING LIKE "ENTER
CLASS" OR "LINE:".  USUALLY IT IS
PROGRAMMED FOR A DOUBLE DIGIT NUMBER,
OR A FOUR TO FIVE LETTER WORD.  THERE
ARE USUALLY A FEW SETS OF NUMBERS IT
ACCEPTS, BUT THOSE NUMBERS ALSO SET
YOUR 300/1200 BAUD DATA TYPE.  THESE
MULTIPLEXERS ARE INCONVENIENT AT BEST,
SO NOT TO WORRY.
A LITTLE ABOUT THE HISTORY OF HACKING:
HACKING, BY OUR DEFINITION, MEANS A
GREAT KNOWLEDGE OF SOME SPECIAL AREA.
DOCTORS AND LAWYERS ARE HACKERS OF A
SORT, BY THIS DEFINITION.  BUT MOST
OFTEN, IT IS BEING USED IN THE COMPUTER
CONTEXT, AND THUS WE HAVE A DEFINITION
OF "ANYONE WHO HAS A GREAT AMOUNT OF
COMPUTER OR TELECOMMUNICATIONS
KNOWLEDGE."  YOU ARE NOT A HACKER
BECAUSE YOU HAVE A LIST OF CODES...
HACKING, BY OUR DEFINITION, HAS THEN
BEEN AROUND ONLY ABOUT 15 YEARS.  IT
STARTED, WHERE ELSE BUT, MIT AND
COLLEGES WHERE THEY HAD COMPUTER
SCIENCE OR ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENTS.  HACKERS HAVE CREATED
SOME OF THE BEST COMPUTER LANGUAGES,
THE MOST AWESOME OPERATING SYSTEMS, AND
EVEN GONE ON TO MAKE MILLIONS.  HACKING
USED TO HAVE A GOOD NAME, WHEN WE COULD
HONESTLY SAY "WE KNOW WHAT WE ARE
DOING".  NOW IT MEANS (IN THE PUBLIC
EYE):  THE 414'S, RON AUSTIN, THE NASA
HACKERS, THE ARPANET HACKERS...  ALL
THE PEOPLE WHO HAVE BEEN CAUGHT, HAVE
DONE DAMAGE, AND ARE NOW GOING TO HAVE
TO FACE FINES AND SENTANCES.
THUS WE COME PAST THE MORALISTIC CRAP,
AND TO OUR PURPOSE:  EDUCATE THE HACKER
COMMUNITY, RETURN TO THE DAYS WHEN
PEOPLE ACTUALLY KNEW SOMETHING...
_______________________________________
A PROGRAM GUIDE:
THREE MORE ARTICLES WILL BE WRITTEN IN
THIS SERIES, AT THE PRESENT TIME.
BASICS OF HACKING I:  DEC'S
BASICS OF HACKING II:  VAX'S (UNIX)
BASICS OF HACKING III:  DATA GENERAL
IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO WRITE AN ARTICLE
ON IBM, SINCE THERE ARE SO MANY SYSTEMS
AND WE ONLY HAVE INFO ON A FEW...
_______________________________________
THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN WRITTEN BY:
THE KNIGHTS OF SHADOW
_______________________________________

   THE BASICS OF HACKING II: VAX'S
                             UNIX
    UNIX IS A TRADEMARK OF AT&T

    (AND YOU KNOW WHAT _THAT_ MEANS)

