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Hacking the Wang OS, by Dark Knight

Unauthorised Access UK 0636-708063 10pm-7am 12oo/24oo

%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+
%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+
%+% GAINING ENTRY +%+
%+% – +%+
%+% HACKING THE WANG O/S +%+
%+% – +%+
%+% BY +%+
%+% THE DARK KNIGHT +%+
%+% – +%+
%+% 14/4/90 +%+
%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+
%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+

DISCLAIMER:

The author takes no responsiblity for, nor does he assume any liability for,
damages resulting from the use of information in this document. This
document is for informational purposes only.

INTRODUCTION:

In the world as we know it WANG mainframes are in general use with many of
the largest companies trading today.

WANG has long boasted that their mainframes are one of the most secure
systems availible and in a bid to make this fact more valid they decided to
create what they thought was the most advanced and secure operating systems
availible for their machines.

WANG set out to make the operating system uncrackable by the hacker as we
know it. They decided that if the hacker could not get past the user id
and password he would be foiled, so the clever systems programers decided
that they would create the most elaberate encrypting routines possible for
the user ids and passwords, and this is exactly what they did!

CRACKING THE PASSWORD:

Say for example you wished to modify a wardialer program to find the
password for you… Taking the password to be six characters long, mixed
uper and lower case and no numeric characters. The wardialer makes a call
every 18 seconds on average and taking 10 seconds for three tries at the
password, running 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year, the
wardialer would take a maximum of 112 years to find a correct password!
This is assuming you have a valid user id to begin with! This is not
really what the hacker wants to hear, is it?!

Unfortunately there is also no guest or visitor id’s availible on the
system so you can’t drop into the operating system and take a look around!

GETTING IN:

It looks like WANG did a good job then doesn’t it! Well not quite! A few
bugs have managed to creap through, aiding the hacker. For example some
nice systems programmer left a back door in the operating system!!

With the relevant user id and password the hacker has access to the system,
but at this level you can’t really do much, certainly not play with the
hardware or jump to other systems, or can you? You can only run a few
applications, not much to write home about you may think, things like
documents and the odd file display program! Rooting about in a directory
called SYS or SYSTEM you may come across a file called USERLIST or
something similar (The file names are always eight characters long) Every
system has a log of its users, id’s and passwords. Not much use you may
think as the id’s and passwords have been encrypted by the system. This
was the major cockup on the part of WANG. The only thing they did not
encrypt was the user list!!!

Logging on under the user id of CSG (Computer Services Group) and using the
password SESAME takes you into the system, via the back door! At this
level you can run a program called DISPLAY to print up the userlist, non
encrypted! Capturing the user id’s and passwords as they flood up the
screen you can enjoy them in the comfort of your own home! Every user on
the system will be in the list, including the system managers and
engineers!!

O/S USERS:

So now you know how to gain full access to the system you may want to know
who uses it!

There are hundreds of user worldwide and these include: FORD, VIKING
INTERNATIONAL (Travel Company), and the worlds largest DRUG MANUFACTURING
COMPANY (Have a guess!! – Not ICI -) There are many more, more details
availble from me on request.

Many governments use the system, but have had the back door erradicated
during security checks, so don’t expect to gain access to those machines!

%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+
% This document was written by The Dark Knight.+
% Contact me on ANGEL BBS – 0772 795476 24hrs. +
% or on EQUALISER BBS – 0923 662127 24hrs. +
%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+%+

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+Sysops: Feel free to place this on your download section, but please ensure+
+that this document and credits remain intact and unchanged. Thank you. +
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
�������

Downloaded From P-80 International Information Systems 304-744-2253

Hacking the Wal-Mart Armorguard Computer Protection System

HACKING THE WAL-MART ARMORGUARD
COMPUTER PROTECTION SYSTEM.

***NOTE***
To use this, you must have a system disk (i.e. a disk that has been
formatted using [format a: /s]) in 3.5″ format under Windows 95, because that
is what they sell all of their computers with.

***NOTE***
In this file, instructions to be input into the computer are surrounded
by [ and ]. Keys are surrounded by < and >. So if I say “hit [] I
mean to hold down the control button and hit F1.

The armorguard is a program that prevents you from writing to the
directories, changing the attributes of files, and deleting files. It
basically prevents you from doing anything cool.

The first thing to do is to go into Wal-Mart. Now, go to the
computer section and turn off the screen saver. Shut down as many apps as
you can with the [] and then choosing a program and
hitting enter. You cannot simply do this to the ArmorGuard program.

The next thing to do is to go to the DOS PROMPT. Most Wal-Marts
take the mouse ball out of all of the display mice to make it harder to
control the system. If you are adept at putting your finger inside the mouse
and controlling it that way, fine. Otherwise, just hit [].
This activates the start menu. Select “Programs”, hit enter, then go down to
near the bottom of the “Programs” menu and select “MS-DOS PROMPT”. Hit enter.

Now you are in a DOS window and in the C:\Windows directory. Hit
[cd..] and then hit [fdisk /mbr], which restores the master boot record,
preventing the password prompt from coming up when you reset the computer.