Uploaded by Elric of Imrryr
_______________________________________
WELCOME TO THE BASICS OF HACKING II:
VAX'S AND UNIX.  IN THIS ARTICLE, WE
DISCUSS THE UNIX SYSTEM THAT RUNS ON
THE VARIOUS VAX SYSTEMS.  IF YOU ARE
ON ANOTHER UNIX-TYPE SYSTEM, SOME
COMMANDS MAY DIFFER, BUT SINCE IT IS
LICENCED TO BELL, THEY CAN'T MAKE MANY
CHANGES.
_______________________________________
HACKING ONTO A UNIX SYSTEM IS VERY
DIFFICULT, AND IN THIS CASE, WE ADVISE
HAVING AN INSIDE SOURCE, IF POSSIBLE.
THE REASON IT IS DIFFICULT TO HACK A
VAX IS THIS:  MANY VAX, AFTER YOU GET
A CARRIER FROM THEM, RESPOND=>
LOGIN:
THEY GIVE YOU NO CHANCE TO SEE WHAT THE
LOGIN NAME FORMAT IS.  MOST COMMONLY
USED ARE SINGLE WORDS, UNDER 8 DIGITS,
USUALLY THE PERSON'S NAME.  THERE IS
A WAY AROUND THIS:  MOST VAX HAVE AN
ACCT. CALLED 'SUGGEST' FOR PEOPLE TO
USE TO MAKE A SUGGESTION TO THE SYSTEM
ROOT TERMINAL.  THIS IS USUALLY WATCHED
BY THE SYSTEM OPERATOR, BUT AT LATE
HE IS PROBABLY AT HOME SLEEPING OR
SCREWING SOMEONE'S BRAINS OUT.  SO WE
CAN WRITE A PROGRAM TO SEND AT THE
VAX THIS TYPE OF A MESSAGE:
A SCREEN FREEZE (CNTRL-S), SCREEN
CLEAR (SYSTEM DEPENDANT), ABOUT 255
GARBAGE CHARACTERS, AND THEN A COMMAND
TO CREATE A LOGIN ACCT., AFTER WHICH
YOU CLEAR THE SCREEN AGAIN, THEN UN-
FREEZE THE TERMINAL.  WHAT THIS DOES:
WHEN THE TERMINAL IS FROZEN, IT KEEPS
A BUFFER OF WHAT IS SENT.  WELL, THE
BUFFER IS ABOUT 127 CHARACTERS LONG.
SO YOU OVERFLOW IT WITH TRASH, AND THEN
YOU SEND A COMMAND LINE TO CREATE AN
ACCT. (SYSTEM DEPENDANT).  AFTER THIS
YOU CLEAR THE BUFFER AND SCREEN AGAIN,
THEN UNFREEZE THE TERMINAL.  THIS IS
A BAD WAY TO DO IT, AND IT IS MUCH
NICER IF YOU JUST SEND A COMMAND TO
THE TERMINAL TO SHUT THE SYSTEM DOWN,
OR WHATEVER YOU ARE AFTER...
THERE IS ALWAYS, *ALWAYS* AN ACCT.
CALLED ROOT, THE MOST POWERFUL ACCT.
TO BE ON, SINCE IT HAS ALL OF THE
SYSTEM FILES ON IT.  IF YOU HACK YOUR
WAY ONTO THIS ONE, THEN EVERYTHING IS
EASY FROM HERE ON...
ON THE UNIX SYSTEM, THE ABORT KEY IS
THE CNTRL-D KEY.  WATCH HOW MANY TIMES
YOU HIT THIS, SINCE IT IS ALSO A WAY TO
LOG OFF THE SYSTEM!
A LITTLE ABOUT UNIX ARCHITECHTURE:
THE ROOT DIRECTORY, CALLED ROOT, IS
WHERE THE SYSTEM RESIDES.  AFTER THIS
COME A FEW 'SUB' ROOT DIRECTORIES,
USUALLY TO GROUP THINGS (STATS HERE,
PRIV STUFF HERE, THE USER LOG HERE...).
UNDER THIS COMES THE SUPERUSER (THE
OPERATOR OF THE SYSTEM), AND THEN
FINALLY THE NORMAL USERS.  IN THE UNIX
'SHELL' EVERYTHING IS TREATED THE SAME.
BY THIS WE MEAN:  YOU CAN ACCESS A
PROGRAM THE SAME WAY YOU ACCESS A USER
DIRECTORY, AND SO ON.  THE WAY THE UNIX
SYSTEM WAS WRITTEN, EVERYTHING, USERS
INCLUDED, ARE JUST PROGRAMS BELONGING
TO THE ROOT DIRECTORY.  THOSE OF YOU
WHO HACKED ONTO THE ROOT, SMILE, SINCE
YOU CAN SCREW EVERYTHING...
THE MAIN LEVEL (EXEC LEVEL) PROMPT ON
THE UNIX SYSTEM IS THE $, AND IF YOU
ARE ON THE ROOT, YOU HAVE A # (SUPER-
USER PROMPT).
OK, A FEW BASICS FOR THE SYSTEM...
TO SEE WHERE YOU ARE, AND WHAT PATHS
ARE ACTIVE IN REGUARDS TO YOUR USER
ACCOUNT, THEN TYPE => PWD
THIS SHOWS YOUR ACCT. SEPERATED BY
A SLASH WITH ANOTHER PATHNAME (ACCT.),
POSSIBLY MANY TIMES.
TO CONNECT THROUGH TO ANOTHER PATH,
OR MANY PATHS, YOU WOULD TYPE:
YOU=> PATH1/PATH2/PATH3
AND THEN YOU ARE CONNECTED ALL THE
WAY FROM PATH1 TO PATH3.  YOU CAN
RUN THE PROGRAMS ON ALL THE PATHS
YOU ARE CONNECTED TO.  IF IT DOES
NOT ALLOW YOU TO CONNECT TO A PATH,
THEN YOU HAVE INSUFFICIENT PRIVS, OR
THE PATH IS CLOSED AND ARCHIVED ONTO
TAPE.  YOU CAN RUN PROGRAMS THIS WAY
ALSO:
YOU=> PATH1/PATH2/PATH3/PROGRAM-NAME
UNIX TREATS EVERYTHING AS A PROGRAM,
AND THUS THERE A FEW COMMANDS TO
LEARN...
TO SEE WHAT YOU HAVE ACCESS TO IN THE
END PATH, TYPE=>  LS
FOR LIST.  THIS SHOW THE PROGRAMS
YOU CAN RUN.  YOU CAN CONNECT TO
THE ROOT DIRECTORY AND RUN IT'S
PROGRAMS WITH=>
/ROOT
BY THE WAY, MOST UNIX SYSTEMS HAVE
THEIR LOG FILE ON THE ROOT, SO YOU
CAN SET UP A WATCH ON THE FILE, WAITING
FOR PEOPLE TO LOG IN AND SNATCH THEIR
PASSWORD AS IT PASSES THRU THE FILE.
TO CONNECT TO A DIRECTORY, USE THE
COMMAND:  => CD PATHNAME
THIS ALLOWS YOU TO DO WHAT YOU WANT
WITH THAT DIRECTORY.  YOU MAY BE ASKED
FOR A PASSWORD, BUT THIS IS A GOOD
WAY OF FINDING OTHER USER NAMES TO
HACK ONTO.
THE WILDCARD CHARACTER IN UNIX, IF
YOU WANT TO SEARCH DOWN A PATH FOR
A GAME OR SUCH, IS THE *.
=> LS /*
SHOULD SHOW YOU WHAT YOU CAN ACCESS.
THE FILE TYPES ARE THE SAME AS THEY
ARE ON A DEC, SO REFER TO THAT SECTION
WHEN EXAMINING FILE.  TO SEE WHAT IS
IN A FILE, USE THE => PR FILENAME
COMMAND, FOR PRINT FILE.
WE ADVISE PLAYING WITH PATHNAMES TO
GET THE HANG OF THE CONCEPT.  THERE
IS ON-LINE HELP AVAILABLE ON MOST
SYSTEMS WITH A 'HELP' OR A '?'.
WE ADVISE YOU LOOK THRU THE HELP
FILES AND PAY ATTENTION TO ANYTHING
THEY GIVE YOU ON PATHNAMES, OR THE
COMMANDS FOR THE SYSTEM.