Now just hit [] twice (once gets you to task manager,
twice reboots) and wait. When you see

Starting Windows 95…

on the screen, hit [] really fast just once, then choose “Verify
each step” (or something to that effect), usually choice number 4. It will
give you an A: prompt and say “Please give the path of your command interpreter,
i.e. C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND.COM”. At this point, put the system disk you have
made in the drive and hit [A:\COMMAND.COM]. Say “Yes” to everything except
the following:

Log this bootup? (Bootlog.txt)? (y/n)
C:\armguard.exe? (y/n)
(***OR ANYTHING ELSE STARTING WITH “C:\ARM”, LIKE “C:\ARMOR”,
for instance.)

If you have done this right, ARMGUARD SHOULDN’T COME UP AT ALL. If
it does, hit “command prompt only” instead of “Verify each step” and then
specify C:\AUTOEXEC.BAT and C:\CONFIG.SYS if it asks for the configuration
and the startup file. (IN THE OPPOSITE ORDER. CONFIG.SYS IS THE CONFIG FILE,
AUTOEXEC.BAT IS THE STARTUP FILE.) Then immediately hit [] and it will
give you step-by-step confirmation for each item. See above for the ones
to say no to. Then you want to hit

[C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\EDIT.COM C:\WINDOWS\WIN.INI]

and the DOS edit program will come up. Choose “Search” and hit “Find” and
then tell it to find ARM and make sure it’s NOT on match whole word only.
Delete any line with ARM in it that looks like a part of ArmorGuard. This
should prevent it from coming up on Windows.

*******IF NONE OF THIS WORKS, YOU HAVE TO TAKE THE READ-ONLY AND ARCHIVE
ATTRIBUTES OFF OF THE WIN.INI, SYSTEM.INI, AUTOEXEC.BAT, AND CONFIG.SYS FILES
BY HITTING [ATTRIB -A -R (c:\WHATEVERFILE.YOUWANTTODOTHISTO)]

*******I’D ALSO RECOMMEND EDITING THE AUTOEXEC.BAT FILE TO PREVENT ARMGUARD
FROM EVER COMING UP AGAIN.

****************THINGS TO DO AFTER HACKING ARMORGUARD***********

Hmmm….
USE YOUR IMAGINATION!

Think of this: Hit “shut down in MS-DOS mode” or start up in MS-DOS mode,
put your boot disk in drive a: and hit the following commands

[A:]
[FORMAT C:]

and then confirm this. You have just started the permanent erasing of
EVERYTHING on the hard drive. You can also do some other cool stuff with
it too, just basically IF YOU WOULD DO IT TO SOMEONE YOU HATE, DO IT TO
WAL-MART. Personally, I’d think that INSTEAD OF ERASING THE HARD DRIVE, I’D
WRITE A VIRUS AND PUT IT ON THE COMPUTER. THAT WOULD REALLY BE MORE FUN.
JUST STORE IT ON A FLOPPY AND COPY IT.

HAVE FUN, DON’T GET CAUGHT.
SINCERELY,
KwAnTAM_PoZeEtrON

Hacking the TI-85 Calculator, by David Boozer (September 1, 1994)

Path: linear!mv!news.sprintlink.net!howland.reston.ans.net!spool.mu.edu!uwm.edu!caen!linux.reshall.uich.edu!not-for-mail
From: john@linux.reshall.umich.edu (John Gotts)
Newsgroups: alt.2600
Subject: My TI-85 Calculator Hack (LONG)
Message-ID: <3a9o91$eav@srvr1.engin.umich.edu>
Date: 15 Nov 1994 07:33:53 GMT
Organization: Linux in the Baits Residence Hall at the University of Michigan
Lines: 695
NNTP-Posting-Host: linux.reshall.umich.edu
X-Newsreader: TIN [UNIX 1.3 941109BETA PL0]

I thought you guys would be interested in this.

[ Article reposted from alt.hackers ]
[ Author was David Boozer ]
[ Posted on Sat, 12 Nov 1994 18:45:15 GMT ]

Several people have been asking for the document I was referring to in my
previous message, so I decided to post the whole thing to alt.hackers.

– David Boozer (adb2y@virginia.edu)

ObHack:

The following document:

+============================================================================
|
| Hacking the TI-85 Calculator
| by
| David Boozer (adb2y@virginia.edu)
|
| September 1, 1994
|
+============================================================================

This document explains how to do various spiffy things with your TI-85, such
as dumping the TI-85’s ROM and programming the TI-85 in machine language. I
have included several programs I wrote which are useful for TI hacking, and
an .85B file containing the first (to my knowledge) machine language program
ever written for the TI-85 (well, except for the ROM, of course :)). The
information provided here has been obtained by diddling around with .85B
produced using the LINK85 package – the basic method is to:

(1) Make a backup of the calculator

(2) Study the backup

(3) Patch the backup

(4) Send it back to the calculator

Much of the information I have learned about the TI-85 has not made it into
this document, but I have tried to include the essentials. I am working on a
more comprehensive version which should be ready in a few weeks. Classes
have just started, and I figured I should write something up while I still
have lots of free time on my hands :). Well, have fun tinkering around and
send questions/comments to adb2y@virginia.edu.

* All numbers are in hexadecimal, unless otherwise stated

** The procedures outlined here could cause your TI to crash. If this
happens, remove one of the batteries, hold down the ON key for a few
seconds, and replace the battery. Also, remember to turn up the contrast
by doing 2nd up-arrow a few times after you turn the calculator on. If
you are at all squeamish about crashing your TI, then don’t try these
procedures (but you still might like to read about them).

+—————————————————————————-
| The Structure of a .85B File
+—————————————————————————-

An .85B file has the following format:

File Offset Contents

0000 – 0034 Header
0035 – 0036 Size word (Number of data bytes)
0037 – XXXX-2 Data bytes (obtained from TI-85)
XXXX-1 – XXXX Checksum word

The header contains the string “**TI85**”, and the file comment that you see
when using LINK85. The size word at offset 0035 is the number of bytes that
contain data obtained from the TI-85, and is equal to:

(Size of .85B file in bytes)
– (35 bytes for the header)
– (2 bytes for the size word)
– (2 bytes for the checksum)
——————————
(# of data bytes)

Thus:

(# of data bytes) = (Size of .85B file in bytes) – 39

The checksum word is calculated by adding together all the data bytes (but NOT
bytes from the header, size word, or checksum word) MOD 10000. I wrote a
little assembly program called FIX.COM to automagically adjust the checksum
word of a .85B file to the correct value:

begin 644 fix.com
MOX“[email protected]*R#+M@_D`=’E)1XH%/”!T\T&+][^2`?.DN`(]NI(!S2&+V’)4M#^Y
M`(“Z,0+-(:.0`7)%OV8″BPTSP#/2B_F!QV@”3XH5`\+B^8L^D`&!QR\”B06X
M`$(SR3/2S2%R&K1`BPZ0`;HQ`LTA<@VT";H4`LTAM#[-(OQ
MNO0!M`G-(Foo
5->Bletch

Notice how these variables appear in the RAM image – each variable has an
entry in a symbol table. This is what the entry for the “Foo” variable means:

+— The number of characters in the variable name (3)
|
| +–+— The address of the variable in memory (8C14)
| | |
6F 6F 46 03-8C 14 00
| | | |
| | | +— The type of the variable (00 => REAL)
| | |
+–+–+— The name of the variable, backwards (Foo)

Note that the address of the variable in memory is stored high order byte
first!

Thus, the symbol table from the above hex dump gives us the following
information:

Variable Name Address of Variable Type of Variable

xStat 8BF7 04 => LIST
yStat 8BF9 04 => LIST
Ans 8BFB 00 => REAL
Foo 8C14 00 => REAL
Bletch 8C1E 00 => REAL

Variables “xStat”, “yStat”, and “Ans” were created automatically by the
calculator.

The bytes for different types of variables are given below:

Type Byte Variable Type

00 REAL
01 CMPLX
02 VECTR
03 VECTR
04 LIST
05 LIST
06 MATRX
07 MATRX
08 CONS
09 CONS
0A EQU
0B
0C STRNG
0D GDB
0E GDB
0F GDB
10 GDB
11 PIC
12 PRGM

Now, remember that a byte at offset XXXX in the .85B file corresponds to
a byte at address 8C00 + (XXXX – 0900) in the TI-85’s RAM. Thus, since
the variable “Foo” is located at address 8C14 in RAM, it must be located
at offset

(8C14 – 8C00) + 0900 = 0914

in our .85B file. If we look at the ten bytes at 0914 in the above hex dump,
we see the following:

00 02 FC 12 30 00 00 00 00 00

What it means is this:

+— (one byte)
|
| +–+–+–+–+–+–+— (in BCD, 7 bytes)
| | | | | | | |
00 02 FC 12 30 00 00 00 00 00
| |
+–+— (in hex, 2 bytes)

Thus, for the variable “Foo”:

= FC
= 2
= 1.23

The value of the variable is given by:

Value = E[ + (100)( – FC)]

So for “Foo”:

Value = (1.23)E[2 – (100)(FC – FC)]
= (1.23)E(2)
= 123

Note that numbers which are less than one may be represented by using a
which is less than FC.

We have seen how data in the .85B file corresponds to data in the TI-85. The
key points are:

– We can edit the .85B file

– Data in the .85B file is put into RAM when the .85B file is loaded

– Hence, by editing the .85B file, we can diddle around with bytes in
the TI-85’s RAM

– In particular, we can edit the memory address of a variable – make it
point to something OTHER than the data it was given when it was
created. This brings us to…

+—————————————————————————-
| Dumping the TI-85’s ROM
+—————————————————————————-

The method I developed to dump the TI’s ROM is the following:

(1) Clear the calculator, then use STPIC to make a PIC file – lets call it
“PIC1”

(2) Back up the calculator – we then get a file “BACKUP.85B”

(3) Edit “BACKUP.85B” – change the memory address of “PIC1” to point to a
ROM location

(4) Fix up the checksum of “BACKUP.85B”

(5) Transfer the hacked version of “BACKUP.85B” to the TI-85

(6) Use RCPIC to load “PIC1” into the graphics screen – the stuff you see
on the screen is ROM data

(7) Use STPIC to store this ROM data in a new PIC file – lets call it “Dump”

(8) Transfer “Dump” from the TI-85 to your computer

(9) Strip of header & other junk from “Dump”