YOU CAN, AS A USER, CREATE OR DESTROY
DIRECTORIES ON THE TREE BENEATH YOU.
THIS MEANS THAT ROOT CAN KILL EVERY-
THING BUT ROOT, AND YOU CAN KILL ANY
THAT ARE BELOW YOU.  THESE ARE THE
=> MKDIR PATHNAME
=> RMDIR PATHNAME
COMMANDS.
ONCE AGAIN, YOU ARE NOT ALONE ON THE
SYSTEM...  TYPE=>  WHO
TO SEE WHAT OTHER USERS ARE LOGGED IN
TO THE SYSTEM AT THE TIME.  IF YOU
WANT TO TALK TO THEM=>  WRITE USERNAME
WILL ALLOW YOU TO CHAT AT THE SAME
TIME, WITHOUT HAVING TO WORRY ABOUT THE
PARSER.  TO SEND MAIL TO A USER, SAY
=> MAIL
AND ENTER THE MAIL SUB-SYSTEM.
TO SEND A MESSAGE TO ALL THE USERS
ON THE SYSTEM, SAY => WALL
WHICH STANDS FOR 'WRITE ALL'
BY THE WAY, ON A FEW SYSTEMS, ALL YOU
HAVE TO DO IS HIT THE <RETURN> KEY
TO END THE MESSAGE, BUT ON OTHERS YOU
MUST HIT THE CNTRL-D KEY.
TO SEND A SINGLE MESSAGE TO A USER,
SAY => WRITE USERNAME
THIS IS VERY HANDY AGAIN!  IF YOU SEND
THE SEQUENCE OF CHARACTERS DISCUSSED
AT THE VERY BEGINNING OF THIS ARTICLE,
YOU CAN HAVE THE SUPER-USER TERMINAL DO
TRICKS FOR YOU AGAIN.
PRIVS:
IF YOU WANT SUPER-USER PRIVS, YOU CAN
EITHER LOG IN AS ROOT, OR EDIT YOUR
ACCT. SO IT CAN SAY => SU
THIS NOW GIVES YOU THE # PROMPT, AND
ALLOWS YOU TO COMPLETELY BY-PASS THE
PROTECTION.  THE WONDERFUL SECURITY
CONSCIOUS DEVELOPERS AT BELL MADE IT
VERY DIFFICULT TO DO MUCH WITHOUT
PRIVS, BUT ONCE YOU HAVE THEM, THERE
IS ABSOLUTELY NOTHING STOPPING YOU
FROM DOING ANYTHING YOU WANT TO.
TO BRING DOWN A UNIX SYSTEM:
=> CHDIR /BIN
=> RM *
THIS WIPES OUT THE PATHNAME BIN, WHERE
ALL THE SYSTEM MAINTENANCE FILES ARE.
OR TRY:
=> R -R
THIS RECURSIVELY REMOVES EVERYTHING
FROM THE SYSTEM EXCEPT THE REMOVE
COMMAND ITSELF.
OR TRY:
=> KILL -1,1
=> SYNC
THIS WIPES OUT THE SYSTEM DEVICES FROM
OPERATION.
WHEN YOU ARE FINALLY SICK AND TIRED
FROM HACKING ON THE VAX SYSTEMS, JUST
HIT YOUR CNTRL-D AND REPEAT KEY, AND
YOU WILL EVENTUALLY BE LOGGED OUT.
_______________________________________
THE REASON THIS FILE SEEMS TO BE VERY
SKETCHY IS THE FACT THAT BELL HAS 7
LICENCED VERSIONS OF UNIX OUT IN THE
PUBLIC DOMAIN, AND THESE COMMANDS ARE
THOSE COMMON TO ALL OF THEM.  WE
RECOMMEND YOU HACK ONTO THE ROOT OR
BIN DIRECTORY, SINCE THEY HAVE THE
HIGHEST LEVELS OF PRIVS, AND THERE
IS REALLY NOT MUCH YOU CAN DO (EXCEPT
DEVELOPE SOFTWARE) WITHOUT THEM.
_______________________________________
THIS ARTICLE WRITTEN BY:
THE KNIGHTS OF SHADOW
_______________________________________