You now have a 3F0 byte core dump of the TI-85’s ROM. I wrote an assembly
program called DUMP.COM to automate most of this:

begin 644 dump.com
MM`FZ”0+-(3/;OX“[email protected][8/Y`’0Z24>*!3P@=/-!,N2#^0!T*DD\87P&/’I_
[email protected]@+#`\”GP”+`<*P'P3/`]_#]'CT>/1X]’C`]A’[email protected]>Z@&+P^B’`+0)
MNDT”S2&_%A”AZ@%(2(;@B06_/P.+#3/`,]*+^8”00-/BA4#PN+YOSD-@<<( M`XD%M#PSR;KL`+L0@“!“(““`P(“`P$@““`%““““““““(#\@/V.$;81W
MA(&$BX25A!4“(`!_!“““““`/P““““`@@“`/P“““““`#\
M8H,84P<8``#_^Q,(F6DXF5<``/P```````````#\````````````_&*#&%,' M&```__L3")EI.)E7@`'\$``````````!_!```````````/P0````````@`'\ M$``````````!_!```````````/P0`````````/W[$`````````#[^Q`````` M`````/Q```````````#\0`````````#_^Q6',!6',!8`__LR)8!D46$I``#\ M8P``````````_#$```````!1``#``?P0````````0`'\$````````$``_!`` M``````#``?P0````````0`'\$````````$``_!````````"``?P0```````` M``'\[email protected]!Q@``/_[$PB9:3B95X`! M_!```````````?P0``````````#\$````````(`!_!```````````?P0```` M``````#\[email protected]!Q@``/_[$PB9:3B9 M5X`!_!```````````?P0``````````#\$````````(`!_!```````````?P0 M``````````#\$````````'$```#]^Q```````````/P```````````#\```` M````````_&*#&%,'&```__L3")EI.)E7@`'\$``````````!_!`````````` M`/P0````````@`'\$``````````!_!```````````/P0`````````!``]_\` M`$SZ"8SW_P`````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````$_!(T4``` M````!/QGB0````````````````````````````4"`````"`@("`@("`@("`@ M("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@ M("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@ M("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@ M("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@(`````````F,"8Q"]D+V`````/?_``#F M9PX+H6@`!P```````````/\````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M`````````````````````/?_```%D``````````````````````````````` M"0\`````````````````````````````````````````.VH`]__W_T?Z]_\% MD`60!9`_^C_Z`````#_Z``````````````X$````````_``````````````` M``#\`````````/`#```````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M````````````````````````````````````````,``Q0TE0!)Q9$7D!C`D` E(0&,!Q(C`8P%$G-N00.+^P!T8713>06+^01T8713>`6+]P3FNP“
`
end

To use the program, type:

DUMP [address, in hex]

This will create a file called “BACKUP.85B” with all the necessary
modifications already made (ie. in effect, it performs steps 1 to 4). Just
send this to your TI as outlined in steps 5 to 9 in the above list, and you
will end up with a file called DUMP.85I. Bytes 0000 to 0044 of DUMP.85I are
the header & can be ignored; bytes from 0045 onward contain the ROM data.
Here is a dump I made of memory address 33D9:

33D0 E3 F5 D5 5E 23 56 23 …^#V#
33E0 7E D3 05 EB D1 F1 E3 C9-CD AC 33 38 7D 06 CD AC ~………38}…
33F0 33 7B 7D 06 CD AC 33 81-43 07 CD AC 33 12 49 07 3{}…3.C…3.I.
3400 CD AC 33 65 67 06 CD AC-33 12 69 06 CD AC 33 5C ..3eg…3.i…3\
3410 69 06 CD AC 33 26 6D 06-CD AC 33 D6 41 07 CD AC i…3&m…3.A…
3420 33 8B 68 07 CD AC 33 6F-7D 06 CD AC 33 16 52 07 3.h…3o}…3.R.
3430 CD AC 33 54 54 07 CD AC-33 59 77 06 CD AC 33 1F ..3TT…3Yw…3.
3440 4B 07 CD AC 33 D6 5D 06-CD AC 33 09 55 06 CD AC K…3.]…3.U…
3450 33 F9 56 06 CD AC 33 D3-57 3.V…3.W

I ran this through a Z80 disassembler to get the following code:

33D9: E3 EX (SP),HL
33DA: F5 PUSH AF
33DB: D5 PUSH DE
33DC: 5E LD E,(HL)
33DD: 23 INC HL
33DE: 56 LD D,(HL)
33DF: 23 INC HL
33E0: 7E LD A,(HL)
33E1: D3 05 OUT (PORT05H),A
33E3: EB EX DE,HL
33E4: D1 POP DE
33E5: F1 POP AF
33E6: E3 EX (SP),HL
33E7: C9 RET
33E8: CD AC 33 CALL L33AC
33EB: 38 7D JR C,L346A
33ED: 06 CD LD B,205
33EF: AC XOR H
33F0: 33 INC SP
33F1: 7B LD A,E
33F2: 7D LD A,L
33F3: 06 CD LD B,205
33F5: AC XOR H
33F6: 33 INC SP
33F7: 81 ADD A,C
33F8: 43 LD B,E
etc.

+—————————————————————————-
| A Few Technical Tidbits about the TI-85
+—————————————————————————-

In the next section I will discuss how to write your own machine language
programs, but before I do, we will need a few facts about the TI-85. First
of all, we need some information about the video display:

Mode Address Dimensions Size (in bytes)

Text 80DD 8 x 21 8*21 = 168 bytes
Graphics 8641 63 x 128 (63*128)/8 = 1008 bytes

Next, we need to understand the CUSTOM menu. At offset 08B1 in a .85B file,
you will see a sequence of 1C bytes, as shown:

08B0 9C 59 00 00 A1 59 00-00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
08C0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 00

Each pair of bytes (word) corresponds to menu item in the CUSTOM menu. In the
above example, we have

Item # Name Word

Item #1 “abs” 599C
Item #2 0000
Item #3 “and” 59A1
Items #4 0000
: :
: :
Item #15 0000

The word associated with a menu item is a memory address – it points to a
data structure, such as:

41 00 07 C3 40 3F 45 44 49 54 00

There are actually several possible data structures, but this is the most
useful.

This data structure means the following:

+–+–+–+——- ??? (I have some ideas, but no time to explain…)
| | | |
| | | | +–+–+–+— Name of menu item (EDIT)
| | | | | | | |
41 00 07 C3 40 3F 45 44 49 54 00
| | |
| | +– Zero termination byte
| |
+–+— Memory address (3F40)

When you select a menu item, the code at “Memory address” is executed – in
this case, the code ad 3F40 is executed. Using my DUMP program, I was able
to dump this memory location to find:

3F40 C3 D9 33

Or, in Z80-speak:

C3 D9 33 CALL 33D9

With this information, we can move on to…

+—————————————————————————-
| Writing Machine Language Programs
+—————————————————————————-

The basic idea is this:

(1) Edit the BACKUP.85B file so that the item #1 of the custom menu
points to 8641 (the first byte of the graphics display)

(2) By editing PIC files (or drawing the bits in manually :)), we can
diddle around with bytes in the video memory.

(3) Put the following bytes in the video memory:

41 00 07 C3 50 86 45 00

Note that the memory address 8650 is also in the video memory.

(4) Put your machine language program at address 8650.

Now, when you select item #1 of the custom menu, your program will be
executed! Just as a demonstration, I created the following .85I file, to
be loaded into video memory:

0000 2A 2A 54 49 38 35 2A 2A-1A 0C 00 50 69 63 74 75 **TI85**…Pictu
0010 72 65 20 66 69 6C 65 20-64 61 74 65 64 20 30 39 re file dated 09
0020 2F 30 31 2F 39 34 2C 20-32 31 3A 30 38 00 00 55 /01/94, 21:08..U
0030 27 F5 5D AE 92 FE 03 08-00 F2 03 11 04 44 75 6D ‘.]……….Dum
0040 70 F2 03 F0 03 41 00 07-C3 50 86 45 00 00 00 00 p….A…P.E….
0050 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 …………….
0060 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 …………….
0070 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 …………….
0080 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 …………….
0090 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 …………….
00A0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 …………….
00B0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 …………….
00C0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 …………….
00D0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 …………….
00E0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 …………….
00F0 C3 40 3F 00 00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 .F?………….

The first 44 bytes are just header info – ignore them. The stuff at offset
0045 is our menu data structure:

41 00 07-C3 50 86 45 00
| |
+–+— Points to 8650

The three bytes at 00F0 represent a JP (jump) instruction on the Z80:

C3 46 3F JP 3F40

Address 3F40 is the code for the “Edit Matrix” menu item. What about all
the zeros between 004C and 00F0? Well, 00 is a NOP on the Z80, so they do
nothing.

The sequence of events is as follows:

(1) The user selects item #1 from the CUSTOM menu

(2) The TI looks at memory location 8641, which is the first byte of
video memory (remember, we changed the CUSTOM menu so that item #1
would point here)

(3) The TI finds the bytes:

41 00 07 C3 50 86 45 00

which we cleverly placed in the graphics display (and hence at memory
address 8641)

(4) Thus, the calculator executes the instruction at 8650

(5) At 8650, it encounters a string of NOPs (zeros), leading up to

C3 46 3F JP 3F40

The TI takes the jump, which leads to the matrix editor

Here is a backup of the TI-85 all set up to demonstrate the above program:

begin 644 backup.85b
[email protected]*BH:#`!”[email protected]!D871E9″`P.2\P,2\Y-“P@,3DZ,3D`
M+@!5)_5=KI(*$0D`L0@[email protected]`/>+L0@@`!“(“!`0P(“`R$@““`%`0“
M““““““(#\@/V.$;81WA(&$BX25A!4“,`!_!“““““`/P““`
M““@@“`/P“““““`#\8H,84P<8``#_^Q,(F6DXF5<``/P````````` M``#\````````````_&*#&%,'&```__L3")EI.)E7@`'\$``````````!_!`` M`````````/P0````````@`'\$``````````!_!```````````/P0```````` M`/W[$`````````#[^Q```````````/Q```````````#\0`````````#_^Q6' M,!6',!8`__LR)8!D46$I``#\8P``````````_#$```````!1``#``?P0```` M````0`'\$````````$``_!````````#``?P0````````0`'\$````````$`` M_!````````"``?P0``````````'\$````````%L`````_````````````/QB [email protected]!Q@``/_[$PB9:3B95X`!_!```````````?P0``````````#\$``````` M`(`!_!```````````?P0``````````#\$````````%L`````_``````````` [email protected]!Q@``/_[$PB9:3B95X`!_!```````````?P0``````````#\$``` M`````(`!_!```````````?P0``````````#\$````````'$```#]^Q`````` M`````/P```````````#\````````````_&*#&%,'&```__L3")EI.)E7@`'\ M$``````````!_!```````````/P0````````@`'\$``````````!_!`````` M`````/P0`````````!``]_\``$SZ&8SW_P`````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M````````````````````````````00`'PU"&10`````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M````````````````PT`_```````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` M```````````````$_!(T4```````!/QGB0``````$@`C,Y4```````>,&(P6
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V– -po+(—) Y+ t+ 5 j+ R- G? tv b+ D B- e+ u— h f+ r n- y?