Description: Hacking DEC's (Knights of Shadow II)
  File Date: 6-21-87
  File Time: 6:31 am

***************************************
***************************************
**                                   **
**       Hacking  :  DEC's           **
**                                   **
***************************************
***************************************

   Welcome to Basics of Hacking I: DEC's In this article you will learn how
to log in to DEC's, logging out, and all the fun stuff to do in-between.
All of this information is based on a standard DEC system.  Since there
are DEC systems 10 and 20, and we favor, the DEC 20, there will be more
info on them in this article.  It is also the more common of the two,
and is used by much more interesting people (if you know what we mean...)
Ok, the first thing you want to do when you are receiving carrier from
a DEC system is to find out the format of login names.  You can do this
by looking at who is on the system.

DEC=> @   (the 'exec' level prompt)
YOU=> SY

SY is short for SY(STAT) and shows you the system status.  You should see
|he format of login names... A SYSTAT usually comes up in this form:

Job  Line  Program  User

Job:     The JOB number (Not important unless you want to log them off later)
Line:    What line they are on (used to talk to them...)
         These are both two or three digit numbers.
Program: What program are they running under?  If it says 'EXEC' they aren't
         doing anything at all...
User:    ahhhAHHHH!  This is the user name they are logged in under...

Copy the format, and hack yourself out a working code...
Login format is as such:

DEC=> @
YOU=> login username password

Username is the username in the format you saw above in the SYSTAT.  After you
hit the space after your username, it will stop echoing characters back to
your screen.  This is the password you are typing in...  Remember, people
usually use their name, their dog's name, the name of a favorite character
in a book, or something like this.  A few clever people have it set to a key
cluster (qwerty or asdfg).  PW's can be from 1 to 8 characters long, anything
after that is ignored.
   It would be nice to have a little help, wouldn't it?  Just type a ?
or the word HELP, and it will give you a whole list of topics...
Some handy characters for you to know would be the control keys, wouldn't it?
Backspace on a DEC 20 is rub which is 255 on your ASCII chart.  On the DEC 10
it is Ctrl-H.  To abort a long listing or a program, Ctrl-C works fine.  Use
Ctrl-O to stop long output to the terminal.  This is handy when playing
a game, but you don't want to Ctrl-C out.  Ctrl-T for the time.  Ctrl-U
will kill the whole line you are typing at the moment.  You may accidently
run a program where the only way out is a Ctrl-X, so keep that in reserve.
Ctrl-S to stop listing, Ctrl-Q to continue on both systems.  Is your
terminal having trouble??  Like, it pauses for no reason, or it doesn't
backspace right?  This is because both systems support many terminals,
and you haven't told it what yours is yet...  You are using a VT05 (Isn't
that funny?  I thought i had an apple) so you need to tell it you are one.

DEC=> @
YOU=> information terminal
      or...
YOU=> info ter

This shows you what your terminal is set up as...

DEC=>  all sorts of shit, then the @
YOU=>  set ter vt05

This sets your terminal type to VT05. Now let's see what is in the account
(here after abbreviated acct.) that you have hacked onto...

SAY => DIR

short for directory, it shows you what the user of the code has save to the
disk.  There should be a format like this:  xxxxx.ooo      xxxxx is the file
name, from 1 to 20 characters long.  ooo is the file type, one of:
exe, txt, dat, bas, cmd   and a few others that are system dependant.
Exe is a compiled program that can be run (just by typing its name at the @).
Txt is a text file, which you can see by typing=> type xxxxx.txt
Do not try to=> type xxxxx.exe This is very bad for your terminal and
will tell you absolutly nothing. Dat is data they have saved.
Bas is a basic program, you can have it typed out for you.
Cmd is a command type file, a little too complicated to go into here.

TRY => take xxxxx.cmd

By the way, there are other usersout there who may have files you can
use (Gee, why else am i here?).