X-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-X
Another file downloaded from: NIRVANAnet(tm)

&TOTSE 510/935-5845 Walnut Creek, CA Taipan Enigma
Burn This Flag 408/363-9766 San Jose, CA Zardoz
realitycheck 415/648-9489 San Francisco, CA Poindexter Fortran
Phallicide 408/899-0235 Monterey, CA Reclinerhead
Governed Anarchy 510/226-6656 Fremont, CA Eightball
New Dork Sublime 805/823-1346 Tehachapi, CA Biffnix
The Ether Room 510/228-1146 Martinez, CA Tiny Little Super Guy
Lies Unlimited 801/278-2699 Salt Lake City, UT Mick Freen
The Shrine 206/793-3465 Monroe, WA Rif Raf
Atomic Books 410/669-4179 Baltimore, MD Baywolf
Sea of Noise 203/886-1441 Norwich, CT Mr. Noise
The Floating Pancreas 305/424-0266 Ft. Lauderdale, FL Majestic Cockster
The Dojo 713/436-1795 Pearland, TX Yojimbo
Frayed Ends of Sanity 503/965-6747 Cloverdale, OR Flatline

“Raw Data for Raw Nerves”
X-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-X

Hacking Primos Systems By Nanuk of the North

=======================================
= =
= HACKING PRIMOS SYSTEMS =
= =
= BY NANUK OF THE NORTH =
= =
=======================================

PREFACE
——-

VERRY LITTLE HAS BEEN WRITTEN ON THE PRIMOS SYSTEM AND SO IT IS THE PURPOSE OF THIS FILE TO PROVIDE SOME USEFULL INFORMATION ON THIS TYPE OF SYSTEM.

THE FOLLOWING NOTATION WILL BE USED..

CARRIAGE RETURN, RETURN OR ENTER (CHR$(13))

^ A CONTROL CHARACTER LIKE ^C (BREAK, RUN STOP, OR CHR$(3))

HOW TO TELL A PRIMOS SYSTEM
—————————

A PRIMOS SYSTEM CAN BE RECOGNISED BY ITS UNUSUAL PROMPT

ER!

AND ITS UNUSUAL ERROR MESSAGE

INVALID COMMAND “HELP”. (LOGO$CP)

ALL “PRIMENET” SYSTEMS ARE PRIMOS

LOGGING ON
———-

TO LOG ON TO A PRIMOS SYSTEM HIT ANY TWO KEYS AND THE SYSTEM WILL THEN RESPOND

LOGIN PLEASE.

ER!

YOU MUST THEN TYPE AT THE PROMPT

ER! LOGIN (LOG HEADING)

THE FOLLOWING BACK DOORS TO LOGIN MAY BE FOUND IN MANY PRIMOS SYSTEMS

ER! LOGIN GAMES

ER! LOGIN DEMO

AND MOST IMPORTANTLY

ER! LOGIN SYSTEM

LOGIN SYSTEM WILL USUALLY LOG YOU IN AS THE SYSTEM OPERATOR!

USUALLY IF YOU KNOW SOMETHING ABOUT THE SYSTEM THIS WILL HELP YOU FIND A VALID LOGIN HEADING… LIKE THE NAME OF THE SYSTEM ETC.

USER NAMES AND PASSWORDS
————————

AT THIS POINT MOST SYSTEMS WILL BEGIN RUNNING A SOFTWARE PACKAGE OF SOME KIND… THE PASSWORDS TO MOST SUCH PACKAGES ARE A MAXIMUM OF 6 CHARACTERS. AT THIS POINT ON MANY OF THE LESS UPDATED SYSTEMS A PASSWORD IS NOT NECISSARY JUST TYPE ^C AND THE SYSTEM WLL RESPOND LIKE THIS…

PASSWORD:^C END OF FILE.

ER!

IF THE SYSTEM IS AN UPDATED ONE THEN ^C AT THIS POINT WILL SIMPLY CAUSE THE SYSTEM TO ISSUE A LINEFEED AND REPEAT ITSELF. IN THAT CASE YOU WILL NEED TO HACK OUT A VALID PASSWORD.

BREAKING THE SYSTEM
——————-

IF YOU ARE ABLE TO GET IN WITH A PASSWORD YOU WILL AT THIS POINT STILL NEED TO BREAK THE SYSTEM AT THE FIRST AVAILABLE PROMPT. AGAIN IT WILL THEN RESPOND…

END OF FILE.

ER!

YOU HAVE NOW GAINED ACCESS TO THE OPERATING SYSTEM.

PRIMOS COMMANDS
—————
THE PRIMOS COMMANDS ARE DIFFICULT AND DIFICULT TO UNDERSTAND… MANY OF THEM ARE ONLY ONE OR TWO CHARACHTERS HOWEVER, MAKING THEM EASY TO HACK OUT.