TYPE => DIR <*.*>   (DEC 20)
     => DIR [*,*]   (DEC 10)
* is a wildcard, and will allow you

to access the files on other accounts if the user has it set for public
access.  If it isn't set for public access, then you won't see it.
to run that program:

DEC=> @
YOU=> username program-name

Username is the directory you saw the file listed under, and file name was
what else but the file name?

**  YOU ARE NOT ALONE  **
Remember, you said (at the very start) SY  short for SYSTAT, and how we said
this showed the other users on the system?  Well, you can talk to them,
or at least send a message to anyone you see listed in a SYSTAT.  You can
do this by:

DEC=> the user list (from your systat)
YOU=> talk username     (DEC 20)
      send username     (DEC 10)

Talk allows you and them immediate conferencing.

Description: Hackign Data General (Knights of Shadow IV)
  File Date: 6-21-87
  File Time: 6:36 am

***************************************
***************************************
**                                   **
**       Hacking III: Data           **
**                    General        **
**                                   **
***************************************
***************************************

   Welcome to the basics of hacking III: Data General computers.
Data General is favored by large corporations who need to have a lot of
data on-line.  The Data General AOS, which stands for Advance on of
bastardized UNIX. All the commands which were in the UNIX article, will
work on a Data General.  Once again, we have the problem of not knowing
the format for the login name on the Data General you want to hack.  As
seems to be standard, try names from one to 8 digits long.  Data General
designed the computer to be for businessmen, and is thus very simplistic,
and basically fool proof (but not damn fool proof).  It follows the same
login format as the unix system:

DG=> login:
DG=> password:
YOU=> password

Passwords can be a maximum of 8 characters, and they are almost always
set to a default of 'AOS' or 'DG'. (any you know about businessmen...)

   A word about control characters:
Ctrl-O stops massive print-outs to the screen, but leaves you in whatever
mode you were.  (A technical word on what this actually does:  It tells the
CPU to ignore the terminal, and prints everything out to the CPU!  This is
about 19200 baud, and so it seems like it just cancels.)  Ctrl-U kills the
line you are typing at the time.  Now for the weird one:  Ctrl-C tells the
CPU to stop, and wait for another ctrl character.  To stop a program,
you actually need to type Ctrl-C and then a Ctrl-B.

   Once you get on, type 'HELP'.  Many DG (Data General) computers are sold
in a package deal, which also gets the company free customizing.  So you never
know what commands there might be.  So we will follow what is known as the
'ECLIPSE STANDARD', or''ctory like. To find out the files on the directory
you are using, type

=> DIR

To run a program, just like on a DEC, just type its name.  Other than this,
and running other people's programs, there really isn't a standard...

***  HARK, yon other system users  ***

To see who is on, type => WHO remember?).  This shows the other users,
what they are doing, and what paths they are connected across.  This
is handy, so try a few of those paths yourself.  To send a message, say

=> send username

This is a one time message, just like send on the DEC 10.  From here on, try
commands from the other previous files and from the 'HELP' listing.

superuser:
If you can get privs, just say:

=> superuser on

and you turn those privs on!
By the way, you remember that computers keep a log of what people do?  type:

=> syslog /stop

and it no longer records anything you do on the system, or any of the other
users.  It screams to high heaven that it was you who turned it off, but it
keeps no track of any accounts created or whatever else you may do.  You can

say=>  syslog /start

to turn it back on (now why would you want to do something like that?????)
To exit from the system, type=> BYE and the system will hang up on you.

   Most of the systems around, including DECs, VAX's, and DG's, have games.
These are usually located in a path or directory of the name  games or <games>
or games:  Try looking in them, and you might find adventure, zork, wumpus
(with bent arrows in hand) or a multitude of others. There may also be
games called 'CB' or 'FORUM'. These are a sort of computer conference call.
Use them on weekends, and you can meet all sorts of interesting people.

   If you would like to see more articles on hacking (this time far more than
just the basics), or maybe articles on networks and such, then leave us mail
if we are on the system, or have the sysop search us down.  We call a lot
of places, and you may just find us.

***************************************
***************************************
This completes the series of articles on hacking...
The Basics of Hacking: Introduction
The Basics of Hacking I: DEC's
The Basics of Hacking II: VAX's (UNIX)
The Basics of Hacking III: DG's
***************************************
***************************************
This and the previous articles by:
The Knights of Shadow
***************************************
***************************************

Downloaded From P-80 International Information Systems 304-744-2253

The Basics of Hacking, by The Knights of Shadow (Data General)

******************************************************************************
		 ** THE BASICS OF HACKING III:	DATA **
******************************************************************************
WELCOME TO THE BASICS OF HACKING III:  DATA GENERAL COMPUTERS.	DATA GENERAL IS
FAVORED BY LARGE CORPORATIONS WHO NEED TO HAVE A LOT OF DATA ON-LINE.  THE DATA
GENERAL AOS, WHICH STANDS FOR ADVANCED OPERATING SYSTEM, IS A VERSION OF
BASTARDIZED UNIX.  ALL THE COMMANDS WHICH WERE IN THE UNIX ARTICLE, WILL WORK
ON A DATA GENERAL.  ONCE AGAIN, WE HAVE THE PROBLEM OF NOT KNOWING THE FORMAT
FOR THE LOGIN NAME ON THE DATA GENERAL YOU WANT TO HACK.  AS SEEMS TO BE
STANDARD, TRY NAMES FROM ONE TO 8 DIGIT S LONG.  DATA GENERAL DESIGNED THE
COMPUTER TO BE FOR BUSINESSMEN, AND IS THUS VERY SIMPLISTIC, AND BASICALLY FOOL
PROOF (BUT NOT DAMN FOOL PROOF).  IT FOLLOWS THE SAME LOGIN FORMAT AS THE UNIX
SYSTEM:  DG=> LOGIN:  YOU=> USERNAME DG=> PASSWORD:  YOU=> PASSWORD PASSWORDS
CAN BE A MAXIMUM OF 8 CHARACTERS, AND THEY ARE ALMOST ALWAYS SET TO A DEFAULT
OF 'AOS' OR 'DG'.  (ANY YOU KNOW ABOUT BUSINESSMEN...) A WORD ABOUT CONTROL
CHARACTERS:  CNTRL-O STOPS MASSIVE PRINTOUTS TO THE SCREEN, BUT LEAVES YOU IN
WHATEVER MODE YOU WERE.  (A TECHNICAL WORD ON WHAT THIS ACTUALLY DOES:	IT
TELLS THE CPU TO IGNORE THE TERMINAL, AND PRINTS EVERYTHING OUT TO THE CPU!
THIS IS ABOUT 19200 BAUD, AND SO IT SEEMS LIKE IT JUST CANCELS.) CNTRL-U KILLS
THE LINE YOU ARE TYPING AT THE TIME.  NOW FOR THE WEIRD ONE:  CNTRL-C TELLS THE
CPU TO STOP, AND WAIT FOR ANOTHER CNTRL CHARACTER.  TO STOP A PROGRAM, YOU
ACTUALLY NEED TO TYPE CNTR L-C AND THEN A CNTRL-B.  ONCE YOU GET ON, TYPE
'HELP'.  MANY DG (DATA GENERAL) COMPUTERS ARE SOLD IN A PACKAGE DEAL, WHICH
ALSO GETS THE COMPANY FREE CUSTOMIZING.  SO YOU NEVER KNOW WHAT COMMANDS THERE