LI= LISTS FILES FOR THAT LOG HEADING

LI (FILE NAME) LISTS A FILE

LA=ON SOME SYSTEMS THIS LIST FURTHER FILES

TI= TIME ON THE SYSTEM

LO=LOG OUT

CR=CREATE A FILE

LD=LIST FILE DIVISIONS

USAGE=LISTS SYSTEM STATISTICS

ED=EDIT A FILE

TY=LIST OF USERS ON SYSTEM

AT=ATTACH TO A LOG HEADING

ATTACHING
———

THE AT (ATTATCH) COMMAND WILL ALLOW YOU TO ACCESS OTHER LOG HEADINGS SO THAT YOU DONT HAVE TO LOG IN AS A HEADING TO GET AT THOSE FILES… SO IF YOU ARE LOGED IN AS “USER” AND YOU TYPE…

ER! AT SYSTEM

ON THE MORE PRIMATIVE SYSTEMS YOU WILL HAVE ACCESS TO THE SYSTEM OPERATORS FILES!

OR IF YOU TYPE

ER! AT GAMES

YOU WILL HAVE ACCESS TO THE GAMES

IF YOU TYPE

ER! AT DEMO

YOU WILL HAVE ACCESS TO PRIMOS DEMOS.

OTHER COMMANDS
————–

OTHER COMMANDS YOU MIGHT TRY ARE

AB
O
C
IN
BI
DI
R
D=DATE
SA
JOB
CNAME
CA
NAME

A MAJOR BUG
———–
A MAJOR PROBLEM WITH PRIMOS SYSTEMS IS THAT FILES GET SCREWED UP IF YOU HANG UP AND LEAVE THEM OPEN OR IF YOU HANG UP WILE THEY ARE BEING VIEWED.

WRITTEN MARCH 1ST BY NANUK OF THE NORTH
=======================================

APPENDED

PRIMOS SYSTEMS CAN BE FOUND AT…

BORIS (817)571-6680

ALSO AT THESE TELENET NODES (TELENET WILL NOT PASS A ^C)

PRIMENET 213 130
PRIMENET BOWSER 214 56
PRIMENET SYSD 212 30
PRIMENET SNY 212 39
PRIMENET XNY 212 137
PRIMENET 202 10
PRIMENET CCI.1 713 150
======================================

DOWNLOADED FROM P-80 SYSTEMS

��������

Local Area Networks (LANs) by ANSI-Christ

Local Area Networks
(LAN)
by
Ansi-Christ

A local area network connects devices that are within a
short range. Most LANs are unable to connect to public
communications services. LANs were developed because most
communications within a business either occur in the very
same building or within a short distance of each other.
This allows for the sharing of information and equipment and
thus a large savings for the company.
This files is the first in a series of files. It is not
meant to be a complete systems manual for all LANs, but a basic
reference manual on the terminology and general set up. In later
files there will be more specific information.
This file can be distributed freely as long as none of the
information is changed. If I have made a mistake, please remember
that we are all human and this does happen. Contact me on one of
the two boards listed at the end to point out an error.

Topologies:

Ring –

A ring type set up goes in one direction around a group
of devices until it reaches the device that is meant as the
destination. The ring will be connected by a cable to form
the ring. The ring topology uses a method known as token
passing. A token is like a bucket in which information can be
dumped. If a certain device does not contain this “bucket”
then it can not send out the data until it gets it. This will
prevent data collision from occurring.
A LAN will usually transmit data in packets (buckets =
packets) and add the necessary routing information to the
packet. (this tells the packet where it’s destination is)
Because a ring system has a circular shape the information is
routed in one direction and it will still reach its
destination.
One note – I have altered the description of a token
slightly to avoid confusion. A token is usually sent before a
packet and will tell the next device if the following packet
is full or is capable of receiving data.

Diagram of a ring topology:

O———O
/ \ O = nodes
| |
O O (I apologize for the shitty diagram)
\ |
\ |
O—–O—-O

Tree –

The tree set up links components to the network via
connectors. The network can be tapped at any available
point. Data can pass from one device to another and does not
have to route through a centralized point. Just the way a
tree network is set up should make it much faster than a ring
type network with the same computers and devices connected to
it. This type of network is also very useful because you
could add any additional devices as they were need via a
connector without having to go through major modifications to
the network itself.
A tree network does occasionally, just because of the
nature of it’s set up, have certain problems with controlling
the passing of data. There is a safety factor involved with a
tree network though. If one of the systems along the network
go down it will not adversely affect the network as a whole,
just that certain part.

Diagram of a tree network:

again I apologize for the shitty diagram.

O
/ \
O \
| O
| O |
| | O
O | /
| /
O

Star –

The star network is connected through a central
processing device. This device usually takes the form of a
PBX or a host computer system. All lines in this network are
connected to this central unit. When information must go to
another node on this network it must first pass through the
center. The star topology is very common and is probably the
most common set up for a network.
There is a problem with the star though. If the central
unit goes down then the whole network is useless.

Diagram of a star topology:

O
O | O
\ | /
\ | /
\ | /
O——–O——–O
/ |\
/ | \
/ | \
O | O
O

Transmission media –

Twisted pair wire is commonly used to connect all kinds of
equipment. This is used in older buildings where it may be
very expensive to convert to newer types of cable. Problems
with this include distortion of signals especially at higher
transmission speeds.

Coaxial cable consists of a single conductor surrounded by a
flexible metallic shielding to minimize signal loss and
interference. Coaxial permits a high transmission speed.

Twin – Axial cable uses two Coaxial cables, one receiving and
one transmitting. These cables are better than twisted pair
cable because of the higher transmission speed and longer
distance.

Baseband and Broadband Systems –

A baseband LAN assigns its entire capacity to a single
user for a brief time. Only one device can use its pathway.
These networks usually use 3/8 inch coaxial cable.
Advantages are low cost, easy installation, and considerable
capacity. Baseband does, though, not lend itself to voice
quality communication.

A broadband LAN is sophisticated and uses common
television cable and a modem. Although it is expensive it
will allow the network to handle voice, video,
teleconferencing, and graphics transmission. It does
this by using different bandwidths so one signal does not
interfere with another signal. It is good for
high volume office communication.

Fiber Optics are the next step although very expensive
it will eventually replace the other cables. Fiber Optics
use light to transmit large amounts of information in a very
short time. A single cable can carry 240 thousand calls at
once.

Interconnecting LANs –

Bridges are one way of connecting similar networks.

Gateways are a way of connecting dissimilar networks.
It acts as a translator between these networks. It
understands different file structures, data types, and access
methods.

Vendors –

Ungermann-Bass is a large independent vendor. Offering both
base and broadband services and coaxial cable and fiber optic
LANs.

Systek is the OEM supplier of IBM’s broadband network.

3Com is a major supplier of PC LANs.

Corvus sells Omninet. They offer a system based on twisted
pair wiring.

Interlan Inc. provides Ethernet based products.

Wangnet by Wang laboratories.

Codex 4000 series by Codex corp.

Information systems network by none other than AT&T
information systems. (commonly abbreviated ISN)

Novell network

LAN terms and what they mean – (note – originally printed in LAN
magazine)

Access method: a way to determine which workstation or PC
will be next to use the LAN. A set of rules by network
hardware and software that direct the traffic over the
network. Examples include Token passing and Carrier Sense
Multiple Access for Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)

Collision: The result of two workstations trying to use a
shared transmission medium (cable) at the same time. The
electronic signals collide and ruin both signals. The whole
process takes seconds.

Collision detection: The process of detecting when a
collision has occurred. Workstations know a collision has
occurred if the other station sends no reply that the signal
was received.

Disk Server: a device equipped with disks and a program that
allows users to make and store files on the disks. Allows
each user to have an increase in storage space normally not
accessible at their PC.

Drop cable: The cable which allows connection and access to
the trunk cables of a network.

Locking: prevents people from changing the same data at the
same time.

Polling: used in star networks. allows the central “hub”
system to know when a node wants to transmit.

LAN Magazine Call Anarchia at 518-869-6035
12 West 21 Street TSD at 518-377-6487
New York, NY 10010
1-800-LIBRARY or boards for those who take their
212-691-8251 telecom seriously.



How to Take Control of your Local IBM VM/370 System by Another Hacker of the Elite Phreakers’ Club

**************************************
*                                    *
*   How to take control of your      *
*     local IBM VM/370 system        *
*                                    *
*    Written by Another Hacker       *
*    ————————-       *
*     The *Elite* Phreakers Club     *
*                                    *
**************************************

Preface
^^^^^^^

This file represents and shows you how to gain access of the neighborhood
IBM VM/370 Mainframe with tricks and tips it could save you hours of HELP
file access in a few easy to learn lines.

First
Connection to a IBM VM/370 is easy!!. After connection (by modem or
terminal in half duplex if acceptable) type:

(C/R) B
or
PB
or
SP

if it is a VM/370
it should come back with:

VM/370 online

then hit (C/R) or Space Bar
a dot (.) should appear.  This is the
main command prompt.

.
now
you must logon

Format:
.LOG (id) (password)
or
.LOG (id)

ex:
.LOG OPERATOR SYSTEM
or
.LOG OPERATOR
ENTER PASSWORD
SYSTEM

Valid VM accounts built into the machine by IBM are:

OPERATOR     (for Operator status!)
VMBACKUP     (memory backup account)
PVM
BATCH1

Operator status IS available via the dial-up with NO restrictions!! after
entering  your account (ID) the password can only be 8 characters maximum
then you are in.

Once on you are in CMS status you should remain in CMS status to gain full
appreciation of  the IBM system.To check to see what status you are in hit
(C/R) alone after the dot (.)

Ex:

.CMS
.

or

.CP
.

etc…

(Please note: CMS=Conversational Monitoring System)

and

(CP=Control Program. You don’t want to be in this state type BEGIN)

if for some reason you witness a abnormal logon type

BEGIN

it will then reset your account and put you back into the normal mode of the
machine

(Note: all instructions are meant to be executed only in the CMS environment)

Q NAMES

lists useraccounts presently logged on

Q ALL

lists what/who owns the account memory etc..

LISTFILE

lists the current directory of the account

TYPE (filename)

Executes a CMS file similar to EXEC command.

for a help file listing type

HELP CMS

and

LOGOFF

logs you off the VM system

Here is a small list of VM systems
to experiment with:

on Telenet
==========

C 20120    C 21222
C 21253    C 51647

That’s all dudes and hack on!

IBM VM/370 Hacking Doc’s brought to you by

%%%%> Another Hacker <%%%%