MIGHT BE.  SO WE WILL FOLLOW WHAT IS KNOWN AS THE 'ECLIPSE STANDARD', OR WHAT
IT COMES OUT OF THE FACTORY LIKE.  TO FIND OUT THE FILES ON THE DIRECTORY YOU
ARE USING, TYPE => DIR TO RUN A PROGRAM, JUST LIKE ON A DEC, JUST TYPE ITS
NAME.  OTHER THAN THIS, AND RUNNING OTHER PEOPLE'S PROGRAMS, THERE REALLY ISN'T
A STANDARD...  *** HARK, YON OTHER SYSTEM USERS *** TO SEE WHO IS ON, TYPE =>
WHO (AND A LOT OF THE OTHER UNIX COMMAN DS, REMEMBER?).  THIS SHOWS THE OTHER
USERS, WHAT THEY ARE DOING, AND WHAT PATHS THEY ARE CONNECTED ACROSS.  THIS IS
HANDY, SO TRY A FEW OF THOSE PATHS YOUR SELF.  TO SEND A MESSAGE, SAY => SEND
USERNAME THIS IS A ONE TIME MESSAGE, JUST LIKE SEND ON THE DEC 10.  FROM HERE
ON, TRY COMMANDS FROM THE OTHER PREVIOUS FILES AND FROM THE 'HELP' LISTING.
SUPERUSER:  IF YOU CAN GET PRIVS, JUST SAY:  => SUPERUSER ON AND YOU TURN THOSE
PRIVS ON!  BY THE WAY, YOU REMEMBER THAT COMPUTERS KEEP A LOG OF WHAT PEOPLE
DO?  TYPE:  => SYSLOG /STOP AND IT NO LONGER RECORDS ANYTHING YOU DO ON THE
SYSTEM, OR ANY OF THE OTHER USERS.  IT SCREAMS TO HIGH HEAVEN THAT IT WAS YOU
WHO TURNED IT OFF, BUT IT KEEPS NO TRACK OF ANY ACCOUNTS CREATED OR WHATEVER
ELSE YOU MAY DO.  YOU CAN SAY=> SYSLOG /STA RT TO TURN IT BACK ON (NOW WHY
WOULD YOU WANT TO DO SOMETHING LIKE THAT?????  ) TO EXIT FROM THE SYSTEM,
TYPE=> BYE AND THE SYSTEM WILL HANG UP ON YOU.	MOST OF THE SYSTEMS AROUND,
INCLUDING DECS, VAX'S, AND DG'S, HAVE GAMES.  THESE ARE USUALLY LOCATED IN A
PATH OR DIRECTORY OF THE NAME GAMES OR <GAMES> OR GAMES:  TRY LOOKING IN THEM,
AND YOU MAY FIND SOME TREK GAMES, ADVENTURE, ZORK, WUMPUS (WITH BENT ARROWS IN
HAND) OR A MULTITUDE OF OTHERS.  THERE MAY ALSO BE GAMES CALLED 'CB' OR
'FORUM'.  THESE ARE A SORT OF COMPUTER CONFERENCE CALL.  USE THEM ON WEEKENDS,
AND YOU CAN MEET ALL SORTS OF INTERESTING PEOPLE.
******************************************************************************
IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO SEE MORE ARTICLES ON HACKING (THIS TIME FAR MORE THAN JUS
T THE BASICS), OR MAYBE ARTICLES ON NETWORKS AND SUCH, THEN LEAVE US MAIL IF WE
ARE ON THE SYSTEM, OR HAVE THE SYSOP SEARCH US DOWN.  WE CALL A LOT OF PLACES,
AND YOU MAY JUST FIND US.  THIS COMPLETES THE SERIES OF ARTICLES ON HACKING...
THESE ARTICLES WERE:  THE BASICS OF HACKING:  INTRODUCTION THE BASICS OF
HACKING I:  DEC'S THE BASICS OF HACKING II:  VAX'S (UNIX) THE BASICS OF HACKING
III:  DG'S THIS AND THE PREVIOUS ARTICLES BY:  THE KNIGHTS OF SHADOW [END] 1984
NOTE FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THESE ARTI CLES LEAVE EMAIL TO :  THE KNIGHTS OF
SHADOW ON THE PPS SUPERSYSTEM (206) 783-9798 [25] COUNT 'EM [25] MEGS!